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Design of Roadside Channels with Flexible Linings
Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 15, Third Edition


AASHTO/NTPEP, 2002. "Rolled erosion control products (RECPs), Work Plan," National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP),

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Bathurst, J.C. R.M. Li, and D.B. Simons, 1981. "Resistance Equation for Large-Scale Roughness." Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 107, No. HY12, Proc. Paper 14239, December, pp. 1593-1613.

Blodgett, J.C., 1986a. "Rock Riprap Design for Protection of Stream Channels Near Highway Structures, Volume 1 - Hydraulic Characteristics of Open Channels," USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 86-4127.

Blodgett, J.C., 1986b. "Rock Riprap Design for Protection of Stream Channels Near Highway Structures, Volume 2 - Evaluation of Riprap Design Procedures," USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 86-4128.

Blodgett, J.C. and C.E. McConaughy, 1985. "Evaluation of Design Practices for Rock Riprap Protection of Channels near Highway Structures," U.S. Geological Survey, Prepared in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration Preliminary Draft, Sacramento, California.

Chow, V.T. 1959. "Open Channel Hydraulics," New York, Company, McGraw-Hill Book

Clopper, Paul E., Dwight A Cabalka and Anthony G. Johnson, 1998. "Research, Development, and Implementation of Performance Testing Protocols for Channel Erosion Research Facilities (CERFS), International Erosion Control Association Proceedings of Conference XXIX.

Clopper, Paul E. and Yung-Hai Chen, 1988. "Minimizing Embankment Damage During Overtopping Flow," FHWA-RD-88-181, November.

Cotton, G.K., 1993. "Flow resistance properties of flexible linings," Hydraulic Engineering '93, Proceedings of American Society of Civil Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, pp 1344-1349.

Cox, R.L., R.C. Adams, and T.B. Lawson, 1971. "Erosion Control Study, Part II, Roadside Channels." Louisiana Department of Highways, in Cooperation with U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Eastgate, W.I., 1966. "Vegetated Stabilization of Grasses, Waterways and Dam Bywashes," Masters Engineer Science Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Australia.

Federal Highway Administration, 1983. "Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels." Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 14, FHWA-EPD-86-110.

Federal Highway Administration, 1989. "Design of Riprap Revetment," Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 11, FHWA-IP-89-016.

Federal Highway Administration, 1998. "Geosynthetic Design and Construction Guidelines," FHWA-HI-95-038.

Federal Highway Administration, 2001. "Introduction to Highway Hydraulics," Hydraulic Design Series No. 4, FHWA-NHI-01-019.

Gessler, Johannes (1964). "The beginning of bed load movement of mixtures investigated as natural armoring in channels," Report Number 69 of the Laboratory of Hydraulic Research and Soil Mechanics of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.

Gharabaghi, B., W.T. Dickinson, and R.P. Ruda, 2002. "Evaluating Rolled Erosion Control Product Performance in Channel Applications", in Erosion Control January/February issue, Foster Publications.

Israelsen, C.E. and G. Urroz, 1991. "High velocity flow testing of turf reinforcement mats and other erosion control materials," Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.

Jarrett, R.D., 1984. "Hydraulics of High Gradient Streams," Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Volume 110(11).

Kilgore, Roger T., and G. K. Young, 1993. "Riprap Incipient Motion and Shields' Parameter." Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers' Hydraulics Division Conference.

Kouwen, N., 1988. "Field Estimation of the Biomechanical Properties of Grass," Journal of Hydraulic Research, 26(5), 559-568.

Kouwen, N. and R.M. Li, 1981. "Flow Resistance in Vegetated Waterways," Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineering, 24(3), 684-690.

Kouwen, N., R.M. Li, and D.B. Simons, 1980. "Velocity Measurements in a Channel Lined with Flexible Plastic Roughness Elements." Technical Report No. CER79-80-RML-DBS-11, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Kouwen, N. and T.E. Unny, 1969. "Flexible Roughness in Open Channels," Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, 99(5), 713-728.

Kouwen, N., T.E. Unny, and H.M. Hill, 1969 "Flow Retardance in Vegetated Channel."
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Lancaster, T., 1996. "A three-phase reinforced turf system, a new method for developing geosynthetically reinforced vegetated linings for permanent channel protection," International Erosion Control Association Proceedings of Conference XXVII, pp. 346-354.

Lane, E., 1955. "Design of Stable Channels," Transactions ASCE, Vol. 120.

Limerinos, J. T., 1970. "Determination of the Manning coefficient form measured bed roughness in natural channels," U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1898-B, p. B1-B47.

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McWhorter, J. C., T.G. Carpenter, and R.N. Clark, 1968. "Erosion Control Criteria for Drainage Channels." Conducted for Mississippi State Highway Department in Cooperation with U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, by the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Agricultural Experiment Station, Mississippi State University, State College, Mississippi.

Northcutt, Paul E., 1996. "Final Performance Analysis - 1995 Evaluation Cycle 1 - Slope Protection Class 2 - Flexible Channel Liners," Texas Department of Transportation in cooperation with the Texas Transportation Institute.

Nouh, M.A. and R.D. Townsend, 1979. "Shear Stress Distribution in Stable Channel Bends," Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 105, No. HY10, Proc. Paper 14598, October, pp. 1233-1245.

Olsen, O. J. and Q.L. Florey, 1952. "Sedimentation Studies in Open Channels Boundary Shear and Velocity Distribution by Membrane Analogy, Analytical and Finite-Difference Methods," reviewed by D. McHenry and R.E. Clover, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Laboratory Report N. SP-34, August 5.

Richardson, E.V., D.B. Simons and P.Y. Julien, 1990. "Highways in the River Environment." FHWA-HI-90-016.

Robeson, M.D., C.I. Thornton and R.J. Nelsen, 2003. "Comparison of results from bench and full scale hydraulic performance testing of unvegetated RECPs," International Erosion Control Association Proceedings of Conference XXXIV.

Sanders, T.G., S.R. Abt and P.E. Clopper, 1990. " A quantitative test of erosion control materials," International Erosion Control Association, XXI Annual Conference, Washington, D.C., p 209-212.

Santha, L. and C.R. Santha, 1995. "Effective utilization of fully matured grass in erosion control," International Erosion Control Association Proceedings of Conference XXVI, pp. 161-171.

Simons, D. B., Y. H. Chen, and L. J. Swenson, 1984. "Hydraulic Test to Develop Design Criteria for the Use of Reno Mattresses," Colorado Statue University, prepared for Maccaferri Steel Wire Products, Ltd., March.

Simons, D.B. and F. Senturk, 1977. "Sediment Transport Technology" Fort Collins, Colorado: Water Resources Publications.

Smerdon, E.T. and R.P. Beaseley, 1959. "The Tractive Force Theory Applied to Stability of Open Channels in Cohesive Soils." Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Bulletin No. 715, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, October.

Soil Conservation Service, 1954. "Handbook of Channel Design for Soil and Water Conservation." SCS-TP-61, Stillwater, Oklahoma, revised.

Thibodeaux, K.G., "Performance of Temporary Ditch Linings." Interim Reports 1 to 17, Prepared for Federal Highway Administration by U.S. Geological Survey, Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center and Computer Science Corporation, 1982 to 1985.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1980. "Wire Mesh Gabions (Slope and Channel Protection)," CW-02541.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1994. "Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels," Engineer Manual 1110-2-1601, June.

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U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1987. "Stability of grassed-lined open channels," Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook Number 667.

Wang, S.Y. and H.W. Shen, 1985. "Incipient Sediment Motion and Riprap Design." Journal of Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 111, No. 3, March, pp. 52-538.

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Dan Ghere
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Updated: 04/07/2011

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