ACTT Workshop: Oregon
Paving The Way
Chapter 3: Skill Set Recommendations
The construction skill set made the following recommendations:
- Develop concurrent environmental process and design for the reconstruction and the rehabilitation alternatives.
- Develop grind/inlay rehabilitation as a contingency design.
- Prepare an absolute-minimum rehabilitation design (throw-away).
- Be prepared: if pavement deterioration accelerates, reconstruction becomes a priority, and the rebuild process will be underway.
- Have reconstruction PS&E ready by 2009 - funds are programmed for the 2009 STIP.
- Prepare for reconstruction and modernization at the earliest possible time.
- Lower pavement grade for minimum requirements.
- Add six-inch clearance for future overlays.
- Determine the minimum vertical clearance.
- Consider closing some bridges and ramps (do a traffic study).
- Identify capacity improvements corridor-wide and at critical choke points.
- Construct with full closures of some type.
- Consider closure by quadrants or halves.
- Keep both directions of U.S. 26 open to and from I-5.
- Provide interim milestones with incentives.
- Ensure that the schedule for closures fits the construction seasons.
- Prepare for utilities and subsurface work.
- Do a thorough study of subsurface utilities and substructure.
- Relocate utilities prior to construction.
- Replace/rehabilitate inlets and pipe trunk lines using trenchless technology where feasible.
- Add water quality and/or detention as required.
- Replace/rehabilitate ODOT-owned illumination systems.
- Identify hazardous materials areas (contaminated soil, asbestos piping, etc.).
- Use innovative scheduling and partnering.
- Change ODOT scheduling specifications to require more frequent updating.
- Require an on-call partnering facilitator.
- Advance contract award in time for six-month planning, mobilization, partnering and off-site work. Include a pay item.
- Require a central field location with owner and contractor.
- Consider escrow bid documents.
- Consider dispute resolution board.
- Consider strengthening claim certification specifications.
- Address time to construct loop.
- Get the project on the street quicker.
- Provide longer time to design and contract.
- Make safety a priority.
- Prepare an incident response plan: it is critical.
- Increase safety by separating traffic from workers (positive staging barriers) or by closing the roadway.
- Consider innovative construction materials.
- Thin white topping.
- Rubblized rolling operation.
- Pre-cast panels for new bridge construction.
- Recycled concrete.
- High-early strength concrete (include in performance specifications).
3.2. Innovative Contracting
The innovative contracting team made the following procurement recommendations:
- If the contract is greater than $50 million, use D-B.
- For a $25-$50 million project:
- Consider design-bid-build (D-B-B) with alternative technical concepts (ATC) and best value.
- Consider construction manager (CM) at risk.
- Consider a standard unit price contract with performance specification for maintenance of traffic.
- If the project is less than $25 million, consider D-B-B.
They went on to discuss each option in more detail.
Design-bid-build with ATC and Best Value
- Concept is similar to value engineering (VE).
- It occurs during pre-bid process.
- Concepts are held confidential.
CM at Risk
- ODOT selects the designer.
- It requires early contractor involvement.
- ODOT selects the CM based on qualifications.
- The selected CM works with the ODOT designer to complete design.
- There should be a fixed price/best value or a contractor-proposed guaranteed maximum price, or GMP.
Standard Unit Price Contract with Performance Specification for Maintenance of Traffic
- Contractor can bid at 80 percent design with estimated quantities.
- ODOT awards a unit price contract with adjustable quantities.
- ODOT provides an allowance for the designer to complete the last 20 percent.
- The contractor would be allowed to modify design at his own cost.
The innovative contracting skill set recommended that, regardless of the procurement mechanism selected, ODOT consider A-plus-B contracting and the use of incentives and disincentives.
The Traffic/ITS/Safety skill set began by focusing on questions regarding the project scope:
- Structure management.
- Pavement condition.
- Access management (ramps).
- Operational deficiencies/safety.
- End product.
- Operational goals.
With a grasp on those issues, the team discussed traffic control plan strategies, making the following recommendations.
- Consider closures (off-peak, full, directional, segmented, weekend).
- Use incentives and disincentives.
- Consider selected ramp enhancements.
- Use ITS (traveler information, incident management, arterial integration, etc.).
- Promote the use of alternative routes (local and regional).
- Make coordination with the public and stakeholders a priority.
- Study origin/destination patterns.
- Accommodate the different types of vehicles traveling the corridor.
3.4. Public Relations
The public relations team detailed an identify/inform/involve concept to meet the project's public involvement needs. A key component of that effort will be developing a master communications and public involvement plan.
- Identify communications and public involvement toolbox.
- Inventory external and internal customers affected by the project.
- Use activities and techniques designed to engage both external and internal customers in the project.
- Refer to public relations as "public information and involvement."
- Start now on the communications and public involvement plan.
The structures/geotechnical skill set identified the following issues with, and solutions for, the I-405 pavement preservation project:
- Most have 30 to 40 years of service life remaining.
- Most, if not all, are not up to current design standards.
- Vertical clearance.
- Most bridges have sub-standard vertical clearance.
- Light rail and utilities.
- Lower I-405.
- Raise or thin bridges.
- Limit clearance to 15 feet (per AASHTO guidelines).
- Temporarily close the bridges during construction.
- Provide access management by eliminating ramps and bridges.
- Use prefabricated elements.
- Use rapid construction techniques.
- Consider an elevated viaduct.
- Consider capping I-405.
The right-of-way/utilities/rail group made the following recommendations:
- Focus on partnership and communication with the city of Portland, utility companies, neighborhoods, etc.
- Assess the limited ROW situation due to historic buildings and high-value real estate (narrow corridor).
- Seek clarity on storm-water quantity and quality issues: the solutions will affect ROW requirements.
- Collect high-quality utility information, including field-reconnaissance data.
- Increase survey limits to capture side street or downstream impacts.
- Seek early consensus on light rail design and operations constraints.
- Require early final design decisions.
- Add capacity with an I-5/I-405 couplet or a vertically separated structure to stay in existing ROW.
3.7. Environmental/Context-Sensitive Design
The environmental/context-sensitive design skill set focused on two key issues:
- Understand all elements of the problem.
- The age and condition of the pavement.
- The age and condition of all structures.
- Loop study findings (for I-5 and I-405).
- The needs and patterns of regional and local users.
- Historic resources.
- Neighborhoods and connectivity issues.
- Business interests.
- Light rail and transit.
- Storm water.
- Use a CSS approach.
- Develop a master plan for engaging stakeholders.
- Ensure pavement longevity without precluding the master plan.
- Accommodate the region's mobility objectives.
- Incorporate opportunities for community livability.
The pavement/materials group provided some general insights before discussing specific recommendations:
- There are short-term and long-term pavement deficiencies. Complete replacement is inevitable.
- The options for addressing short-term safety and rutting concerns include overlays, diamond grinds with or without an inlay, major rehabilitation, etc.
- The only long-term solution is a complete rehabilitation for the mainline and ramps.
- The skill set's goal is to correct vertical and other geometrical deficiencies where practical. How critical is it to meet the vertical clearance requirements?
- Short-term fixes do not address the structural integrity of the section, nor do they extend the pavement life.
- Vertical clearance issues prohibit the addition of pavement thickness to extend the corridor's pavement life.
- Five to 10 years is the best-case scenario for remaining service life.
- ODOT will see maintenance needs increase during the next five to 10 years; they can expect repeated patching, increasing rut depth and an increase in work zones due to the frequency of repairs.
- The accident history provided at the workshop does not indicate that the pavement is a significant safety problem.
To address potential safety concerns:
- Use diamond grinding to reduce the depth of ruts and provide texture.
- Do a thin overlay (one-inch stone matrix asphalt, or SMA). The group is assuming that a one-inch reduction in vertical clearance would be acceptable.
Recommendation for structural concerns:
- Do nothing except maintenance repairs. This will provide continued service but decreased ride quality.
- Increase monitoring of pavement distress.
- Provide a complete rehabilitation (pavement replacement and lower finish grade).
- For 16-foot clearance, minor adjustments of grade are required.
- For 17-foot clearance, will need significant grade changes (and more dollars).
- Include a renewable surface in the design.
- Add additional thickness that could be ground off.
- Provide a sacrificial surface.
- Address storm-water management needs that rehabilitation will likely trigger.
- Strive for increased wear resistance.
- Silica fume concrete.
- Polymer asphalt.
- Premium aggregate.
- Consider long-term creative construction warrantees.
- Performance characteristics.
- Base design on best practices and life-cycle costs.