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FHWA and EPA National Near-Road Study - Detroit

Table of Contents

Table of Figures

Figure 1. Map of Detroit Monitoring Sites

Figure 2. Flow Diagram - Data Management.

Figure 3. Average Hourly Traffic Volume at I-96 Site from Sept. 29, 2010 through June 20, 2011

Figure 4. Wind Roses from the station 300 m east of I-15 from Sept., 2010 through June., 2011 separated by time of day

Figure 5 Average concentrations of NO, NO2 and NOx measured at all four monitoring stations indicating long-term trends in concentration gradients for each pollutant (a) Detroit (b) Las Vegas - (source FHWA and EPA National Near-Road Study Las Vegas Final Report).

Figure 6 Polar plot for NO2 for all stations, all wind directions.

Figure 7 Average concentrations of NO, NO2, and NOx measured at all four monitoring stations indicating long-term trends in concentration gradients for each pollutant- winds from south

Figure 8 Average CO concentrations - winds from all wind directions.

Figure 9. Average CO Concentrations -- winds from south

Figure 10 Box-Whisker Plot for PM2.5 for all stations, all sample times, all wind directions.

Figure 11. Illustration of Monitoring Site Locations

Figure 12. Overview map of Detroit.

Figure 13. Wind roses for Detroit Area

Figure 14. Photos of Site E

Figure 15a. Decision Force Field - Equal Weight Factors. (b). Decision Force Field - Unequal Weight Factors. Source: Adapted from D. Vallero and C. Brasier. (2008). Sustainable Design: The Science of Sustainability and Green Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ

Figure 16. Hourly Average Traffic Volume and Average Speed -- I-96.

Figure 17. Average Hourly Traffic Volume by Month at I-96 Site.

Figure 18. Average Daily Traffic Volume by Day-of-Week at I-96 Site.

Figure 19. Box-Whisker Plot -- average hourly traffic volume by weekday and weekend.

Figure 20. Box-Whisker Plot -- average hourly traffic volume by season

Figure 21. Box-Whisker Plot Mean CO Concentration by Site (all wind directions).

Figure 22. Box-Whisker Plot Mean CO Concentration by Site (winds from road)

Figure 23. Mean CO Concentration by Hour: all stations (winds from road).

Figure 24. Mean CO Concentration and Traffic Volume by Hour: all stations (winds from road)..

Figure 25. Mean NO2, CO, BC Normalized Concentrations - all wind conditions

Figure 26. Mean NO2, CO, BC Normalized Concentrations - winds from road (downwind)

Figure 27. Box-Whisker Plot for NO by Station (all wind directions).

Figure 28. Box-Whisker Plot for NO by Station (winds from road)..

Figure 29. Mean NO Concentration by Hour: all stations (winds from road)

Figure 30. Box-Whisker Plot for NO2 by Station (all wind directions).

Figure 31. Box-Whisker Plot for NO2 by Station (winds from road).

Figure 32. Mean NO2 Concentration by Hour: all stations (winds from road)

Figure 33. Box-Whisker Plot for NOX by Station (all wind directions).

Figure 34. Box-Whisker Plot for NOX by Station (winds from road).

Figure 35. Mean NOX Concentration by Hour: all stations (winds from road)

Figure 36 Polar plot for CO for all stations and all wind conditions- units = ppm.

Figure 37 Polar plot for NO, NO2 and NOX for all stations and all wind conditions- units = ppb

Figure 38. Average black carbon concentrations as a function of distance from the road for all data and during time periods with wind from the South (120-240 degrees)

Figure 39. Box-Whisker Plot for BC by Station (all wind directions).

Figure 40. Box-Whisker Plot for Hourly BC by Station (winds from road).

Figure 41. Mean BC Concentration by Hour: all stations (winds from road).

Figure 42 Box-Whisker Plots for PM10, PM2.5 and PM Coarse for all stations; all wind directions and winds from road

Figure 43 Box-Whisker Plot for 1,3-Butadiene all stations, all sample times, all wind directions

Figure 44 Box-Whisker Plot for 1,3-Butadiene all stations, all sample times, downwind conditions

Figure 45 Box-Whisker Plot for Acrolein all stations, all sample times, all wind directions

Figure 46 Box-Whisker Plot for Acrolein all stations, all sample times, downwind conditions

Figure 47 Box-Whisker Plot for Benzene all stations, all sample times, all wind directions

Figure 48 Box-Whisker Plot for Benzene all stations, all sample times, downwind conditions

Figure 49 Box-Whisker Plot for Acetaldehyde all stations, all sample times, all wind directions

Figure 50 Box-Whisker Plot for Acetaldehyde all stations, all sample times, downwind conditions.

Figure 51 Box-Whisker Plot for Formaldehyde all stations, all sample times, all wind directions.

Figure 52 Box-Whisker Plot for Formaldehyde all stations, all sample times, downwind conditions

Figure 53 Box-Whisker Plot for Acrolein all stations, all sample times, all wind directions

Figure 54 Box-Whisker Plot for Acrolein all stations, all sample times, downwind conditions.

Figure 55 Mean carbonyl and VOC concentration gradients-normalized to Station 1 for each pollutant: all sites and all wind conditions. Normalized means for each site shown in Figures 55 and 56 were calculated as follows: VPS/VPs1; where V = average value, p = pollutant, s = site, s1 = site 1

Figure 56 Mean carbonyl and VOC concentration gradients-normalized to Station 1 for each pollutant: all sites for downwind conditions (winds from south). Normalized means for each site shown in Figures 55 and 56 were calculated as follows: VPS/VPs1; where V = average value, p = pollutant, s = site, s1 = site 1

Figure 57 Box-Whisker Plot for PM2.5 for all stations, all sample times, all wind directions

Figure 58 Bar chart for PM2.5 (µg/m3) for all stations, all sample times, all wind directions

Figure 59 Time series - CO data for all sites, all wind conditions. Baseline shift is obvious for Site 4 (100 m upwind); uncorrected and corrected data are shown

Figure 60 Image of a rackmount Aethalometer (Image source: mageesci.com)

Figure 61 Time alignment of analog (blue) and digital (green) data sets

Figure 62 Assessment for negatives occurring in the original data (blue) and hourly averaged data (green) for station 2 during the Las Vegas, NV near-road monitoring study

Figure 63 Histogram of differences in consecutive BC concentrations (∆BCt+1-t) calculated at station 1 over data collected during January through April, 2009. The red line is a normal distribution fitted to the data.

Figure 64 Box and whisker plots of approximately 12 months of 5-minute BC measurements at station 2 aggregated by attenuation bin in one-unit intervals

Figure 65 Median BC values of approximately 12 months of 5-minute BC measurements at station 2 aggregated by attenuation bin in one-unit intervals. A linear fit is applied to the data.

Figure 66 Example of filter-loading corrected versus original data (top) and filter loading attenuation (bottom). At low ATN values, original and k-corrected lines show little difference, while k-corrected BC values are higher than the original at higher ATN values

Figure 67 Average black carbon concentrations as a function of distance from the road for all data and during time periods with wind from the South (120-240 degrees).

Table of Tables

Table 1. Summary of Measurements Conducted at Each Monitoring Site.

Table 2. VOC -- averages for all wind directions (09/29/2010-06/15/2011)

Table 3. Carbonyl -- averages for all wind directions (09/29/2010-06/15/2011)

Table 4. PM2.5 Filters -- averages for all wind directions (09/29/2010-06/15/2011)

Table 5. Summary of Protocol Measurement Parameters, Sampling Approach and Instruments.

Table 6. All Sites Considered for Detroit Site Selection.

Table 7. Data Inputs for Detroit Site Selection Process

Table 8. Summary of Measurement Parameters, Sampling Approach, Instruments, and DQI Goals for Project.

Table 9. Summary of Detroit Data Types, Pollutants, Methods and Sample Types and Frequency

Table 10. Data-related deliverables

Table 11. Summary of Data Completeness across by Site for Major Parameters

Table 12. Long-term averages at near-road monitoring stations for NO, NO2, NOx, and CO - all wind directions.

Table 13. Long-term averages a near-road monitoring stations for NO, NO2, NOx, and CO - winds from the South

Table 14. BC averages for all data (09/29/2010-06/15/2011)

Table 15. BC averages, wind from the West (09/29/2010-06/15/2011)

Table 16. PM10, PM2.5 and PM Coarse averages for all wind directions (09/29/2010-06/15/2011).

Table 17. PM10, PM2.5 and PM Coarse averages for winds from road (09/29/2010-06/15/2011).

Table 18. VOC -- averages for all wind directions (09/29/2010-06/15/2011).

Table 19. Carbonyl -- averages for all wind directions (09/29/2010-06/15/2011).

Table 20. PM2.5 Filters -- averages for all wind directions (09/29/2010-06/15/2011)

Table 21. Completeness of hourly BC data at each site6

Table 22. BC averages for all data (09/29/2010-06/15/2011

Table 23. BC averages, wind from the West (09/29/2010-06/20/2011)

Updated: 05/29/2014
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