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Keyword Definition
P.L. 93-638 - Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, as amended The response by Congress, in recognition of the unique obligation of the United States, to the strong expression of the Indian people for self-determination, assuring maximum Indian participation in the direction of education as well as other Federal services for Indian communities so as to render such programs and services more responsive to the needs and desires of Indian communities.
Paratransit 1) Comparable transportation service required by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) for individuals with disabilities who are unable to use fixed route transportation systems. (49CFR37) (APTA1) 2) A variety of smaller, often flexibly scheduled-and-routed transportation services using low-capacity vehicles, such as vans, to operate within normal urban transit corridors or rural areas. These services usually serve the needs of persons that standard mass-transit services would serve with difficulty, or not at all. Often, the patrons include the elderly and persons with disabilities.
Park A place or area set aside for recreation or preservation of a cultural or natural resource. (DOI4)
Parking Area An area set aside for the parking of motor vehicles. (DOI4)
Parkway A highway that has full or partial access control, is usually located within a park or a ribbon of park-like developments, and prohibits commercial vehicles. Buses are not considered commercial vehicles in this case. (FHWA2)
Participating Agency A federal department or agency which transferred (consolidated) vehicles to the Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS). (GSA2)
Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) Particulate matter consists of airborne solid particles and liquid droplets. Particulate matter may be in the form of fly ash, soot, dust, fog, fumes, etc. These particles are classified as "coarse" if they are smaller than 10 microns, or "fine" if they are smaller than 2.5 microns. Coarse airborne particles are produced during grinding operations, or from the physical disturbance of dust by natural air turbulence processes, such as wind. Fine particles can be a by-product of fossil fuel combustion, such as diesel and bus engines. Fine particles can easily reach remote lung areas, and their presence in the lungs is linked to serious respiratory ailments such as asthma, chronic bronchitis and aggravated coughing. Exposure to these particles may aggravate other medical conditions such as heart disease and emphysema and may cause premature death. In the environment, particulate matter contributes to diminished visibility and particle deposition (soiling).
Particulate Matter Emissions (PM) Particulate matter (PM) is the general term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets founclin the air. They originate from many differ­ent stationary and mobile sources as well as from natural sources, including fuel combustion from motor vehicles, power generation, and industrial facilities, as well as from residential fire­places and wood stoves. Fine particles are most closely associated with such health effects as increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits for heart and lung disease, increased respiratory symptoms and disease, decreased lung function, and even premature death.
Parts Per Million (PPM) A measure of air pollutant concentrations.
Passenger Car A motor vehicle designed primarily for carrying passengers on ordinary roads, includes convertibles, sedans, and stations wagons.
Passenger Mile 1) One passenger transported one mile. Total passenger miles are computed by summation of the products of the aircraft miles flown on each inter-airport flight stage multiplied by the number of passengers carried on that flight stage. (AIA1) (FAA11) (NTSB1) 2) The cumulative sum of the distances ridden by each passenger. (FTA1)
Passenger Revenue 1) Rail Revenue from the sale of tickets. 2) Air Revenues from the transport of passengers by air. 3) Transit Fares, transfer, zone, and park-an
Passenger Service Both intercity rail passenger service and commuter rail passenger service. (49CFR245)
Passenger Vessels (Water) A vessel designed for the commercial transport of passengers.
Pavement Management System A systematic process that provides, analyzes, and summarizes pavement information for use in selecting and implementing cost-effective pavement construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance programs. Pavement includes all road surface types including paved, gravel, and improved or unimproved earth.
Pedestrian Any person not in or on a motor vehicle or other vehicle. Excludes people in buildings or sitting at a sidewalk cafe. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration also uses another pedestrian category to refer to pedestrians using conveyances and people in buildings. Examples of pedestrian conveyances include skateboards, nonmotorized wheelchairs, rollerskates, sleds, and transport devices used as equipment.
Pedestrian Walkway (or Walkway) A continuous way designated for pedestrians and separated from the through lanes for motor vehicles by space or barrier. (23CFR217)
Performance Measures Indicators of how well the transportation system is performing with regard to such things as average speed, reliability of travel, and accident rates. Used as feedback in the decisionmaking process.
Person Trip A trip taken by an individual. For example, if three persons from the same household travel together, the trip is counted as one household trip and three person trips.
Person-Miles An estimate of the aggregate distances traveled by all persons on a given trip based on the estimated transportation-network-miles traveled on that trip.
Petroleum (Oil) A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and nonhydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products.
Planning Funds (PL) Primary source of funding for metropolitan planning designated by the FHWA.
Port 1) Harbor with piers or docks ; 2) left side of ship when facing forward ; 3) opening in a ship's side for handling freight. (MARAD2)
Possible Injury Any injury reported or claimed that is not evident. Includes, among others, momentary unconsciousness, claim of injuries not obvious, limping, complaint of pain, nausea, and hysteria.
Private Carrier A carrier that provides transportation service to the firm that owns or leases the vehicles and does not charge a fee.
Privately Owned Vehicle (POV) 1) A privately-owned vehicle or privately-operated vehicle. 2) Employee's own vehicle used on official business for which the employee is reimbursed by the government on the basis of mileage. (GSA1)
Problem Identification An element in the planning process which represents the gap between the desired vision, goals and objectives and the current or projected performance of the system
Program Development An element in the planning process in which improvements are formalized in the transportation improvement program and provides more detailed strategies.
Programming Priortizing proposed projects and matching those projects with available funds to accomplish agreed upon, stated needs.
Project A locally sponsored, coordinated, and administered program, or any part thereof, to plan, finance, construct, maintain, or improve an intermodal passenger terminal, which may incorporate civic or cultural activities where feasible in an architecturally or historically distinctive railroad passenger terminal. (49CFR256)
Property Damage (Transit) The dollar amount required to repair or replace transit property (including stations, right-of-way, bus stops, and maintenance facilities) damaged during an incident.
Public Authority A Federal, State, county, town or township, Indian tribe, municipal or other local government or instrumentality thereof, with authority to finance, build, operate, or maintain highway facilities, either as toll or toll- free highway facilities. (23CFR460)
Public Crossing A location open to public travel where railroad tracks intersect a roadway that is under the jurisdiction and maintenance of a public authority. (FRA3)
Public Entity 1) Any state or local government; 2) Any department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of one or more state or local governments; and 3) The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) and any commuter authority. (49CFR37)
Public Hearings 23 U.S.C. 128
Public Liability Liability for bodily injury or property damage and includes liability for environmental restoration. (49CFR387)
Public Meeting or Hearing A public gathering for the express purpose of informing and soliciting input from interested individuals regarding transportation issues.
Public Participation The active and meaningful involvement of the public in the development of transportation plans and programs.
Public Transit Passenger transportation services, usually local in scope, that is available to any person who pays a prescribed fare. It operates on established schedules along designated routes or lines with specific stops and is designed to move relatively large numbers of people at one time. (TRB1)
Public Transit Agencies A public entity responsible for administering and managing transit activities and services. Public transit agencies can directly operate transit service or contract out for all or part of the total transit service provided. (FTA1)
Public Transit System An organization that provides transportation services owned, operated, or subsidized by any municipality, county, regional authority, state, or other governmental agency, including those operated or managed by a private management firm under contract to the government agency owner. (APTA1)
Public Transportation Transportation by bus, rail, or other conveyance, either publicly or privately owned, which provides to the public general or special service on a regular and continuing basis. Also known as "mass transportation", "mass transit" and "transit." (APTA1)
Public Road Any road under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority (federal, state, county, town or township, local government, or instrumentality thereof) and open to public travel.

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