Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway AdministrationFHWA HomeFeedback

Hydraulics Engineering

<< PreviousContents 

Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels
Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 14, Third Edition


AASHTO, 1999. Model Drainage Manual, Task Force on Hydrology and Hydraulics.

AASHTO, 2005. Model Drainage Manual, Task Force on Hydrology and Hydraulics.

Abt, S. R., Donnell, C. A., Ruff, J. F., and Doehring, F. K., 1985a. "Culvert Slope and Shape Effects on Outlet Scour," Transportation Research Record 1017, pp. 24-30.

Abt, S. R., Ruff, J. F., and Doehring, F. K., 1985b. "Culvert Slope Effects on Outlet Scour," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 111(10), pp. 1363-1367, October.

Abt, S. R., Ruff, J. F., Doehring, F. K., and Donnell, C.A., 1987. "Influence of Culvert Shape on Outlet Scour," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, (113)(3), p. 393-400, March.

Abt, S. R., P. L. Thompson, and T. M. Lewis, 1996. "Enhancement of the Culvert Outlet Scour Estimation Equations," Transportation Research Record 1523.

ACPA, 1972. "Culvert Velocity Reduction By Internal Energy Dissipators," Concrete Pipe News, pp. 87-94, American Concrete Pipe Association, Arlington, VA, Oct..

ASCE, 1957. "Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins," Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, paper 1406, October.

Berry, N. K., 1948. "The Start of Bedload Movement," Thesis, University of Colorado.

Blaisdell, Fred W. and Charles A. Donnelly, 1956. "The Box Inlet Drop Spillway and Its Outlet," Transactions, ASCE, Vol. 121, pp. 955-986.

Blaisdell, Fred W., 1959. "The SAF Stilling Basin," U.S. Government Printing Office.

Bohan, J. P., 1970. "Erosion and Riprap Requirements at Culvert and Storm-Drain Outlets," Research Report H-70-2, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Bradley, J. B., D. L. Richards, and C. D. Bahner, 2005. "Debris Control Structures Evaluation and Countermeasures," Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 9 (HEC 9), Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-IF-04-16.

Bradley, J. N. and Peterka, A. J., 1961. "Stilling Basins with Sloping Apron," Symposium on Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators, ASCE Series No. 5., June, pp. 1405-1.

Brown, Scott A. and Eric S. Clyde, 1989. "Design of Riprap Revetment," Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 11 (HEC 11), FHWA-IP-89-016, Washington, D.C.

Chow, Ven Te, 1959. Open-Channel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York.

Colgate, D., 1971. "Hydraulic Model Studies of Corrugated Metal Pipe Underdrain Energy Dissipators," USBR, REC-ERC-71-10, January.

Corry, M. L., P. L. Thompson, F. J. Watts, J. S. Jones, and D. L. Richards, 1983. "The Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels," Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 14 (HEC 14), Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-EPD-86-110.

Doehring F. K. and S. R. Abt, 1994. "Drop Height Influence on Outlet Scour," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 120(12), December.

Donnell, C. A. and S. R. Abt, 1983. "Culvert Shape Effects on Localized Scour," Hydrographic Engineering Publications CER82-83CAD-SRA42, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Donnelly, Charles A., and Fred W. Blaisdell, 1954. "Straight Drop Spillway Stilling Basin," University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory, Technical Paper 15, Series B. November.

Dunn, I. S.,1959. "Tractive Resistance of Cohesive Channels," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations, Vol. 85, No. SM3, June.

Federal Highway Administration, 1961. "Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow," Hydraulic Design Series No. 3 (HDS 3), U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 105 pp.

Federal Highway Administration, 2003. "Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and Bridges on Federal Highway Projects," Federal Lands Highway Division, FP-03, Metric Units.

Fletcher, B. P. and J. L. Grace, 1972. "Practical Guidance for Estimating and Controlling Erosion at Culvert Outlets," Misc. Paper H-72-5, U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Forster, J. W. and R. A. Skrinde, 1950. "Control of Hydraulic Jump by Sills," Transactions, ASCE, Vol.115, pp. 973-987.

French, Richard H., 1985. Open-Channel Hydraulics, New York, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Grace, J. L., and G. A. Pickering, 1971. "Evaluation of Three Energy Dissipators for Storm Drain Outlets," U.S. Army WES, HRB, Washington, D.C.

Hinds, J., 1928. "The Hydraulic Design of Flume and Siphon Transitions," Transactions, ASCE, vol. 92, pp. 1423-1459.

Horner, S. F., 1965. "Fluid Dynamic Drag," published by author, 2 King Lane, Greenbriar, Bricktown, N.J. 08723.

Hotchkiss, R. H., P. J. Flanagan, and K. Donahoo, 2004. "Hydraulics of Broken-back Culverts," Transportation Research Record 1851, p. 35 - 44.

Hotchkiss, Rollin H. and Emily A. Larson, 2004. "Energy Dissipation in Culverts by Forcing a Hydraulic Jump at the Outlet," Draft Report NDOR Research Project SPR-p1(04) P566, Nebraska Department of Roads.

Hotchkiss, Rollin H., Emily A. Larson, and David M. Admiraal, 2005. "Energy Dissipation in Culverts by Forced Hydraulic Jump Within a Barrel. Transportation Research Record, Transportation Research Board, Issue 1904.

Ippen, A. T., 1951. "Mechanics of Supercritical Flow," ASCE Transactions Volume 116, pp. 268-295.

Jones, J. S., 1975. Unpublished FHWA in-house research incorporated into the first edition of HEC 14.

Keim, R. S., 1962. "The Contra Costa Energy Dissipator," Journal of Hydraulic Division, ASCE Paper 3077, March, p. 109.

Kilgore, R. T. and G. K. Cotton, 2005. "Design of Stable Channels with Flexible Linings, 3rd Edition," Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 15 (HEC 15), Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-NHI-05-114, August.

Lagasse, P. F., J. D. Schall, and E. V. Richardson, 2001. "Stream Stability at Highway Structures," Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 20 (HEC 20), Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-NHI-01-002, March.

MacDonald, T. C., 1967. "Model Studies of Energy Dissipators for Large Culverts," Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory Study HEL-13-5, University of California, Berkeley, November.

Meshgin, K. and W. L. Moore, 1970. "Design Aspects and Performance Characteristics of Radical Flow Energy Dissipators," University of Texas at Austin, Research Report 116-2F, August.

Mohanty, P. K., 1959. "The Dynamics of Turbulent Flow in Steep, Rough, Open Channels," Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.

Morris, H. M., 1963. Applied Hydraulics In Engineering, The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1963.

Morris, H. M., 1968. "Hydraulics of Energy Dissipation in Steep Rough Channels," Virginia Polytechnical Institute Bulletin 19, VPI & SU, Blacksburg, VA, November.

Morris, H. M., 1969. "Design of Roughness Elements for Energy Dissipation in Highway Drainage Chutes," HRR #261, pp. 25-37, TRB, Washington, D.C.

Normann, Jerome M., 1974. "Hydraulic Aspects of Fish Ladder Baffles in Box Culverts," Preliminary FHWA Hydraulics Engineering Circular, Jan.

Normann, Jerome M., Robert J. Houghtalen, and William J. Johnston, 2001. "Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts," Hydraulic Design Series No 5 (HDS 5), Second Edition, FHWA-NHI-01-020, September.

Peterka, A. J., 1978. "Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators," USBR, Engineering Monograph No. 25, January.

Peterson, D. F. and P. K. Mohanty, 1960. "Flume Studies of Flow in Steep Rough Channels," ASCE Hydraulics Journal, HY-9, Nov.

Powell, R. W., 1946. "Flow in a Channel of Definite Roughness," ASCE Transactions, Figure 10, p. 544.

Rand, Walter, 1955. "Flow Geometry at Straight Drop Spillways," Paper 791, Proceedings, ASCE, Volume 81, pp. 1-13, September.

Ruff, J. F., S. R. Abt, C. Mendoza, A. Shaikh, and R. Kloberdanz, 1982. "Scour at Culvert Outlets in Mixed Bed Materials," FHWA-RD-82-011, Offices of Research and Development, Washington D.C. 20590, September.

Sarikelle, S. and Andrew L. Simon, 1980. "Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Energy Dissipators for Culvert and Storm Drain Outlets, Volume I, Modular Energy Dissipators, Internal Energy Dissipators, Rock Channel Protection," Book viii, 164 p. Akron, Ohio, University of Akron, Dept. of Civil Engineering, OHIO-DOT-03-79, CEHY80-2, FHWA-OH-79-03

Schall, James D., Everitt V. Richardson, and Johnny L. Morris, 2001. "Introduction to Highway Hydraulics," Hydraulic Design Series Number 4 (HDS 4), Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-NHI-01-019, August.

Searcy, James K., 1967. "Use of Riprap for Bank Protection," Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., pp. 43.

Shoemaker, R. F., 1956. "Hydraulics of Box Culverts With Fish Ladder Baffles," Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the HRB, Washington, D.C., pp.196-209.

Simons, D. B., M. A. Stevens, and F. J. Watts, 1970. "Flood Protection at Culvert Outlets," Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado, CER 69-70 DBS-MAS-FJW4.

Stevens. M. A. and D. B. Simons, 1971. "Experimental Programs and Basic Data for Studies of Scour in Riprap at Culvert Outfalls," Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, CER 70-71-MAS-DBS-57.

Stevens, M. A., D. B. Simons, and F.J. Watts, 1971. "Riprapped Basins for Culvert Outfalls," Highway Research Record No. 373, Highway Research Board, Washington, DC.

Sylvester, R., 1964. "Hydraulic Jump in All Shapes of Horizontal Channels," Journal Hydraulics Division ASCE, Vol. 90, HY1. Jan, pp. 23-55.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1963. "Impact Type Energy Dissipators for Storm-Drainage Outfalls Stilling Well Design," Technical Report No. 2-620 March, WES, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1994. "Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels," Engineering and Design Manual, EM 1110-2-1601, July 1991, Change 1 (June 1994).

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2002. "HEC-RAS River Analysis System, User's Manual," The Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, CA, Version 3.1, November.

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1974. "Design of Small Canal Structures," pp. 127-130, U.S. Department of the Interior.

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1987. "Design of Small Dams, 3rd Edition," U.S. Department of the Interior.

Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, 2004. "Drainage Criteria Manual: Major Drainage," Denver, Colorado.

Watts, F. J., 1968. "Hydraulics of Rigid Boundary Basins," Ph.D. Dissertation, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, August.

Wiggert, J. M. and P. D. Erfle, 1971. "Roughness Elements as Energy Dissipators of Free Surface Flow in Circular Pipes," HPR #373, pp. 64-73, TRB, Washington, D.C.

<< PreviousContents 


Cynthia Nurmi
Resource Center (Atlanta)

Updated: 04/07/2011

United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration