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Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels
Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 14, Third Edition


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Colgate, D., 1971. "Hydraulic Model Studies of Corrugated Metal Pipe Underdrain Energy Dissipators," USBR, REC-ERC-71-10, January.

Corry, M. L., P. L. Thompson, F. J. Watts, J. S. Jones, and D. L. Richards, 1983. "The Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels," Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 14 (HEC 14), Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-EPD-86-110.

Doehring F. K. and S. R. Abt, 1994. "Drop Height Influence on Outlet Scour," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 120(12), December.

Donnell, C. A. and S. R. Abt, 1983. "Culvert Shape Effects on Localized Scour," Hydrographic Engineering Publications CER82-83CAD-SRA42, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

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Dunn, I. S.,1959. "Tractive Resistance of Cohesive Channels," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations, Vol. 85, No. SM3, June.

Federal Highway Administration, 1961. "Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow," Hydraulic Design Series No. 3 (HDS 3), U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 105 pp.

Federal Highway Administration, 2003. "Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and Bridges on Federal Highway Projects," Federal Lands Highway Division, FP-03, Metric Units.

Fletcher, B. P. and J. L. Grace, 1972. "Practical Guidance for Estimating and Controlling Erosion at Culvert Outlets," Misc. Paper H-72-5, U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

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Grace, J. L., and G. A. Pickering, 1971. "Evaluation of Three Energy Dissipators for Storm Drain Outlets," U.S. Army WES, HRB, Washington, D.C.

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Hotchkiss, R. H., P. J. Flanagan, and K. Donahoo, 2004. "Hydraulics of Broken-back Culverts," Transportation Research Record 1851, p. 35 - 44.

Hotchkiss, Rollin H. and Emily A. Larson, 2004. "Energy Dissipation in Culverts by Forcing a Hydraulic Jump at the Outlet," Draft Report NDOR Research Project SPR-p1(04) P566, Nebraska Department of Roads.

Hotchkiss, Rollin H., Emily A. Larson, and David M. Admiraal, 2005. "Energy Dissipation in Culverts by Forced Hydraulic Jump Within a Barrel. Transportation Research Record, Transportation Research Board, Issue 1904.

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Jones, J. S., 1975. Unpublished FHWA in-house research incorporated into the first edition of HEC 14.

Keim, R. S., 1962. "The Contra Costa Energy Dissipator," Journal of Hydraulic Division, ASCE Paper 3077, March, p. 109.

Kilgore, R. T. and G. K. Cotton, 2005. "Design of Stable Channels with Flexible Linings, 3rd Edition," Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 15 (HEC 15), Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-NHI-05-114, August.

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MacDonald, T. C., 1967. "Model Studies of Energy Dissipators for Large Culverts," Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory Study HEL-13-5, University of California, Berkeley, November.

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Mohanty, P. K., 1959. "The Dynamics of Turbulent Flow in Steep, Rough, Open Channels," Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.

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Morris, H. M., 1968. "Hydraulics of Energy Dissipation in Steep Rough Channels," Virginia Polytechnical Institute Bulletin 19, VPI & SU, Blacksburg, VA, November.

Morris, H. M., 1969. "Design of Roughness Elements for Energy Dissipation in Highway Drainage Chutes," HRR #261, pp. 25-37, TRB, Washington, D.C.

Normann, Jerome M., 1974. "Hydraulic Aspects of Fish Ladder Baffles in Box Culverts," Preliminary FHWA Hydraulics Engineering Circular, Jan.

Normann, Jerome M., Robert J. Houghtalen, and William J. Johnston, 2001. "Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts," Hydraulic Design Series No 5 (HDS 5), Second Edition, FHWA-NHI-01-020, September.

Peterka, A. J., 1978. "Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators," USBR, Engineering Monograph No. 25, January.

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Rand, Walter, 1955. "Flow Geometry at Straight Drop Spillways," Paper 791, Proceedings, ASCE, Volume 81, pp. 1-13, September.

Ruff, J. F., S. R. Abt, C. Mendoza, A. Shaikh, and R. Kloberdanz, 1982. "Scour at Culvert Outlets in Mixed Bed Materials," FHWA-RD-82-011, Offices of Research and Development, Washington D.C. 20590, September.

Sarikelle, S. and Andrew L. Simon, 1980. "Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Energy Dissipators for Culvert and Storm Drain Outlets, Volume I, Modular Energy Dissipators, Internal Energy Dissipators, Rock Channel Protection," Book viii, 164 p. Akron, Ohio, University of Akron, Dept. of Civil Engineering, OHIO-DOT-03-79, CEHY80-2, FHWA-OH-79-03

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Shoemaker, R. F., 1956. "Hydraulics of Box Culverts With Fish Ladder Baffles," Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the HRB, Washington, D.C., pp.196-209.

Simons, D. B., M. A. Stevens, and F. J. Watts, 1970. "Flood Protection at Culvert Outlets," Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado, CER 69-70 DBS-MAS-FJW4.

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Watts, F. J., 1968. "Hydraulics of Rigid Boundary Basins," Ph.D. Dissertation, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, August.

Wiggert, J. M. and P. D. Erfle, 1971. "Roughness Elements as Energy Dissipators of Free Surface Flow in Circular Pipes," HPR #373, pp. 64-73, TRB, Washington, D.C.

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Updated: 09/22/2014

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