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Environmental Research: A Decade of Accomplishments 1990 - 2000

Environment - General

Ongoing Research:

Environmental Excellence Awards

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Patricia Cazenas. U.S. DOT, FHWA., HEPN-30, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-4085; Fax: 202-366-3409; E-mail: Patricia.cazenas@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-EP-00-007 (Entry Form); FHWA-EP-99-012 (Calendar) and FHWA-EP-99-016 (Brochure); FHWA-PD-98-012 (Entry); FHWA-PD-97-039 (Brochure); FHWA-PD-96-015 (Entry); FHWA-PD-95-024 (Brochure).

Abstract
This ongoing biennial awards program was developed in 1995 by the FHWA to honor those partners, projects, and processes that excel in meeting growing transportation demands while protecting and enhancing the environment. Anyone may nominate a project, process, person, or group that has used FHWA funding sources to make an outstanding contribution to transportation and the environment. Some of the categories have included wetlands, air quality, scenic byways, community livability, and transportation enhancements on Federal-aid highways and highway-related facilities. A call for entry is announced the year prior to the selection of winners, with an August 15 deadline. An independent panel of judges from varying backgrounds selects the winning entries, which are announced at the Earth Day ceremony in Washington, DC. Available are a videotape of the awards ceremony, as well as a brochure and calendar, showcasing the winners. The entry deadline for the year 2001 awards is August 15, 2000.

Transportation Environmental Research Program (TERP)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Mike Koontz. U.S. DOT, FHWA, RC, 10 S. Howard St., Suite 4000, Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-962-2362; Fax: 410-962-3655; Email: Michael.koontz@dot.gov

Abstract
Under the Transportation Environmental Research Program (TERP), six university research projects underway in FY 1998 include: 1) Watershed Modeling of Gasoline Oxygenates Used in Transportation; 2) Dynamic Systems Models for Assessing Environmental Impacts; 3) Remove Sensing Detection of Diesel Electric Locomotive Emissions; 4) Alternative Method for Estimating Noise Barrier Insertion Loss; 5) Highway Monitoring and Surveillance Data in Transportation Planning and ITS Applications; and 6) Wetlands Education for Transportation Development: Mitigating Environmental Impact. These projects will be continued indefinitely.

Completed Research:

Development of the Transportation Environmental Research Program (TERP) (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Mike Koontz. U.S. DOT, FHWA , RC, 10 S. Howard St., Suite 4000, Baltimore, MD 21201;
Tel: 410-962-2362; Fax: 410-962-3655; Email: Michael.koontz@dot.gov.

Abstract
The Transportation Environmental Research Program (TERP) began in 1997 by the FHWA to provide start-up funding for university research in environmental areas such as air quality, wetlands, climate change, environmental justice, community impact assessment, historic and archaeological preservation, and many other transportation-related areas. TERP funding grants are slated in the range of $20,000 to $50,000, and work plans span from 6 months to 2 years. Several TERP grants have already been awarded by FHWA for the purpose of university research. The brochure summarizes the TERP goals and how to apply for grants.

Environmental Research- Linking Transportation, the Environment, and the Future (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Ginny Finch. U.S. DOT, FHWA , HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-4258; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Ginny.finch@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-98-017; HEP-40/7-98(15M)EW.

Abstract
The brochure highlights 14 exemplary FHWA and State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) projects across America that are meeting the environmental research challenge and looks at transportation as the provider of pathways to opportunities which strengthen our communities, our quality of life, and our responsibility for sharing the planet. The FHWA's Environmental Research Program and the States'surface and Planning Research program allows transportation decisionmakers to define and shape the research agenda and focus on research that will be immediately useful.

Environmental Research Needs in Transportation- Conference (1991) (Completed 1992)

Performer(s): Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Allen Penn. Transportation Research Board, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20418;
Tel: 202-334-3213; Fax: 202-334-2519; URL: http://www.nationalacademies.org/trb/bookstore.

Abstract
Reports the proceedings and findings of a national conference held in 1991 to formulate a highway and transportation-related program of needed environmental research. Prioritized research problem statements covering the full range of environmental topic areas are included. TRB Circular 389.

Environmental Research Needs in Transportation- Conference (1996) (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Sponsor(s): FHWA; Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE), N.C. State University; TRB

To order:
Allen Penn. Transportation Research Board. 2101 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20418;
Tel: 202-334-3213; Fax: 202-334-2519; URL: Full text available online at: http://itre.ncsu.edu/A1F02/toc_envneeds.html;
Print version can be ordered at http://www.nationalacademies.org/trb/bookstore/.
Order No.: TRB Circular 469.

Abstract
This effort was in support of a national research conference to identify transportation environmental research needs, as a guide to research agencies and programs. The conference proceedings, final report research work statements, and anticipated budgets for the identified needs in 13 topic areas were published in TRB Circular Number 469.

Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Project with South Carolina State University - Environment Curriculum Development (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): South Carolina State University
Sponsor(s): FHWA; FHWA SC Div. Office; South Carolina Dept. of Transportation (SCDOT)

To order:
Barbara Beagles. South Carolina Dept. of Transportation, P.O. Box 191, Columbia, SC 29202-0191. Tel: 803-737-6361; Fax: 803-737-2038; Email: Beaglebd@dot.state.sc.us.

Abstract
The environmental curriculum study involved the feasibility of initiating a bachelor's degree program in environmental transportation studies. It involved surveys of high school students and environmental firms to determine their needs. Also, about 150 universities across the country provided data on their environmental studies curricula. The final report for this effort is entitled "Development of a Model for a Bachelor of Science Program in Environmental Studies." The university curricula data collected for this effort have been put in a user-friendly database.

More Than Asphalt, Concrete, and Steel (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Ginny Finch. U.S. DOT, FHWA , HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-4258; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Ginny.finch@dot.gov; Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-97-012; HEP-40/5-97(20M)E.

Abstract
This booklet highlights the planning and design of transportation activities while safeguarding a cultural heritage, preserving historic places and properties, and enhancing the natural environment. Building a massive road network is being replaced with a more seasoned patience in fitting the facilities more carefully into communities and the natural landscape. This booklet traces our transportation's environmental and social "conscience," or sensitivity, back to 1785. The 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) encourages the main streaming of environmental, cultural, and social considerations in every aspect of transportation planning and development. It opens the way to more creative approaches, such as "flexible funding" and "shared decisionmaking," which empower locals to look beyond traditional highway and transit agendas and to spend highway dollars on the most appropriate transportation solutions for their needs.

Strategic Plan for Environmental Research (1998-2003) (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Noreen Bowles. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9173; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Noreen.bowles@dot.gov; URL: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/straplan.pdf. Order No.: FHWA-PD-98-016.

Abstract
This report summarizes the key environmental research goals of the FHWA's Office of Planning, Environment, and Real Estate Services. Covering a 5-year period, the plan includes research goals for program focus areas in support of the FHWA Strategic Plan. Focus areas include: natural environment, human environment, and integrated decisionmaking. Implementation strategies are also presented, including coordination and partnership, dissemination and outreach, and performance evaluation. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Environmental Research Program will help to assure that the goals and objectives of the program are achieved.

Air Quality and Climate

Ongoing Research:

Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI) Energy and Emissions Evaluation

Performer(s): Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC)
Sponsor(s): FHWA; ITS-JPO/HVH-1

For more information:
Cecilia Ho. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9862; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Cecilia.Ho@dot.gov.

Abstract
The Air Quality Team (HEPN-10) provides technical assistance to the Joint Program Offices for the energy and emissions evaluation of the Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI) at four sites. Research funds, supplemental to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) funds, are used to assist in the development and implementation of the evaluation.

Quantification of Emission Reduction Impacts of Seasonal and Episodic Public Education Programs

Performer(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)
Sponsor(s): California Air Resources Board (CARB); FHWA ; U.S. EPA

For more information:
Mike Koontz. U.S. DOT, FHWA, 10 S. Howard Street, Suite 4000, Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 410-962-2362; Fax: 410-962-4586; Email: Michael.koontz@dot.gov.

Abstract
This cooperative agreement with California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) seeks to gather the necessary information to develop the emission reduction quantification guidelines for episodic and seasonal education programs. The research also will result in development of cost-effective methodologies to evaluate such programs that have been endorsed by both U.S. EPA and U.S. DOT. The project will provide sets of quantification methodologies, using both state-of-the-art tools and less costly approaches, to local jurisdictions involved in such programs. Development of such standard quantification techniques should remove the need for State and local governments to design their own unique, frequently costly, methods for each program.

Strategic Analysis of Regional Air Quality Options (Phase II)

Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Mike Koontz. U.S. DOT, FHWA, RC; 10 S. Howard St., Suite 4000, Baltimore, MD 21201;
Tel: 410-962-2362; Fax: 410-962-3655; Email: Michael.koontz@dot.gov.

Abstract
Phase II of this research effort will examine the emissions profile and specific spatial factors that affect several regions that appear likely to have the most difficulty in reaching and maintaining the national ambient air quality standard for ozone. Phase II will contrast measures that focus on technology versus those measures that focus on driver behavior.

Transportation and Global Climate Change: A Review and Analysis of the Literature

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@ntis.fedworld.gov; Order Nos.: DOT-T9703, NTIS No. PB99129132.

For more information:
Michael Savonis. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-10; 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-2080; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Michael.savonis@dot.gov.

Abstract
This preliminary assessment of peer-reviewed literature summarizes key findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the potential implications of global climate change on transportation. Emissions inventories (by mobile source category) of greenhouse gases, possible mitigation strategies related to surface transportation, and the potential health implications of global climate change are presented. The literature review also discusses the latest U.S. global climate change policy efforts to date between 1988 at the first Earth Summit meeting leading up to the signing of the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997. The Appendix provides Internet web sites for obtaining relevant global climate change information, reports, and research.

Completed Research:

Air Quality Case Studies Report (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s):

To order:
Adrica Coates. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-95-034; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-9422; NTIS No. PB96112792.

Abstract
This report examines the response by metropolitan areas to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) and the 1991 ISTEA as they relate to the process for establishing conformity of transportation improvement programs and plans. Cases studied in this report include the processes employed by Denver, Raleigh-Durham, Philadelphia, and Washington nonattainment areas and their focus on travel demand and air quality modeling. Also covered is information on demographic and economic issues and the estimated cost for determining conformity.

A Behavioral Analysis of EPA's MOBILE Emission Factor Model (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): Resources for the Future
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-2204; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-98-043; NTIS No. PB99119612.

Abstract
This report provides a review and assessment of several important aspects of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE emissions factor model, which is used for estimating emissions factors for mobile source inventories. Inventory models like MOBILE have many uses, but the focus of this research is on possible improvements for input data used in quantifying emissions related to certain inspection and maintenance programs. The report assesses the MOBILE model's strengths and weaknesses toward accounting for driver behavior in relation to inspection and maintenance programs, and how future improvements to the MOBILE emissions factor model may assist toward improving future estimates of program effectiveness for policy and decisionmaking purposes.

Bibliography of Fuel Consumption Models as a Factor of Speed or Acceleration (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) at N.C. State University
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Lois J. Widmer. N.C. State University, CTE, Information Services Dept., Campus Box 8601, Raleigh, NC 27695-8601;
Tel: 919-515-8581; Fax: 919-515-8898; Email: lwidmer@unity.ncsu.edu. Order Nos: FHWA-PD-97-45; HEP-4015-97(20M)E.

Abstract
The Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) performed a literature review for FHWA on fuel consumption models as a factor of speed or acceleration. Nearly 50 research papers, conference proceedings, and articles are summarized for the years 1985 - 1996. The CTE used five databases for purposes of searching relevant topics covered under this subject.

Clean Air Briefs (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): National Association of Regional Councils (NARC)
Sponsor(s): U.S. DOT; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)

For more information:
Patsy Chappelear-Marshall. National Association of Regional Councils, 1700 K St., NW., Suite 1300, Washington, DC 20006;
Tel: 202-457-0710, ext. 11; Fax: 202-296-9352; URL: http://www.NARC.org.

Abstract
The National Association of Regional Councils (NARC) is a nonprofit, membership organization serving the Nation's regional councils and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) across the country, with affiliate and associate membership from other public and private organizations interested in planning, development, and governance at the regional level. The Clean Air Briefs are a series of public information documents to better inform State and local planning officials of the issues related to transportation conformity, transportation control measures, the implications of highway sanctions, and other health risk issues. The Clean Air Briefs are intended to give MPO public officials clear-cut information about some very complex issues, while using basic terminology for laypersons involved in the transportation/air quality planning processes.

Clean Air Through Transportation: Challenges in Meeting National Air Quality Standards (Completed Aug. 1993)

Performer(s): U.S. DOT
Sponsor(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA); FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order No.: NTIS No. PB95230397.

Abstract
A joint report of the U.S. DOT and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that discusses the transportation provisions and regulations of the Clean Air Act. It discusses, under the section entitled "Challenges in Transportation and Air Quality Programs," the difficulties and obstacles facing persons within the transportation industry in meeting air quality goals. Topics include: MPOs Face Significant Challenges in Meeting New CAA Requirements; Reducing Vehicle Emissions Through TCMs is Difficult; By Themselves, Capital-Intensive Investments May Not Be the Best Way to Address Air Quality Concerns, and others. One section discusses "Status of Programs."

CMAQ Information Kiosk (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Michael Savonis. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-2080; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Michael.savonis@dot.gov.

Abstract
This project developed an interactive CD-ROM display for the purpose of illustrating successful projects under the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program. The information kiosk will be sent by FHWA to future environmental conferences held in the United States that focus on air quality and transportation improvements. Several CMAQ-funded projects will be highlighted through video clips, photos, interviews, and documentation provided as part of the CMAQ interactive kiosk display. Since its completion, the kiosk continues to function as an outreach tool.

Conformity and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx): Background and Case Studies (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order No.: FHWA-PD-96-017R.

Abstract
This paper was developed to advise field staff and others involved in nitrogen oxide (NOx) modeling. The first part of the paper is a memo discussing the background factors affecting NOx pollution levels, including such variables as vehicle speed and percentage of diesel vehicles in traffic. The second part describes certain modeling actions that can be taken to more accurately estimate the NOx levels based on the experience gained in efforts with various State DOTs and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs).

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program- Indirect Benefits (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Louis Berger and Assoc., Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Daniel Wheeler. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-10; 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Daniel.wheeler@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-97-045; HEP-40/5-97(20M)E.

Abstract
The purpose of this research was to better understand and document the indirect benefits that could be attributed to the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program. An extensive search effort was launched to seek information and evidence of CMAQ's benefits and to detail the indirect benefits that Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and other stakeholders have experienced from the CMAQ program; how CMAQ affected strategic planning processes; examples of specific projects; and quantification of benefits.

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Review (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): FHWA, Office of Environment and Planning
Sponsor(s): FHWA; Research and Special Programs Admin. (RSPA), U.S. DOT

To order:
Noreen Bowles. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9173; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Noreen.bowles@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: DOT-T-97-14; NTIS No. PB97165559.

Abstract
Summary of a national review of the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program performed by the FHWA and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) that was begun in May 1994. The findings of the report suggest that metropolitan areas are beginning to realize the full potential of the CMAQ program and are improving obligation rates as a result of increased familiarity with the program. Enhanced coordination mechanisms and technical tools have facilitated the programming of CMAQ funds. State and local officials have found the CMAQ program to be very flexible, with nearly half of the funding made available for transit improvements. The program review also found that State and local planners are attempting to restructure their planning processes to allow for greater decentralization and increased public participation.

Cost Effectiveness of Transportation Control Measures by CMAQ Category (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) at N.C. State University
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Lois J. Widmer. CTE, Information Services Dept., Campus Box 8601, Raleigh, NC 27695-8601;
Tel: 919-515-8581; Fax: 919-515-8898; Email: lwidmer@unity.ncsu.edu;
URL: Abbreviated version available online at http://itre.ncsu.edu/cte.

Abstract
A literature review that covers a wide range of sources that summarize emissions benefits and the cost-effectiveness of transportation control measures (TCMs) identified within the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and funded under the U.S. DOT's Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program. The review focused on identifying projects that have already been proposed or implemented.

Costs and Effectiveness of Transportation Control Measures (TCMs): A Review and Analysis of the Literature (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): Apogee Research, Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Daniel Wheeler. U.S. DOT, FHWA, HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-2204; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Daniel.wheeler@dot.gov.

Abstract
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) and ISTEA (1991) require the use of Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) for the purpose of conforming to State Implementation Plans (SIPs) and achieving the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). This document provides an overview of some real-life experiences with TCM implementation and the potential of TCMs to reduce the emissions from mobile sources. The emission reduction potential of TCMs is divided into strong, weak, and speculative scenarios for the purposes of this study. The report analyzes TCMs only in context of their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness with regard to reduction of emissions and is intended to provide valuable information on the clean air effects of a variety of transportation measures.

Data Aggregation Issues in the Application of the MOBILE Emissions Model (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-95-033; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-94-20; NTIS No. PB96112750.

Abstract
This report discusses several technical issues relating to spatial and temporal data aggregation and collection and its use in emission estimation. Topics such as whether vehicle emissions should be calculated on a link, corridor, or other basis and whether emissions should be estimated on an hourly, peak period, or daily basis, are discussed. The effects resulting from the use of one method versus another are outlined. Other factors contributing to these issues are also examined.

DOT/EPA Transportation and Air Quality Public Information Initiative: Pilot Tests and National Coalition Development [FHWA ERP Report Title: Air Quality Public Outreach/Education] (Completed Oct. 1998)

Performer(s): Equals Three Communications
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:

Kathy Daniel. FHWA, HEPN-10; 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6276; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Kathy.daniel@dot.gov.
URL: http://www.italladdsup.gov/.

Abstract
In response to requests from State and local government officials, the U.S. DOT and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) are collaborating on a public information initiative aimed at enhancing public involvement in voluntary behavior changes that reduce congestion and improve air quality, which are goals under the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century and the Clean Air Act. One of the main focuses of the project is to build national and local coalitions of public and private organizations geared toward changing attitudes and behaviors related to transportation and air quality. The initiative seeks to improve current programs and develop a community-based effort by bringing private-sector resources to support public outreach efforts. The four components of the initiative are: pilot tests, coalition building, outreach, and evaluation of the program. Creative materials were tested in three pilot cities: Dover, Delaware; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and San Francisco, California. These materials included radio, TV, and print advertisements, which encouraged people to maintain their cars in good condition, link their automobile trips, and use alternative modes of transportation. In addition, pilot sites were given technical assistance and limited funding for local public outreach initiatives. The summary report, which was released February 24, 1999, describes the lessons learned and evaluates the results of pre- and post-campaign telephone surveys conducted in each city. Fourteen cities were chosen to be demonstration communities based on a number of criteria, including their ability to support transportation choices that lead to congestion mitigation and improved air quality over the long term. The U.S. DOT and the U.S. EPA facilitated the formation of the "Alliance for Clean Air and Transportation" to unite private and public organizations to carry on these same goals.

Effects of Mobile Source Emissions on Health and Property (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) at N.C. State University
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Lois J. Widmer. CTE, Information Services Dept., Campus Box 8601, Raleigh, NC 27695-8601;
Tel: 919-515-8581; Fax: 919-515-8898; Email: lwidmer@unity.ncsu.edu.

Abstract
The Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) performed a literature review on the effects of mobile source emissions on health and property. The review provides nearly 80 resources on the impacts on health, occupational health, and property impacts. The CTE found that literature related to impacts to property from mobile source emissions was extremely limited.

Estimating Emissions Reductions from Vehicle Retirement Programs (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Kevin N. Black. FHWA, HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9485; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Kevin.n.black@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-97-011; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-97-4; NTIS No. PB97153795.

Abstract
The final report assesses the effectiveness of vehicle retirement programs in reducing transportation emissions. The impact of eliminating cars and light trucks more than 20 years old was analyzed using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE 5a emission model. An emission reduction potential of less than 5 percent was identified. While this reduction is large compared to most transportation control strategies, it is small compared to other actions such as inspection and maintenance or the use of reformulated fuels. Significant variations in results occur if local rather than national default age and use data are used. Finally, the emission rates from older vehicles used in the Mobil model appear to be understated in the Mobil Model when compared to other studies of older vehicles.

Evaluation of the MOBILE Vehicle Emission Model (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): Sierra Research, Inc.
Sponsor(s):FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA , HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-94-038; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-94-8; NTIS No. PB95170239.

Abstract
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE5 model is used to estimate emissions from on-road motor vehicles. MOBILE5 represents the fifth version of this program, which has undergone continuous revision in attempts to estimate mobile source emission trends since its development in the late 1970s. Modifications have been made to the MOBILE model structure in attempts to account for technical and policy changes including Inspection and Maintenance (I& M) programs, reformulated gasoline and oxyfuel programs, and other initiatives. Comparisons are made between the assumptions used in MOBILE5, MOBILE4.1, MOBILE 4, and emission rate projections.

Induced Demand: Traffic Diversion vs. Generation and Related Issues (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) at N.C. State University
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Lois J. Widmer. CTE, Information Services Dept., Campus Box 8601, Raleigh, NC 27695-8601;
Tel: 919-515-8581; Fax: 919-515-8898; Email: lwidmer@unity.ncsu.edu.

Abstract
The Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) performed a literature review on induced travel demand in September 1996. Abstracts from approximately 50 research articles from the United States and abroad are included in this report. Special Report 245 "Expanding Metropolitan Highways: Implications for Air Quality and Energy Use" published by the Transportation Research Board in 1995, is also cited as an important resource document.

Innovations in Transportation and Air Quality- Twelve Exemplary Projects (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Federal Transit Admin. (FTA)
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-96-016; NTIS No. PB96183280.

Abstract
The booklet describes 12 exemplary projects funded under the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program through its "flexible funding" program of transferring a greater percentage of funds to transit improvements. These projects were showcased to stimulate further innovation and creativity in addressing air quality problems through transportation measures. A diverse group of projects are described, ranging from intermodal connections to freight and goods movement to parking management and pedestrian access. While the projects deal with different transportation issues, they all yield air quality and other benefits, such as congestion relief, economic development, energy conservation, etc. Contact persons are listed for further information in the highlighted projects.

Intelligent Transportation Systems Impact on the Environment (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE), N.C. State University
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Lois J. Widmer. CTE, Information Services Dept., Campus Box 8601, Raleigh, NC 27695-8601;
Tel: 919-515-8581; Fax: 919-515-8898; Email: lwidmer@unity.ncsu.edu.

Abstract
The Center for Transportation and the Environment performed a literature review for FHWA on intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and their impact on the environment. Approximately 50 journal articles are summarized in the form of abstracts. Two articles include discussion of the ITS-related services that were used during the Olympic Games in Atlanta, GA, in 1996. Most of the assessments related to ITS impacts on reductions of criteria pollutants were found to be very preliminary, as the current state of practice for modeling is not sufficient to quantitatively assess the effects of traffic flow smoothing, a common effect among ITS technologies.

Interagency Consultation: The Key Toward Collaborative State and Local Decisionmaking in the Conformity Process (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA; Research and Sponsored Programs Admin. (RSPA), U.S. DOT

To order:
Noreen Bowles. FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9173; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Noreen.bowles@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: DOT-T-97-11; NTIS No. PB97158083.

Abstract
Based on a review of interagency consultation processes from across the Nation, the FHWA has compiled successful examples of State and local agencies and their efforts to improve the transportation conformity process. A total of 34 States have been included in this review, and successful examples are outlined in table format within the report. Findings of this report suggest that interagency consultation, if performed early in the metropolitan planning process, may assist State and local decisionmaking at the regional level. The establishment of emissions budgets through the Statewide Implementation Plan (SIP) process needs to include the transportation sector to ensure that future conformity issues are not raised at the last minute during metropolitan planning and transportation improvement program development and updates.

Literature Review on Vehicle Emissions Models (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE), N.C. State University
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Lois J. Widmer. CTE, Information Services Dept., Campus Box 8601, Raleigh, NC 27695-8601;
Tel: 919-515-8581; Fax: 919-515-8898; Email: lwidmer@unity.ncsu.edu.

Abstract
The Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) performed a literature review on vehicle emissions models. The review covers both United States and international research on this topic, with a total of 40 abstracts, including journal articles and summary proceedings from 1987 to 1997. Computer model evaluations and on-board emission diagnostic tests performed by researchers are also presented.

A Manual of Regional Transportation Modeling Practice for Air Quality Analysis (Version 1.0) (Completed 1993)

Performer(s): National Association of Regional Councils (NARC)
Sponsor(s): NARC

To order:
Sylvia Bryant. National Assoc. of Regional Councils, 1700 K St., NW., Suite 1300, Washington, DC 20006;
Tel: 202-457-0710, ext 18; Fax: 202-296-9352; Email: sylvia@narc.org.

Abstract
The manual was developed under the auspices of the Clean Air Project of the National Association of Regional Councils (NARC). A conference was held in Crystal City, Virginia, in November 1991, and nearly 100 regional, State, and Federal transportation planning officials attended. This conference provided the opportunity for participants to set the direction for the development of the manual. The manual was developed for the purpose of providing guidance on CAA issues to consider in responding to new regional analysis needs, and especially for carrying out transportation modeling for air quality planning efforts. The manual reviews the current state of practice today and focuses primarily on travel demand forecasting as it is practiced by regional agencies and MPOs. It identifies and discusses modeling and analysis requirements resulting from the CAA and ISTEA, and suggests strategies for responding to specific analysis needs and for overcoming common problems. Further research needs are identified within the manual for purposes of research and development.

The MOBILE Model and Transportation Planning: A Brief Overview (Completed 1995)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Kevin N. Black. FHWA , HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9485; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Kevin.n.black@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-95; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-95-7; NTIS No. PB96144233.

Abstract
This is a simplified summary of the MOBILE model and description of how it is used in transportation planning. The booklet was developed for distribution to nontechnical audiences that work with the transportation field and use the results of the MOBILE model.

The New Politics of Clean Air and Transportation (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Kevin N. Black. FHWA, HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9485; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Kevin.n.black@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-97-010; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-97-5; NTIS No. PB97153803.

Abstract
This report documents research performed by the John F. Kennedy School of Government to describe the early experiences at the State and local levels in implementing the transportation provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) and the air quality provisions of the ISTEA of 1991. Some issues addressed in this document include: the organizational capacity for implementing Federal clean air mandates, creating State and regional policymaking arenas to assess and choose options, the air quality impact of transportation actions taken, and obtaining public consent for the adopted policies.

An Overview of the PM-10 Base Year Emissions Inventories (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Kevin N. Black. FHWA, HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9485; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Kevin.n.black@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-98-002; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-97-3; NTIS No. PB98128820.

Abstract
The report discusses requirements for the content of PM-10 State Implementation Plans (SIPs). It includes information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's PM-10 guidance document and the contents of several 1990 Base Year PM-10 SIPs from cities throughout the country. In addition, topics covering emission estimation methods, PM-10 modeling, and PM-10 control measures are described.

Ozone Trends in Severe and Serious Non-Attainment Areas (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-96-4.

Abstract
This report examines the ozone emission trends in 20 areas classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as either serious or severe for nonattainment of the ozone standard over the years 1980-1993. Trends were evaluated to determine their statistical significance and to compare the magnitude and direction of the trends on an urban, regional, and national basis. In performing the analysis, several factors were considered, including meteorology, geographic variations, and effects of economic growth.

Qualitative Assessment of IVHS Emission and Air Quality Impacts (Completed 1993)

Performer(s): Jack Faucett Assoc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-93-4.

Abstract
This report describes Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) program contributions to air quality. It outlines the current debate on the role of IVHS in reducing congestion in light of the argument that increasing capacity will induce more travel and offset any gains made in reducing traffic congestion and emissions. The report also discusses strategies designed to reduce emissions by encouraging mode shifts and plans designed to reduce pollution, such as inspection and maintenance (I& M) programs.

Review of Procedures for Estimating On-Road Mobile Source Emissions Inventories for 1990 Base Year SIPs (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Kevin N. Black. FHWA , HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9485; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Kevin.n.black@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-98-003; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-97-2; NTIS No. PB98128838.

Abstract
This report supports the implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) by providing information for preparing the On-Road Mobile Source section of emission inventories. It examines the current practices used by State environmental and transportation agencies, regional transportation committees, and metropolitan planning organizations in developing on-road mobile emission inventories for 33 nonattainment areas. Some innovative practices are also reviewed.

The Role of Motor Vehicle Emission Controls in State Implementation Plans (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Kevin N. Black. FHWA , HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9485; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Kevin.n.black@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-98-001; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-97-7; NTIS No. PB98128812.

Abstract
This report examines the ozone emission trends in 20 areas classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as either serious or severe for nonattainment of the ozone standard over the years 1980-1993. Trends were evaluated to determine their statistical significance and to compare the magnitude and direction of the trends on an urban, regional, and national basis. In performing the analysis, several factors were considered, including meteorology, geographic variations, and effects of economic growth.

A Sensitivity Evaluation of CAL3QHC Dispersion Model for Carbon Monoxide Analysis at Urban Intersections (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA , HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov.

Abstract
This paper was developed to evaluate the implications of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed improvements to the current CAL3QHC model used to determine emission concentrations at intersections. It evaluates several variables used in the program by performing statistical analyses to define the variables having the strongest correlations in influencing the emission concentrations at intersections.

Strategic Analysis of Regional Air Quality Options (Phase I) (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Apogee Research, Inc./Hagler Bailly Services, Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA , HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW, Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov.

For more information:
Mike Koontz. FHWA, RC, 10 S. Howard St., Suite 4000, Baltimore, MD 21201;
Tel: 410-962-2362; Fax: 41 962-3655; Email: Michael.koontz@dot.gov.

Abstract
Phase I of this research effort is geared toward analysis of national air quality trends within selected metropolitan planning areas. Emphasis is placed on ozone, the spational variability in the formation of ozone pollution, and correlation of trends and projections with programs and implementation of technologies required under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs). Phase II is a continuation of this effort.

A Summary: Transportation Programs and Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Completed 1992)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA , HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-92-023.

Abstract
This brochure provides an overview of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) and the planning requirements for State Implementation Plan (SIP) development. It discusses the effects of pollution on human health and how transportation planning assists in advancing the clean air goals of the CAAAs. The foldouts of the pamphlets provide colored tables illustrating the necessary planning requirements by severity and pollutant type. The brochure also attempts to provide definitions of the transportation conformity process and how ISTEA planning relates to the development of SIPs for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). A listing of regional air quality specialists is provided in the appendix for additional questions or information.

Sustaining the Nation's Efforts to Improve Air Quality Through Integrated Transportation and Air Quality Planning (CAP) (Completed 1999)

Performer(s): Harvard University
Sponsor(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA); U.S. DOT

For more information:
Lucy Garliauskas. FHWA, HEPE-1; 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-2068; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Lucy.garliauskas@dot.gov.

Abstract
Two parts: 1) Conformity Pilot Program Development: This effort assisted the U.S. EPA and the U.S. DOT in developing the concept and design of a conformity pilot program that gives States and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) the opportunity to propose new flexibility in meeting conformity requirements. The U.S. EPA published a Federal Register notice (64 FR 13476) announcing the opportunity to propose new flexibility in meeting the conformity requirements (40 CFR 93). No pilot proposals have been submitted to date.
2) Conformity Assessment Project (CAP)/Phase I: A 15-site research project was carried out independently by researchers at Harvard University to analyze the institutional and planning process impacts of the transportation conformity regulations. The study was completed in March 1999. Phase I established baseline information and a historical assessment on how conformity has worked and what effects conformity has had to date on transportation and air quality planning.

Transportation Air Quality: Selected Facts and Figures (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Apogee Research, Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Noreen Bowles. FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9173; Fax: 301-366-3409; Email: Noreen.bowles@dot.gov;
Order No.: FHWA-PD-96-006.

Abstract
This brochure shows the latest travel and emissions trends, and nonattainment areas throughout the Nation. Selected facts and figures include tables and summaries of the health impacts of smog and air pollution, total highway emissions and travel trends, and other interesting facts on transportation and air quality. Various policy responses to reducing criteria pollutants from automobiles are explored, including the CMAQ Program, the $6 billion Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program created under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Equity Act (ISTEA). A revision and update of the brochure was made available in 1999.

Transportation Air Quality: Selected Facts and Figures (Revision) (Completed 1999)

Performer(s): Apogee Research, Inc./Hagler Bailly Services, Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Adrica Coates. FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-6724; Fax: 301-366-3409; Email: Adrica.coates@dot.gov;
Order No.: FHWA-PD-99-015.

Abstract
Revision of the original brochure of the same title, originally published by the FHWA in 1996. Contains more recent travel statistics and health research related to criteria pollutants formed from mobile source emissions. Topics for the general audience include emissions trends, automobile tailpipe standards, criteria pollutants, reformulated fuel standards, and nonattainment area status. Information sources are Federal agencies, including the U.S. DOT and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

VMT Growth and Improved Air Quality: How Long Can Progress Continue? (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Kevin N. Black. FHWA, HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW, Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9485; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Kevin.n.black@dot.gov;
Order No.: FHWA-PD-97-6.

Abstract
The brochure documents the significant improvements in the Nation's air quality that have occurred over the past 20 years and the role of motor vehicles in achieving these improvements. Future motor vehicle emission trends for two cities are then presented, first based on current emission model assumptions and then with the National Low-Emission Vehicle program included. This program is only one of several technological changes being advanced by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analysis shows that technological improvements will likely continue to reduce overall motor vehicle emissions well beyond the 2005 upturn predicted in the current model. Finally, the report documents the declining long-term trend in the national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) growth rate.

White Paper: Methodology for Assessing the Economic Benefits of Projects Funded Under the CMAQ Improvement Program (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): Louis Berger and Assoc., Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Cecilia Ho. FHWA, HEPN-10, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-9862; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Cecilia.ho@dot.gov.

Abstract
This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the economic benefits of projects funded under the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program. The economic benefits described herein explicitly do not include the impacts on air quality attributable to the projects, such as reductions in volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) (direct project benefits). Instead, the potential economic benefits are defined as indirect impacts, such as user benefits and land use and development benefits from CMAQ-funded transportation investments. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential economic benefits that are most likely to be caused by CMAQ-funded projects. This report draws on a wide variety of sources and practices to establish an evaluation methodology.

Noise

Ongoing Research:

Improvement of the FHWA Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Bob Armstrong. FHWA, HEPN-20, 400 7th Street, SW., Washington, D.C. 20590;
Tel. 202-366-2073; Fax 202-366-3409; E-mail: Robert.e.armstrong@dot.gov.

Abstract
Verification of the FHWA Traffic Noise Model (TNM), released in March 1998, was limited; i.e., it included three comparisons with point source geometry and two comparisons of in-situ measurements of barrier performance along actual highways. This multiyear research study will validate all aspects of the model. The initial phase of validation will include the elements of the model most often used in highway traffic noise analyses; validation of all other elements will follow. Field measurements made to support the model validation will be used to begin study of atmospheric effects on the propagation of highway traffic noise, effects which may be included in the FHWA TNM in the future. This research study will also address problems and inconveniences users have identified subsequent to the release of the FHWA TNM, as well as incorporate improvements in the model's graphical user interface. An interim upgrade of the FHWA TNM should be released in the summer of 2000; a final upgrade should be released during 2002.

Noise Barrier Design Manual and Videotape

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Steve Ronning. FHWA, HEPN-20; 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-2078; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Steven.ronning@dot.gov.

Abstract
This research will develop a manual for noise barrier design. It will be a how-to document on the principles of noise barriers and barrier design that is useful to both the novice and the skilled practitioner. The manual will be complemented by a videotape, which emphasizes the material contained in the manual.

Completed Research:

Acoustics and Your Environment- The Basics of Sound and Highway Traffic Noise (Completed March 1999)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel. 1-800-553-6847; Fax. 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order Nos.: Rept. No. DTS-34-HW966-LR1; NTIS No. AVA20426VNB1.

Abstract
This research will develop a videotape that discusses the principles of sound and highway traffic noise. Information will be presented simply in a nontechnical manner so that the videotape can be used as an educational tool for the general public. It will also be used to train highway traffic noise analysts.

Development of National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels for FHWA Traffic Noise Model, Version 1.0 (Completed 1995)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA R& D Pooled Fund Study

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-96-008; DOTVNTSCFHWA96-2; NTIS No. PB96147780.

Abstract
During the period July 1993 through November 1995, the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center conducted the National Pooled-Fund Study (NPFS) "Highway Noise Model Data Base Development." This report presents the results of the study, including the measurement, data reduction, and analysis procedures used to develop the database, which is the foundation of the FHWA Traffic Noise Model, Version 1.0.

Highway Noise Barriers: Performance, Maintenance, and Safety (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order No.: NTIS No. AVA19985VNB1.

Abstract
This videotape, approximately 43 minutes in length, is an educational tool that illustrates many different aspects of highway noise barriers. The videotape covers (1) basic acoustics; (2) barrier performance; (3) types of barriers; (4) wall barrier materials; (5) barrier maintenance concerns; and (6) barrier safety concerns.

Interrupted Flow Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels for the FHWA Traffic Noise Model (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): Vanderbilt University
Sponsor(s): FHWA R& D Pooled Fund Study

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 703-487-4650; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order Nos.: DOT/FHWA-PD-97-019; DOTVNTSC-FHWA-97-1; NTIS No. PB97138226.

Abstract
During the period July 1993 through November 1995, the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center conducted the National Pooled-Fund Study (NPFS) "Highway Noise Model Data Base Development." This report presents the results of one portion of the study the measurement, data reduction, and analysis of individual vehicle sound level and speed data for interrupted flow traffic (accelerating from stop signs, toll booths, and on-highway ramps). Also presented is the development of regression equations for the resulting Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels (REMELs) as a function of vehicle speed and vehicle type. These REMELs are part of the database upon which the FHWA Traffic Noise Model, Version 1.0, is based.

Measurement of Highway-Related Noise (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-96-046; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-96-5; NTIS No. PB97120489.

Abstract
This report reflects substantial improvements and changes in highway-related noise measurement technologies that evolved subsequent to the 1981 publication "Sound Procedures for Measuring Highway Noise." The report documents the recommended procedures for the measurement of (1) existing noise; (2) vehicle noise emissions; (3) barrier insertion loss; (4) construction equipment noise; (5) noise reduction due to buildings; and (6) occupational noise exposure.

Parallel Barrier Effectiveness - Dulles Noise Barrier Project (Completed 1990)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA R& D Pooled Fund Study

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-RD-90-105; DOT-TSC-FHWA-90-1; NTIS No. PB90252388.

Abstract
This report presents the results of testing on experimental parallel noise barriers constructed at a site at Dulles International Airport in Chantilly, Virginia. The study focused on the use of absorptive treatment and tilting as a means of improving the insertion loss of two parallel barriers. It also evaluated the feasibility of modeling a moving point source with an artificial fixed-point source. The report is intended for highway traffic noise analysts. This is the first of three studies. The second is "Parallel Barrier Effectiveness Under Free-Flowing Traffic Conditions." The third is "Performance Evaluation of Experimental Highway Noise Barriers."

Parallel Barrier Effectiveness Under Free-Flowing Traffic Conditions (Completed 1992)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA R& D Pooled Fund Study

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-RD-92-068; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-92-1; NTIS No. PB92203850.

Abstract
This report presents the results of a measurement study performed at a highway noise barrier site located along I-495 in Montgomery County, Maryland. The objective of the study was to measure the degradation in acoustic performance of a highway noise barrier due to the close proximity of a parallel barrier on the opposite side of the roadway. The first study is "Parallel Barrier Effectiveness- Dulles Noise Barrier Project" and the third study is "Performance Evaluation of Experimental Highway Noise Barriers."

Performance Evaluation of Experimental Highway Noise Barriers (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA R& D Pooled Fund Study

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161-2296;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-RD-94-093; DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-94-16; NTIS Nos. PB95216909 & PB94213626.

Abstract
During the period October 1986 though April 1994, the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center conducted the National Pooled-Fund Study (NPFS) "Evaluation of Performance of Experimental Highway Noise Barriers." Two other reports, "Parallel Barrier Effectiveness" and "Parallel Barrier Effectiveness Under Free Flowing Traffic Conditions," support the NPFS. This report is the third, and final, publication supporting the NPFS. It presents the results of additional analyses of previously collected data and summarizes the findings of the multiyear study.

Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM)- Tables for Simple Applications (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Robert Armstrong. FHWA, HEPN-20, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-2073; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Robert.e.armstrong@dot.gov.

Abstract
This research will develop tables that can be used to look up calculated traffic noise levels based on the new-generation FHWA Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM). The tables will be made available in both diskette and hardcopy format so that the use of a computer to obtain calculated noise levels is not required. The tables can be used for screening traffic noise analyses and simple applications of the FHWA TNM.

Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM), Version 1.0 (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
McTrans Center. University of Florida, 512 Weil Hall, P.O. Box 116585, Gainesville, FL 32611-6585;
Tel: 352-392-0378 x242; Fax: 352-392-3224; Email: Debbie@ce.ufl.edu;
URL: http://www.Mctrans.ce.ufl.edu.

Abstract
The FHWA Traffic Noise Model (TNM), Version 1.0, is a new-generation highway traffic noise prediction model. It calculates traffic noise levels using totally new acoustical algorithms, as well as newly-measured emission levels for five standard vehicle types, i.e., automobiles, medium trucks, heavy trucks, buses, and motorcycles. The calculations are based on one-third octave-band analysis and subsource heights for trucks. The package includes the software, a user's guide, a technical manual, and CD-ROM trainer.

Wetlands

Ongoing Research:

Development of Functional Model for Hydrogeomorphic Assessment of Intermontane Depressional Wetlands

Performer(s): University of Montana - Biological Station
Sponsor(s): FHWA; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE)

For more information:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
The purpose of the project is to provide an accurate, concise method of performing functional assessments on wetlands for the Section 404 (Clean Water Act) regulatory program compliance purposes, including determination of requirements for and planning of mitigation projects. Key characteristics of wetlands were identified and measured to allow rapid evaluation of wetland functional capacity for different wetland functions, such as habitat, water storage, and water quality. The functional capacity values are used in determining wetland impacts due to discharge of fill in or around wetlands, including that required in highway projects. They are also used to determine mitigation requirements, and to design mitigation projects. The resulting manual will be used by the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT), other regional DOTs, and other agencies.

Development of Functional Model for Hydrogeomorphic Assessment of Low Gradient Riverine Wetlands in the Southern Coastal Plain

Performer(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)
Sponsor(s): FHWA ; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE)

For more information:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
The purpose of the project is to provide an accurate, concise method of performing functional assessments on wetlands for Section 404 (Clean Water Act) regulatory program compliance purposes, including determination of requirements for and planning of mitigation projects. Key characteristics of wetlands were identified and measured to allow rapid evaluation of wetland functional capacity for different wetland functions, such as habitat, water storage, and water quality. The functional capacity values are used in determining wetland impacts due to discharge of fill in or around wetlands, including that required in highway projects. They are also used to determine mitigation requirements, and to design mitigation projects. The resulting operating manual will be used by State Departments of Transportation and other agencies.

Regional Procedures and Scientific Models to Assess Functions of Wetlands

Performer(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)
Sponsor(s): FHWA ; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), U.S. Dept. of Interior (DOI); National Oceanic & Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA), U.S. Dept. of Commerce; Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), U.S. Dept of Agriculture (USDA)

For more information:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel. 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
Research supports the development of regional wetland assessment models according to the national action for implementing the Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Wetlands Assessment Method. Regional guidebooks will be produced, which will be applied to the processing of Section 404 permits needed by State Departments of Transportation.

Wetbirds: An Expert Method for Assessing Habitat Potential for Wetland Dependent Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles

Performer(s): University of Massachusetts - Amherst; New England Transportation Consortium
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
Wetbirds is a PC-based, expert system program that identifies wetland bird habitat potentials based on descriptions of the physical habitat characteristics at specific sites. The program encompasses the northeastern United States. It contains habitat characteristics and distribution data for 96 wetland dependent bird species. The program is useful in evaluating the probable presence of bird species within a known habitat type in the region covered, which includes New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Maine, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. It can be used in preparing National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) documents, Section 7 biological assessments under Endangered Species Act requirements, and wetlands assessments under the Section 404 (Clean Water Act) regulatory program. It is also useful in planning mitigation for wetlands impacts.

Wetlands No Net Loss Database

Performer(s): Louis Berger and Assoc., Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
The research will develop an interactive tool that can be used by State Departments of Transportation to collect, analyze, organize, and periodically update wetland mitigation information as needed for data reporting and management decisions. The information will allow the States and FHWA to determine if stated no-net-loss and net gain wetland goals and policies are being met.

Completed Research:

An Approach for Assessing Wetland Functions Using Hydrogeomorphic Classification, Reference Wetlands, and Functional Indices. Report number WRP-DE-9. (Completed 1995)

Performer(s): U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE )
Sponsor(s): Hydrogeomorphic Wetlands Assessment Program, COE ; FHWA

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
URL: http://www.NTIS.gov. Full text available online at http://www.wes.army.mil/el/wetlands/natdoc.html;
Order Nos.: WRP-DE-9; NTIS No. ADA3071214.

Abstract
A product of the Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Wetlands Functional Assessment Program, this document provides the procedural framework for applying the HGM methodology to wetlands. It explains the basis and principals behind the HGM method, describes the HGM wetlands classification system, and gives examples of assessment. It is available to State Departments of Transportation. Other products are being developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with continued FHWA support, such as regional wetland reference models. See also these products: "Regional Procedures and Scientific Models to Assess Functions of Wetlands" and "A Guidebook for Application of Hydrogeomorphic Assessments to Riverine Wetlands" (both are described in this appendix).

Case Histories of Wetland Restoration and Watershed Planning Strategies Related Highway Projects (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): The Wetlands Initiative, Inc., Chicago, IL
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
The research provides examples of flexible mitigation in the watershed planning context for highway projects. Restoration techniques, administrative processes, institutional relationships through which the restorations were accomplished, and written project case histories will be covered in the final report. The research work was completed in 1998. Publication of the report awaits FHWA review.

Evaluation of Wetland Mitigation Measures (Completed 1992)

Performer(s): Normandeau Assoc., Inc. (New Hampshire)
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-RD-90-083; NTIS No. PB92220607.

Abstract
This report analyzes 17 highway wetland mitigation projects in 14 States, comparing them to natural control wetlands to evaluate the effectiveness of the mitigation to perform wetland functions and values. Field biologists used two functional assessment methods in the field to compare mitigation sites and controls. Conclusions and recommendations for mitigation are included. Volume II: Field Data Sheets, contains WET 2.0 and Hollands-Magee data sheets, as well as plant species lists from sites studied.

A Guidebook for Application of Hydrogeomorphic Assessments to Riverine Wetlands. Report Number WRP-DE-11 (Completed 1995)

Performer(s): U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE )
Sponsor(s): Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Wetlands Assessment Program, COE ; FHWA

To order:
National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161;
Tel: 1-800-553-6847; Fax: 703-605-6900; Email: Orders@NTIS.fedworld.gov;
URL: http://www.NTIS.gov. Full text available online at http://www.wes.army.mil/el/wetlands/natdoc.html.
Order Nos.: WRP-DE-11; NTIS No. ADA308366.

Abstract
A product of the Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Wetlands Functional Assessment Program, this document provides the basic outline and guidance for regionalization of functional assessment models applicable to riverine wetlands under the HGM methodology. It explains the basis and principles behind the HGM method, describes the riverine wetland classes, and gives general functional models for different wetland functions performed by riverine wetlands that should be evaluated under the Section 404 Permit Program. Other products are being developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with continued FHWA support.
A related product in this database is "An Approach for Assessing Wetland Functions Using Hydrogeomorphic Classification, Reference Wetlands, and Functional Indices."

Results of Wetlands Mitigation Associated with Highway Projects (Completed 1995)

Performer(s): FHWA (HEPN-30)
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
This research paper was presented at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Wetlands Symposium held in New Orleans, Louisiana, in April 1995. It analyzes data on wetland mitigation projects carried out for highway projects, collected as part of an FHWA research project, Evaluation of Wetland Mitigation Measures, FHWA-RD-90-083, dated May 1992. The paper evaluates the results of mitigation projects on a no-net-loss basis, considering ecological and socioeconomic functions and values ascribed to wetlands, through two functional assessment techniques, WET and the Hollands-Magee methodologies. Most projects did not meet no-net-loss criteria when functional equivalency was considered, although they may have resulted in an equal area of wetland being created or established. Some projects resulted in the conversion of one wetland type to another, resulting in a net loss of wetland area. Others resulted in a net gain of wetland area, with a replacement of one type of wetland for another (out-of-kind mitigation). Most decisions regarding selection of a mitigation alternative appear to have been based on the availability of an acceptable mitigation site, local wetland management priorities and objectives, or cost.

U.S. 65 Bypass, Pine Bluff, AR - Wetland and Floodplain Mitigation Plan (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): University of Arkansas
Sponsor(s): Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Dept. (AHTD); FHWA ; University of Arkansas

To order:
Bill Richardson. Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Dept., Environmental Div., P.O. Box 2261, Little Rock, AR 72203-2261;
Tel: 501-569-2281; Fax: 501-565-2009; Email: BLRD186@AHTD.State.ar.us.

Abstract
The proposed bypass, consisting of an 11.6-mile four-lane divided highway will be located on new location parallel to Bayou Bartholomew. Approximately 33 acres of wetlands will be filled and converted to highway embankment, and an additional 2 acres will be cleared and allowed to revert to wetlands. Approximately 175 acres of wetlands will be created or restored, and 200 acres of bottomland hardwoods will be purchased and preserved. Innovative mitigation measures resulted in a cost savings of $12 million in construction costs, and demonstrated that design in harmony with nature does not always cost; sometimes it pays. Research funds listed here were budgeted for 43 acres of Nevins Creek wetlands research and mitigation.

WEThings; Wetland Habitat Indicators for Non-Game Species - Wetland Dependent Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals of New England (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): University of Massachusetts, Environmental Institute
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Available to State highway agencies from FHWA:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.
University of Massachusetts, Bulletin Distribution Center, Draper Hall, Box 32010, Amherst, MA 01003-2010;
Tel: 413-545-2717; Fax: 413-545-5174; URL: http://www.umass.edu/umext/bookstore/;
Order Nos.: TEI-94-1; TEI-94-2.

Abstract
WEThings is a PC-based methodology that analyzes data from wetlands to determine their suitability as habitat for various wetland dependent animals. The method uses an expert system approach based on habitat use models developed from scientific literature and reports on habitat use and requirements of the species of concern. NOTE: The output is a statement concerning habitat suitability for one or more of 59 species occurring in New England. Volume I is a booklet (45 pages), and Volume II consists of 627 looseleaf pages suitable for a binder.

Wetlands and Highways: A Natural Approach (Completed 1993)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Ginny Finch. FHWA , HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-4258; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Ginny.finch@dot.gov;
Order Nos.: FHWA-PD-94-004.

Abstract
Highlights the concept of mitigation banking by providing case study examples of wetland protection and enhancement measures conducted on highway projects nationwide. Contains statistics on wetlands loss since 1780 by State, some solutions, and success stories in mitigation and wetlands banking in a number of States.

Water Quality, Habitat, and Ecosystems

Ongoing Research:

Development and Application of an Ecological Linkage Zone Model as a Method to Identify Highway Design and Mitigation Opportunities for Wildlife Crossings

Performer(s): University of Montana
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
The research will examine the characteristics, location, and mapping of ecological zones for movement of animal populations to identify highway design and mitigation opportunities for wildlife crossings.

Management of the Discharge and Quality of Highway Runoff in Karst Areas to Control Impacts to Ground Water

Performer(s): P.E. LeMoreaux & Assoc., Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Howard Jongedyk. Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center; 6300 Georgetown Pike, HRDI-9, McLean, VA 22101-2296.
Tel: 202-493-3077; Fax: 202-493-3086; Email: Howard.jongedyk@dot.gov.

Abstract
This research will develop practical remedial technology for the improvement of the quality of highway runoff in areas dominated by karst terrain. The study consists of laboratory studies and field applications of pollution control technology.

Watershed Modeling of Gasoline Oxygenates Used in Transportation

Performer(s): University of Colorado, Denver
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov.

Abstract
The research will develop an integrated watershed model that links processes that control the transport and fate of oxygenates methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in the environment.

Completed Research:

Attention Motorists: The Bats Have Landed on Our Bridge (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Public Roads Magazine
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Judy Dakin. FHWA/Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101-2296.
Tel: 202-493-3192; Email: judy.dakin@dot.gov
Order No.: Public Roads Magazine (Winter, vol. 59, no. 3)
URL: Full text available online at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/96winter/index.cfm.

Abstract
This magazine article written by Paul Garrett (FHWA) tells about the well publicized population of Mexican freetail bats that roost between beams under the Congress Avenue Bridge in Austin, TX. It also discusses aspects of bat ecology, their status as endangered and declining species worldwide, and a program established by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to enhance highway structures as bat habitat. The TxDOT is conducting continuous studies on the bridge and its bat population.

Emerging Issues in Transportation and Water Quality (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) at N.C. State University
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Patricia Cazenas. FHWA , HEPN-30, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-4085; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Patricia.cazenas@dot.gov.

Abstract
This teleconference was targeted at State transportation environmental officials and other transportation and environmental agency employees who are interested in seeing examples of cooperative efforts in the transportation/water quality issues. The conference began with overviews of water quality issues from representatives of the FHWA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These overviews were followed by two case studies. Representatives from Pennsylvania's transportation and environmental agencies addressed ways in which they worked together to come up with successful strategies for performing bridge maintenance while protecting water quality. Representatives from Oregon's transportation and environmental agencies discussed their attempts to work together to modify the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit process to apply on a watershed basis rather than a population basis. The broadcast was held May 23, 1995, from the Center for Transportation and the Environment at North Carolina State University.

Evaluation and Management of Highway Runoff Water Quality (Water Quality Synthesis) (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): GKY & Assoc., Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA ; GKY & Assoc., Inc.

To order:
Fred G. Bank. FHWA , HEPN-30, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-5004; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Fred.bank@dot.gov;
Order No.: FHWA-PD-96-032.

Abstract
This research produced a manual that combines the results of past research on highway runoff and water resources. The single-volume manual is useful to highway designers and environmental professionals because it presents the available and appropriate impact prediction and mitigation tools for use during highway project planning and development activities. This manual is a self-contained desk reference for highway practitioners and includes an extensive bibliography.

National Evaluation of Water Quality Issues for Highway Planning (Completed 1995)

Performer(s): Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Sponsor(s): FHWA ; TRB

To order:
Fred G. Bank. FHWA, HEPN-30, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-5004; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Fred.bank@dot.gov.

Abstract
Results of past research on highway stormwater runoff are gathered and synthesized into a single-volume user's manual on water quality impact assessment and mitigation. The paper describes the process by which the synthesis was produced and highlights some preliminary results.

Noxious Weed Database (Completed 1997)

Performer(s): U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE ), Waterways Experiment Station
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Alfred F. Confrancesco, Jr. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station,
3909 Hall Ferry Rd., Vicksburg, MS 39180;
Tel: 601-634-3182; Fax: 601-634-2398; Email: confrana@ex1.wes.army.mil.

Abstract
The CD-ROM contains a searchable database of a national list of noxious weed species that are important considerations in roadside vegetation management programs. The CD-ROM-based application can be used to gain background information on species identification, management, and control strategies. The CD-ROM is the part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Plant Management Information System (PMIS).

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): Florida Dept. of Transportation (FDOT)
Sponsor(s): FHWA; FDOT; Forest Service (FS), U.S. Department of Agriculture

To order:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772 x332; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov;
Order No.: HEPN-3017-99(1M)EW.

Abstract
Held February 10-12, 1998, in Ft. Myers, Florida. This project effort was to sponsor the second of three international conferences on the effects of highways on wildlife mortality and habitat function. Support was for the conference and publishing the subsequent proceedings. The proceedings are considered a state-of-the-art reference on highway/wildlife research and associated impact mitigation techniques. The first conference was held April 30 to May 2, 1996, in Orlando, Florida.

Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation (ICOWET) (Completed 1999)

Performer(s): Florida Dept. of Transportation (FDOT)
Sponsor(s): FHWA; FDOT; Montana Dept. of Transportation (MDOT); Forest Service (FS), U.S. Department of Agriculture

To order:
URL: Full text is available at http://www.dot.state.fl.us/emo/sched/ICOWET_III.htm.

Abstract
Held September 13 - 16, 1999 in Missoula, Montana. The third of a series of international conferences, it documents the most current research addressing the impacts of surface transportation on wildlife mortality, habitat function, and mitigation methods. The proceedings include 41 papers. The first conference was held April 30 - May 2, 1996 in Orlando, Florida. The second one was held February 10 - 12, 1998, in Ft. Myers, Florida.

Texas Aquifer Study Offers Clues to Controlling Highway Runoff (Completed 1994)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA); FHWA

To order:
Ginny Finch. FHWA, HEPN-1, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-4258; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Ginny.finch@dot.gov.

Abstract
This article, which appeared in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's newsletter "Watershed Events," describes a stormwater runoff and water quality study conducted by University of Texas water quality researchers and funded by the Texas Department of Transportation. The study examines runoff pollutants under simulated rainfall conditions in the 'sole source' Edwards aquifer, the only underground source for Austin's drinking water. The results of this research can be used to formulate monitoring and mitigation strategies for potential highway impact on the Edwards aquifer in the Austin/San Antonio region. Water quality experts across the nation have access to a state-of-the-art watershed computer model, which can predict both the type and amount of contaminants for a site-specific location.

Transportation and Wildlife: Reducing Wildlife Mortality and Improving Wildlife Passageways Across Transportation Corridors (Proceedings of the Florida Department of Transportation/FHWA Transportation-Related Wildlife Mortality Seminar) (Completed 1996)

Performer(s): Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Paul Garrett. FHWA, 555 Zang St., Room 400, Lakewood, CO 80228;
Tel: 303-969-5772; Fax: 303-969-6727; Email: Paul.garrett@dot.gov;
Order No.: FHWA-PD-96-041.

Abstract
Held April 30 to May 2, 1996, in Orlando, Florida. This project effort was to sponsor the first of three international conferences on the effects of highways on wildlife mortality and habitat function. Support was for the conference and publishing the subsequent proceedings. The proceedings are considered a state-of-the-art reference on highway/wildlife research and associated impact mitigation techniques.

Ultra-Urban Best Management Practice Assessment and Analysis of Highway Stormwater Runoff (original title); Stormwater Best Management Practices in an Ultra-Urban Setting: Selection and Monitoring (new title) (Completed 1999)

Performer(s): Hagler Bailly Services, Inc. and Tetra-Tech, Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

For more information:
Patricia Cazenas. FHWA, HEPN-30, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-4085; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Patricia.cazenas@dot.gov.

Abstract
The research will compile available literature on ultra-urban best management practices (BMPs) and develop a searchable database on runoff pollution reduction methods suited to limited space application. Included with the database will be a BMP selection criteria and decision support system and appropriate monitoring design and implementation recommendations.

Use of Native Plants on Roadsides (Completed 1998)

Performer(s): Versar, Inc.
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Bonnie Harper-Lore. FHWA, 500 Galtier Plaza, 175 Fifth St. East, St. Paul, MN 55101;
Tel: 612-291-6104; Fax: 612-291-6000; Email: Bonnie.harper-lore@dot.gov.

Abstract
Reference material and background information was gathered for this handbook, such as native-region maps for each State, species information, and botanical contact lists.

Water Quality Research Needs in Transportation (Completed 1993)

Performer(s): FHWA
Sponsor(s): FHWA

To order:
Fred G. Bank. FHWA, HEPN-30, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 20590;
Tel: 202-366-5004; Fax: 202-366-3409; Email: Fred.bank@dot.gov.

Abstract
This paper highlights a multiyear program of research envisioned by the FHWA to continue the study of water quality associated with highway stormwater runoff. The paper lists proposed studies to examine runoff constituents, monitoring equipment, best management practices, effects on receiving waters, and area-wide impact assessment. It was presented before the Transportation Research Board Committee on Hydraulics, Hydrology, and Water Quality.

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