U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Original Signed by:April Marchese
Director, Office of Natural Environment
Federal Lands Highway Division Engineers
Date: December 6, 2012
Reply to: HEPN-10
The purpose of this memorandum is to update the September 2009 interim guidance that advised Federal Highway (FHWA) Division offices on when and how to analyze Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSAT) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review process for highway projects.
This update reflects recent changes in methodology for conducting emissions analysis and updates of research in the MSAT arena. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the latest emission model, the Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) in 2010, and started a 2-year grace period to phase in the requirement of using MOVES for transportation conformity analysis. On February 8, 2011, EPA issued guidance on Using the MOVES and Emission FACtors (EMFAC) Models in NEPA Evaluation that recommended the same grace period be applied to project-level emissions analysis for NEPA purposes. At the end of this grace period, i.e. beginning December 20, 2012, project sponsors should use MOVES to conduct emissions analysis for NEPA purposes. To prepare for this transition, FHWA is updating the September 2009 Interim Guidance to incorporate the analysis conducted using MOVES. Based on FHWA's analysis using MOVES2010b, the latest version of MOVES, diesel particulate matter (diesel PM) has become the dominant MSAT of concern. We have also provided an update on the status of scientific research on air toxics. The update supersedes the September 2009 Interim Guidance and should be referenced as a whole in NEPA documentation.
Controlling air toxic emissions became a national priority with the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, whereby Congress mandated that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulate 188 air toxics, also known as hazardous air pollutants. The EPA has assessed this expansive list in their latest rule on the Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Mobile Sources (Federal Register, Vol. 72, No. 37, page 8430, February 26, 2007), and identified a group of 93 compounds emitted from mobile sources that are listed in their Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) ( http://www.epa.gov/iris/). In addition, EPA identified seven compounds with significant contributions from mobile sources that are among the national and regional-scale cancer risk drivers from their 1999 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) ( http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/nata1999/). These are acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butidiene, diesel particulate matter plus diesel exhaust organic gases (diesel PM), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and polycyclic organic matter. While FHWA considers these the priority mobile source air toxics, the list is subject to change and may be adjusted in consideration of future EPA rules.The 2007 EPA rule mentioned above requires controls that will dramatically decrease MSAT emissions through cleaner fuels and cleaner engines. According to an FHWA analysis using EPA's MOBILE6.2 model, even if vehicle activity (vehicle-miles travelled, VMT) increases by 145 percent as assumed, a combined reduction of 72 percent in the total annual emission rate for the priority MSAT is projected from 1999 to 2050, as shown in Figure 1.
According to EPA, MOVES improves upon the previous MOBILE model in several key aspects: MOVES is based on a vast amount of in-use vehicle data collected and analyzed since the latest release of MOBILE, including millions of emissions measurements from light-duty vehicles. Analysis of this data enhanced EPA's understanding of how mobile sources contribute to emissions inventories and the relative effectiveness of various control strategies. In addition, MOVES accounts for the significant effects that vehicle speed and temperature have on PM emissions estimates, whereas MOBILE did not. MOVES2010b includes all air toxic pollutants in NATA that are emitted by mobile sources. EPA has incorporated more recent data into MOVES2010b to update and enhance the quality of MSAT emission estimates. These data reflect advanced emission control technology and modern fuels, plus additional data for older technology vehicles.
Based on an FHWA analysis using EPA's MOVES2010b model, as shown in Figure 1, even if vehicle-miles travelled (VMT) increases by 102 percent as assumed from 2010 to 2050, a combined reduction of 83 percent in the total annual emissions for the priority MSAT is projected for the same time period.
Note: Trends for specific locations may be different, depending on locally derived information representing vehicle-miles travelled, vehicle speeds, vehicle mix, fuels, emission control programs, meteorology, and other factors
Source: EPA MOVES2010b model runs conducted during May - June 2012 by FHWA.
The implications of MOVES on MSAT emissions estimates compared to MOBILE are: lower estimates of total MSAT emissions; significantly lower benzene emissions; significantly higher diesel PM emissions, especially for lower speeds. Consequently, diesel PM is projected to be the dominant component of the emissions total.
Air toxics analysis is a continuing area of research. While much work has been done to assess the overall health risk of air toxics, many questions remain unanswered. In particular, the tools and techniques for assessing project-specific health outcomes as a result of lifetime MSAT exposure remain limited. These limitations impede the ability to evaluate how potential public health risks posed by MSAT exposure should be factored into project-level decision-making within the context of NEPA.
Nonetheless, air toxics concerns continue to be raised on highway projects during the NEPA process. Even as the science emerges, we are duly expected by the public and other agencies to address MSAT impacts in our environmental documents. The FHWA, EPA, the Health Effects Institute, and others have funded and conducted research studies to try to more clearly define potential risks from MSAT emissions associated with highway projects. The FHWA will continue to monitor the developing research in this field.
The NEPA requires, to the fullest extent possible, that the policies, regulations, and laws of the Federal Government be interpreted and administered in accordance with its environmental protection goals. The NEPA also requires Federal agencies to use an interdisciplinary approach in planning and decision-making for any action that adversely impacts the environment. The NEPA requires and FHWA is committed to the examination and avoidance of potential impacts to the natural and human environment when considering approval of proposed transportation projects. In addition to evaluating the potential environmental effects, we must also take into account the need for safe and efficient transportation in reaching a decision that is in the best overall public interest. The FHWA policies and procedures for implementing NEPA are contained in regulation at 23 CFR Part 771.
The FHWA developed a tiered approach with three categories for analyzing MSAT in NEPA documents, depending on specific project circumstances:
For projects warranting MSAT analysis, the seven priority MSAT should be analyzed.
(1) Projects with No Meaningful Potential MSAT Effects, or Exempt Projects.
The types of projects included in this category are:
For projects that are categorically excluded under 23 CFR 771.117(c), or are exempt from conformity requirements under the Clean Air Act pursuant to 40 CFR 93.126, no analysis or discussion of MSAT is necessary. Documentation sufficient to demonstrate that the project qualifies as a categorical exclusion and/or exempt project will suffice. For other projects with no or negligible traffic impacts, regardless of the class of NEPA environmental document, no MSAT analysis is recommended.1 However, the project record should document the basis for the determination of "no meaningful potential impacts" with a brief description of the factors considered. Example language, which must be modified to correspond with local and project-specific circumstances, is provided in Appendix A.
(2) Projects with Low Potential MSAT Effects
The types of projects included in this category are those that serve to improve operations of highway, transit, or freight without adding substantial new capacity or without creating a facility that is likely to meaningfully increase MSAT emissions. This category covers a broad range of projects.
We anticipate that most highway projects that need an MSAT assessment will fall into this category. Any projects not meeting the criteria in category (1) or category (3) below should be included in this category. Examples of these types of projects are minor widening projects; new interchanges, replacing a signalized intersection on a surface street; or projects where design year traffic is projected to be less than 140,000 to 150,000 annual average daily traffic (AADT).
For these projects, a qualitative assessment of emissions projections should be conducted. This qualitative assessment would compare, in narrative form, the expected effect of the project on traffic volumes, vehicle mix, or routing of traffic and the associated changes in MSAT for the project alternatives, including no-build, based on VMT, vehicle mix, and speed. It would also discuss national trend data projecting substantial overall reductions in emissions due to stricter engine and fuel regulations issued by EPA. Because the emission effects of these projects typically are low, we expect there would be no appreciable difference in overall MSAT emissions among the various alternatives.
Appendix B includes example language for a qualitative assessment, with specific examples for four types of projects: (1) a minor widening project; (2) a new interchange connecting an existing roadway with a new roadway; (3) a new interchange connecting new roadways; and (4) minor improvements or expansions to intermodal centers or other projects that affect truck traffic. The information provided in Appendix B must be modified to reflect the local and project-specific situation.
In addition to the qualitative assessment, a NEPA document for this category of projects must include a discussion of information that is incomplete or unavailable for a project specific assessment of MSAT impacts, in compliance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 CFR 1502.22(b)). This discussion should explain how current scientific techniques, tools, and data are not sufficient to accurately estimate human health impacts that could result from a transportation project in a way that would be useful to decision-makers. Also in compliance with 40 CFR 150.22(b), it should contain information regarding the health impacts of MSAT. See Appendix C.
(3) Projects with Higher Potential MSAT Effects
This category includes projects that have the potential for meaningful differences in MSAT emissions among project alternatives. We expect a limited number of projects to meet this two-pronged test. To fall into this category, a project should:
Projects falling within this category should be more rigorously assessed for impacts. If a project falls within this category, you should contact the Office of Natural Environment (HEPN) and the Office of Project Development and Environmental Review (HEPE) in FHWA Headquarters for assistance in developing a specific approach for assessing impacts. This approach would include a quantitative analysis to forecast local-specific emission trends of the priority MSAT for each alternative, to use as a basis of comparison. This analysis also may address the potential for cumulative impacts, where appropriate, based on local conditions. How and when cumulative impacts should be considered would be addressed as part of the assistance outlined above. The NEPA document for this project should also include relevant language on unavailable information described in Appendix C.
If the analysis for a project in this category indicates meaningful differences in levels of MSAT emissions among alternatives, mitigation options should be identified and considered. See Appendix E for information on mitigation strategies.
You should also consult with HEPN and HEPE if you have a project that does not fall within any of the types of projects listed above, but you think has the potential to substantially increase future MSAT emissions.
What we know about mobile source air toxics is still evolving. As the science progresses FHWA will continue to revise and update this guidance. FHWA is working with Stakeholders, EPA and others to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of developing analysis tools and the applicability on the project level decision documentation process. FHWA wanted to make project sponsors aware of the implications of the transition to the MOVES model and that we will be issuing updates to this interim guidance when necessary. Additional background information on MSAT-related research is provided in Appendix D.
The FHWA Headquarters and Resource Center staff Victoria Martinez (787) 766-5600 X231, Bruce Bender (202) 366-2851, and Michael Claggett (505) 820-2047, are available to provide information and technical assistance, support any necessary analysis, and limit project delays. All MSAT analysis beginning on or after December 20, 2012, should use the MOVES model. Any MSAT analysis initiated prior to that date may continue to operate under the previous guidance and utilize MOBILE6.2. We are available to answer questions from project sponsors as we transition to MOVES.
Appendix A - Prototype Language for Exempt Projects
Appendix B - Prototype Language for Qualitative Project Level MSAT Analysis
Appendix C - The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Provisions Covering Incomplete or Unavailable Information (40 CFR 1502.22) including a discussion of unavailable information for project-specific MSAT Health Impacts Analysis
Appendix D - FHWA Sponsored Mobile Source Air Toxics Research Efforts
Appendix E - MSAT Mitigation Strategies
1 The types of projects categorically excluded under 23 CFR 771.117(d) or exempt from certain conformity requirements under 40 CFR 93.127 does not warrant an automatic exemption from an MSAT analysis, but they usually will have no meaningful impact.
2 Using EPA's MOVES2010b emissions model, FHWA staff determined that this range of AADT would result in emissions significantly lower than the Clean Air Act definition of a major hazardous air pollutant (HAP) source, i.e., 25 tons/yr. for all HAPs or 10 tons/yr. for any single HAP. Variations in conditions such as congestion or vehicle mix could warrant a different range for AADT; if this range does not seem appropriate for your project, please consult with the contacts from HEPN and HEPE identified in this memorandum.