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Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels
Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 14, Third Edition

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.
HEC 14
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels
Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 14, Third Edition
5. Report Date
July 2006
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Philip L. Thompson and Roger T. Kilgore
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Kilgore Consulting and Management
2963 Ash Street
Denver CO 80207
10. Work Unit ( TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH 61-02-D-63009/T-63047
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Federal Highway Administration

National Highway Institute
4600 North Farifax Drive
Suite 800
Arlington, Virginia 22203

Office of Bridge Technology
1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room 3203
Washington D.C. 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report (3rd Edition)
July 2004 - July 2006
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes
Project Manager: Cynthia Nurmi - FHWA Resource Center
Technical Assistance: Jorge Pagan, Bart Bergendahl, Sterling Jones (FHWA), Rollin Hotchkiss (consultant)

The purpose of this circular is to provide design information for analyzing and mitigating energy dissipation problems at culvert outlets and in open channels. The first three chapters provide general information on the overall design process (Chapter 1), erosion hazards (Chapter 2), and culvert outlet velocity and velocity modification (Chapter 3). These provide a background and framework for anticipating dissipation problems. In addition to describing the overall design process, Chapter 1 provides design examples to compare selected energy dissipators. The next three chapters provide assessment tools for considering flow transitions (Chapter 4), scour (Chapter 5), and hydraulic jumps (Chapter 6).

For situations where the tools in the first six chapters are insufficient to fully mitigate a dissipation problem, the remaining chapters address the design of six types of constructed energy dissipators. Although any classification system for dissipators is limited, this circular uses the following breakdown: internal (integrated) dissipators (Chapter 7), stilling basins (Chapter 8), streambed level dissipators (Chapter 9), riprap basins and aprons (Chapter 10), drop structures (Chapter 11), and stilling wells (Chapter 12).

Much of the information presented has been taken from the literature and adapted, where necessary, to fit highway needs. Research results from the Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center and other facilities have also been incorporated. A survey of state practices and experience was also conducted to identify needs for this circular.

17. Key Words
energy dissipator, culvert, channel, erosion, outlet velocity, hydraulic jump, internal dissipator, stilling basin, impact basin, riprap basin, riprap apron, drop structure, stilling well
18. Distribution Statement
This document is available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151.
19. Security Classif. (of this report)
20. Security Classif. (of this page)
21. No. of Pages
22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

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Updated: 09/22/2014

United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration