Review Guidelines for Design of Bridges with Integral Abutments
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- Types of bridges on which integral abutments are used.
- Reinforced Concrete
- Prestressed Concrete Beams
- For jointless bridges with non integral or semi-integral abutments---What types of jointless bridges does the State have? What is the maximum length of jointless bridges?
- What type of detail is used to accommodate superstructure movements? (ie: pinned connection, sliding backwall, etc...) How is this detail designed?
- Criteria for limiting the length of integral abutment bridges or limiting stress in abutment piles for integral abutment bridges.
- Criteria for limiting bridge skew of integral abutment bridges.
- Pile type limitations.
- Provisions for both pinned and fixed structural fixity assumptions for piles and superstructure. Provisions for intermediate fixity?
- Analysis method. Beam element frame analysis program? Finite element program? Two or three dimensions? What analysis methods are used for the piles?
- What loads are included in the frame analysis when using a FEA program.
- How are pile bending stresses considered? Neglected? Limited?
- Construction measures taken to reduce stresses? Are pile sleeves used?
- Abutment backfill specifications and construction methods. What special provisions are made on integral abutment bridges? What provisions are made for drainage in the abutment area?
- What kinds of details are used for the impact panel connection to the abutment?
- H-pile orientation? On skewed bridges? What pile configuration (one row, two rows, etc...) and batter is allowed?
- Details and criteria for achieving fixed connection between superstructure and piles.
- Criteria for limiting design rotation of beam/pile connection?
- Criteria for retrofitting existing expansion joints to integral connections?
- Has design criteria been revised based on problems noted on in-service bridges?
- Is an approach slab used? If so, how is it designed and is it positively attached to the abutment?