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6 Roles and Responsibilities in Systems Development

 

OBJECTIVE:

This section describes the various roles to be performed in the development life cycle of an ITS project. It provides guidance on “what the roles entail” and “who the potential candidates are to perform them”. A matrix shows what role is played by the system's owner, the systems engineering technical assistant, and the development team during each stage of the development life cycle.

The role of the system's owner, systems engineering technical assistant, and development team will vary in level of involvement and areas of responsibility throughout the project life cycle. This chapter provides guidance in each development step. It identifies the roles needed in each phase of the life cycle of an ITS project. A matrix of roles and responsibilities follows this discussion.

System's Owner [Project Sponsor & Stakeholders]

The system's owner [project sponsor & stakeholders] implementing an ITS will acquire a set of development services to develop the ITS project. The services can be either in-house or contracted. The system's owner and operating organization will ultimately be responsible for the system and its operations & maintenance. The system's owner needs to supply clear requirements and expected project outcomes to the development team. These outputs must be compatible with the long-term operations & maintenance goals of the system's owner & stakeholders. The success of the project relies on the system's owner's working relationship with the systems engineering technical assistant and development team[s] who implement the system. This chapter will identify the roles and responsibilities of the system's owner at each phase of the ITS life cycle [from the interface to the regional ITS architecture to retirement & replacement of the system or major system elements].

Systems Engineering Assistant [In-house staff, Independent Verification and Validation, System Manager ]

The systems engineering assistant provides the system's owner with specialty support in systems engineering. This role can be undertaken by in-house staff, a system manager, or an Independent Verification and Validation consultant [IV&V] to a limited extent. Contract resources are particularly valuable for large, complex, or unusual projects. It is also valuable when the system's owner's organization is small and lacks systems engineering expertise. This may be the case with a small or medium size city or MPO. The systems engineering assistant:

  • defines requirements and the project architecture:
  • prepares the request for proposal or other system procurement documents,
  • assists in the review of proposals,
  • provides independent review services [Independent Verification & Validation]
  • Provides technical assistance to the system's owner during the life cycle of the ITS system.

A consultant who neither offers products nor is affiliated with a development team or vendor can be un-biased in the selection and evaluation of developers and products. The consultant can assist the agency in Configuration Management, Risk Management, development team evaluations, and process improvement. It is important to find a consultant who has both systems engineering expertise and ITS knowledge and experience.

Development Team [In-house, Systems Integrator]

An ITS system development team normally develops or supplies hardware and software that integrate custom [project-specific] and COTS products. The system's owner secures the the following services of a development team:

  • perform the detailed design
  • develop any necessary custom hardware or software
  • integrate COTS products
  • Verify the sub-systems and the system as a whole

The development team may be another department within the system owner's organization [internal development team]. It may be a contracted integration team. This is the normal case for most organizations.

The following tables identify the different roles and responsibilities during each phase of the project life-cycle.

Table 6‑1 Phases [-1] & 0 Roles and Responsibilities

Phase

Phase [-1]

Interfacing to the Regional ITS Architecture

Phase 0

Concept Exploration and Feasibility Analysis

Tasks

3.2.1 Interfacing with Planning and the Regional ITS Architecture

3.3.1 Needs Assessment

3.3.2 Concept Exploration and Benefits Analysis

System Owner

Project Sponsor & Stakeholders

 

Coordinate, identify, participate:

check Coordinate with Planning
check Identify applicable portion of the Regional Architecture
check Ensure that project goals & objectives are sufficiently clear to support tasks

 

Review & approve:

check Statement of work
check Current inventories
check Supporting documentation
check Identify & encourage Stakeholder participation
check Actively participate in the elicitation of Needs

 

 

Review & approve:

check Refined needs, vision, goals, objectives, and constraints
check Overall measures of performance
check Candidate concepts
check Recommendations

 

Systems Engineering

Technical Assistance

In-house, Independent Verification & Validation** Consultant, systems Manager

Identify & document:

check Applicable portion of the RA
check Inventory
check Stakeholders
check Needs/Services
check RA Requirements
check Area of Coverage
check Operational Concept
check RA Interfaces
check RA Information flows
check ITS Standards
check Project Sequencing
check Agency agreements
check Constraints
check Goals & objective

 

 

Identify & document:

check Validated & prioritized needs
check Challenges & issues
check Perform Gap Analysis
check Refine & update stakeholder lists

 

Identify, refine & document:

check Vision, goals & objectives
check Constraints
check Alternatives, recommendations, and rationale

 

Develop:

check Evaluation criteria
check Measures of performance
check Concepts

 

 

Perform:

check Cost/benefit analysis
check Alternatives analysis

 

Development Team

In-house, System Integrator

Review & comment*

*subject to public comment

e.g. Industry review of architecture

 

 

 

 

Review and comment*

*subject to public comment

e.g. Industry review of needs

Review & comment*

*subject to public comment

e.g. Vision, goals & objectives

** Independent Verification & Validation - role and responsibility are monitoring, reporting, supporting, and participating but not performing- applies to all phases and tasks

Table 6‑2 Phase 1 Roles and Responsibilities

Tasks

3.4.1 Project Planning

3.4.2 Systems Engineering Management Planning

3.4.3 Concept of Operations

System Owner

Project Sponsor & Stakeholders

 

Review and approve:

check Project Tasks, plans, budgets and schedules
check Scope of Work
check Supporting resources
check Management plans (CM, QA, Risk)
check RFP & Procurement type

 

Review & approve:

check SEMP Framework
check Project products
check Decision gate process
check Project organization
check Initial set of risks
check Tailoring options
check Supporting plans
check Technical evaluation
check Development strategy
check Technical SOW
check CM process & Organization

 

Review & approve:

check Refined needs, vision, goals, objectives, and constraints
check Concept of Operations
check Stakeholder lists
check Validation strategy & plan

 

 

Participate in the development or refinement of:

User needs, Concept of Operations, vision, goals & objectives, and operational scenarios

Validation strategy & planning

Systems Engineering

Technical Assistance

In-house, Independent Verification & Validation** Consultant, systems Manager

Identify, prepare, and document

check Scope of Work
check Budgets & Schedules
check Project Resources
check Project Plans
check Management Plans
check RFP, RFQ, RFI
check Procurement         documents
check Evaluation Criteria

 

Identify, prepare, participate and document:

check SEMP Framework
check Technical SOW
check Development strategy
check Technical evaluation
check Supporting plans
check Tailoring options
check Reviews
check Decision gate process
check Initial set of risks

 

 

 

Identify, prepare and document

check Vision, goals & objectives
check Operational scenarios
check Validation strategy & plan
check Project specific stakeholder lists
check Update project risks

 

 

Support, participate & report

check Decision gates
check Technical activities & products

 

Development Team

In-house, System

Integrator

Review & comment*

All or in-part of the project management plan

 

*subject to a public comment

Review & comment*

All or in part of the technical products

 

*subject to a public comment

Review & comment***

All phase products

 

 

***Internal Development Team

** Independent Verification & Validation - role and responsibility are monitoring, reporting, supporting, and participating but not performing- applies to all phases and tasks

Table 6‑3 Phase 2 Roles and Responsibilities

Tasks

3.5.1 Requirements Development

3.5.2 High Level Design

3.5.3 Component Level Detailed Design

System Owner

Project Sponsor & Stakeholders

 

Participate and facilitate:

check Stakeholder participation
check Elicitation process for requirements capture

 

Monitor, review, and approve:

check Requirements baseline
check Requirements metrics and tracking
check Project risks

 

Participate and facilitate:

check Stakeholder participation

 

Review & approve:

check Interface agreements
check Project architecture

 

Monitor:

check Requirements baseline
check Project risks

 

 

Participate and facilitate:

check Stakeholder participation
check Technical reviews
check COTS product review

 

Review & approve:

check Detailed design
check Contract for Development Team

 

Monitor

check Baseline requirements and design
check Project risks

 

Systems Engineering

Technical Assistance

In-house, Independent Verification & Validation** Consultant, systems Manager

Identify, Prepare, and document or update:

check Validated set of system level requirements
check Requirements review
check Verification plan
check Interfaces
check Risks and trend

 

Perform:

check Elicitation
check Analysis
check Decomposition
check Requirements baseline
check Completeness of requirements

 

Perform/Support:

check Feasibility analysis

 

Support, participate and report

check Decision gates

 

Identify, prepare, and document (update)

check System Development RFP
check Validated set of sub-system requirements
check Project architecture alternatives
check Interfaces
check Verification plans
check Integration plan
check Project risks
check Configuration items

 

Perform:

check Elicitation
check Analysis
check Decomposition
check Requirements baseline
check Completeness of requirements

 

Perform/Support

check Feasibility analysis

 

Support, participate and report

check Decision gates

 

Support, participate, review, and comment:

check Development team evaluation
check COTS evaluation
check Detailed design
check Technical reviews
check Developmental CM
check Development risks
check Unit test procedures
check Technical plans:

 

- Integration

- Deployment

- Installation

- Technology

- Security

- Development

- O&M

Support, participate, and report

check Decision gates

 

Development Team

In-house, System Integrator

Review & comment*

check All or in-part all project management plans

 

 

*subject to availability to public comment

Review and comment*

check All or in-part all Definition & Architecture

 

*subject to availability to public comment

Identify, prepare, and document:

check Technical plans
check Developmental plan
check Developmental CM
check Developmental risks

 

Perform and document

check Detailed design
check Technical review

 

** Independent Verification & Validation – role and responsibility are monitoring, reporting, supporting, and participating but not performing- applies to all phases and tasks

Table 6‑4 Phase 3 Roles and Responsibilities

Tasks

3.6.1 Hardware/Software Development and Unit Test

3.6.2 Integration

3.6.3 Verification

3.6.4 Initial System Deployment

System Owner

Project Sponsor & Stakeholders

Review, participate, and approve

check Technical reviews
check CM activities
check Coordination between projects

 

Monitor

check Project risks

 

 

Review, participate, and approve

check Integration plan
check Integration support
check Training staff

 

Monitor

check Integration activities

 

 

Review, participate, and approve

check Verification master plan
check Verification plans
check Verification procedures
check Verification of the system

 

Monitor

check Verification activities
check Verification risks
check Defects & resolution

 

Review, participate, and approve

check Deployment plans
check Deployment support

 

Monitor

check Deployment activities
check Deployment risks
check Staff readiness

 

 

Systems Engineering Technical Assistance

In-hours, Independent Verification and Validation**, Consultant, Systems Manager

Support, participate & report

check Technical reviews
check Decision gate
check Monitor & report
check Development risks
check COTS procurements

 

Perform & report

check Coordination between projects
check Risk assessment
check Risk mitigation

 

 

Support, participate , and report

check Integration reviews
check Training

 

Monitor and report

check Integration risks
check CM activities

 

Perform & report

check Coordination between projects
check Risk assessment
check Risk mitigation

 

 

Support, participate , and report

check Verification readiness reviews
check Verification procedures
check Verification of the system

 

Monitor and report

check Verification risk
check CM activities
check Defect & resolution activities

 

Perform and report

check Coordination between projects
check Risk assessment
check Risk mitigation

 

Support, participate , and report

check Deployment readiness reviews
check Decision gates
check O& M training

 

Monitor & report

check Deployment risks
check Defect & resolution

 

Perform & report

check Coordination between projects
check Risk assessment
check Risk mitigation

 

 

Development Team

In-hours, System Integrator

Perform & document

check Development activities
check COTS applications
check Technical reviews
check Prototyping
check Unit Test
check Development CM

 

Implement & document

check Developmental environment

 

Participate & support

check CM, RM

 

Perform & document

check Configuration items
check Integration reviews
check Risk identification
check Integration defects

 

Implement & document

check Integration environment
check User training

 

Participate & support

check CM & RM

 

 

Perform and document

check Verification of configuration items
check Defect & resolutions
check Readiness reviews
check Risk identification
check Configuration items
check Verification procedures

 

Implement & document

check Verification environment

 

Participate & support

check CM & RM activities

 

Perform and document

check Initial deployment
check Deployment risks
check Deployment defect and resolution activities
check System burn-in

 

Implement & document

check Deployment environment
check O& M training
check Document & report
check Verification defects & resolution

 

Participate & support

check CM & RM activities

 

** Independent Verification & Validation – role and responsibility are monitoring, reporting, supporting, and participating but not performing- applies to all phases and tasks

Table 6‑5 Phase 4 & 5 Roles and Responsibilities

Phase

Phase 4

Operation & Maintenance/Changes & Upgrades

Phase 5

Retirement / Replacement

Tasks

3.7.1 System Validation

3.7.2 Operations and Maintenance

3.7.3 Changes and Upgrades

3.8.1 System Retirement / Replacement

System Owner

Project Sponsor & Stakeholders

Review, participate, and approve

check Validation plans
check Validation support
check Validation procedures
check Validation of the system

 

Monitor

check Project risks
check Defects & resolution

 

 

Review, participate, and approve

check Commission system into operations
check Updates to O&M plan

 

Monitor

check O&M performance
check Life cycle CM activities

 

 

Review, participate, and facilitate.

check Stakeholder elicitation and participation
check Perform tasks as defined in 3.4.1-3.6.2

 

Review, participate, and approve

check Reverse engineering activities

 

Monitor

check Risks

 

Review, participate, and facilitate.

check Stakeholder elicitation and participation
check Industry review
check Perform tasks as defined in 3.4.1-3.6.3

 

Review, participate, and approve

check Replacement plan
check Transition plan

 

Monitor

check Risks

 

Systems Engineering Technical Assistance

In-hours, Independent Verification and Validation**, Consultant, Systems Manager

Perform & document

check Validation plan & updates
check Pre-system evaluation
check Post-system evaluation
check Systems analysis
check Strengths & weaknesses
check Requirements for next evolution

 

 

Support, participate , and report

check Operational assessment
check Maintenance assessment
check Life cycle CM activities

 

 

Support, participate , and report

check Change review & assessment
check CM activities
check Technology demonstrations

 

Perform and report

check Reverse engineering activities
check Tasks as defined in 3.4.1-3.6.2

 

 

Support, participate , and report

check Replacement assessment
check Gap Analysis
check Evaluation of benefits
check Technology demonstrations
check Perform tasks as defined in 3.4.1-3.6.3

 

Develop & Document

check Replacement strategy
check Transition plans

 

Development Team

In-hours, System Integrator

Participate & support

check Validation of the system
check Validation planning

 

 

 

Perform, support, and document

check Initial O&M maintenance on-call service activities
check Long term O & M

 

 

Perform, support, and document

check Changes as defined in 3.4.1-3.6.2
check Technology demonstrations

 

 

Perform, support, participate

check Perform tasks as define in 3.4.1-3.6.3
check Industry response to potential solutions
check Technology demonstrations
check Replacement of legacy systems

 

** Independent Verification & Validation - role and responsibility are monitoring, reporting, supporting, and participating but not performing- applies to all phases and tasks

 

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