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Costs and Emissions Impacts of CMAQ Project Types

Prepared for: US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Policy

Prepared by: Hagler Bailly, Inc

9/15/99


Summary Review of Costs and Emissions Information for 24 Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Projects

Table of Contents

Overview of Report

This report on the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) builds on the extensive program-wide set of CMAQ project data gathered by FHWA. 1 It also expands on work by USEPA on the costs and air quality impacts of the CMAQ program. 2

The purpose of the report is to determine, for each of a set of 24 individual CMAQ projects, the total annual costs (i.e., CMAQ and non-CMAQ funds), estimated annual emissions reductions, and actual project lifetimes. The projects reviewed are listed in Table One. The projects selected for review, to the extent feasible within the limits of this study, represent the geographic diversity of the CMAQ program and the types of transportation projects that are eligible for CMAQ funding. 3

The review findings are presented in the following sections of Chapter 1, while Chapter 2 of the report draws conclusions based on the report findings. Appendix A provides an assessment of project cost effectiveness for two sample projects, and Appendix B provides detailed information about individual project emissions estimates.

A Note on Calculating Emission Reduction and Other Benefits of CMAQ Projects: The benefits of the CMAQ program, and particularly projects that promote alternatives to drive alone travel, extend beyond emissions reductions and congestion relief. Many CMAQ projects have ancillary benefits that support other policy initiatives, such as energy conservation, support for welfare to work programs, economic development, and community livability initiatives. This contrasts with other emission control strategies, such as smokestack scrubbers, that generate only air quality benefits.

An accurate estimate of CMAQ project emissions reduction cost effectiveness should reflect these ancillary benefits; however, program-wide data is at present insufficient to accurately apportion costs between ancillary benefits. Thus, in this report, no assessment is provided of the cost effectiveness of individual projects in terms of air pollutant reductions. A short appendix (Appendix A) to the report; however, provides a discussion of non emissions reduction benefits associated with two of the projects reviewed in this study and an allocation of costs to each ancillary benefit generated by the project allows representative cost-effectiveness ratios to be calculated.

Overview of the CMAQ Program

The CMAQ program was established under ISTEA as a funding source for transportation projects and programs that help support the goals of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. CMAQ funding is apportioned to states based on a legislative formula that takes into account population in areas that do not meet air quality standards, and severity of regional air quality problems. States may use CMAQ funds for a variety of transportation-related measures and programs designed to help meet and maintain the national air quality standards for carbon monoxide and ozone, and in some cases, small particulate matter (PM-10).

Table One: CMAQ Projects Studied
Category Project Name State
Shared Ride Commuter Assistance Program CA
Glendale Parking Management Program CA
University Rideshare Program GA
Park-n-Ride Facility MD
Regional Vanpool Program TX
Bike/Ped  City of Philadelphia Bicycle Network Plan PA
Suburban Bike Rack Incentive Program IL
Traffic Flow Arterial Street Signal Interconnect PA
Signal Systemization Project along MD 2 MD
Incident Management Program/ATMS GA
Signal Interconnection Project IL
Extension of HOV Lanes CT
Transit Lake Cook Shuttle Bug IL
Houston Transit Subsidy TX
Light Rail Vehicles MD
University City/30th Street Circulator PA
Commuter Rail Coaches MD
MARTA Intelligent Transportation System GA
MARTA Transit Incentives GA
TDM Long Island TDM Program NY
IEPA Public Education & Outreach IL
Atlanta Region TMAs GA
Other Fairfax Co. Alternative Fuel Vehicles Program VA
Alternative Fuels Refueling Station GA

CMAQ project selection decisions are made at the state and local level, but are subject to broad Federal guidelines on project eligibility. For purposes of tracking states' CMAQ spending, projects are classified in by the following categories: 4

CMAQ Project Review Findings

The following sections describe the projects reviewed in each of the six CMAQ project funding categories considered as part of this analysis, which include shared ride services, pedestrian/bicycle, traffic flow, transit, Transportation Demand Management, and other projects. For each category, a table that summarizes quantitative findings is presented, accompanied by a brief commentary on findings.

Notes on Presentation of Data:

Shared Ride Projects

Five CMAQ-funded shared ride projects were reviewed for this analysis. Findings are summarized in Table Two. Projects examined include:

The shared ride project category contains a diversity of projects. For example, capital projects, like the Maryland park and ride lot expansion, generate long-term air quality and other benefits. Other projects, such as the Commuter Assistance Program, fund annual operating costs, like staff time or incentives, and require annual funding to maintain benefits.

Project Lifetime: The lifetimes of the shared-ride projects reviewed vary from one to thirty years. Three of the five shared ride projects have a one-year life span that is clearly defined by annually recurring operating costs, such as staff salaries or leasing arrangements. The anticipated lifetimes of the two multi-year projects studied are based on general assumptions about anticipated lifetime.

Project Costs: Annualized project costs range in magnitude from $16,125 to $1,699,709. The non-CMAQ share of project funding varies from 20 percent to 69 percent.

Project Emissions Reductions: Annual VOC emission reductions associated with each project range from 0.25 tons to 30.0 tons. Annual NOx emission reductions associated with each project range from 1.0 tons to 62.0 tons. Appendix B contains detailed descriptions of the methodologies used to estimate emissions reductions.

Other Benefits: In addition to providing air quality benefits, shared ride projects also help reduce congestion and save energy. To the extent that they help reduce vehicle travel, they relieve pressure for highway capacity enhancements, and they support a broad array of environmental goals that are directly linked to reduced vehicle travel, such as stormwater quality.

Lessons learned from Review of Emissions Methodologies:

Table Two: Shared Ride Projects
Project Name Annual Project Cost 6 Annual Emissions Reduction
(Tons and Year of Estimate) 7
Commuter Assistance Program, CA

Project Life: 1 year
CMAQ  $241,250
Non-CMAQ $176,193
Total $417,443
VOC 2.64 (FY 95/96)
NOx 2.64 (FY 95/96)
CO 22.82 (FY 95/96)
PM10 1.77 (FY 95/96)
Glendale Transportation Management
Association (TMA) Parking Management
Program, CA

Project Life: 1 year
CMAQ  $54,500
Non-CMAQ $50,000
Total $104,500
ROG 4.43 (1995)
NOx 5.04 (1995)
CO 38.94 (1995)
PM10 3.04 (1995)
University Rideshare Program, GA

Project Life: 10 years 8
CMAQ  $85,427
Non-CMAQ $21,357
Total $106,783
VOC 4.00 (2005)
NOx 4.00 (2005)
Park-n-Ride Facility, MD

Project Life: 30 years
CMAQ  NA
Non-CMAQ NA
Total $16,125
VOC 0.25 (1999)
NOx 1.00 (1999)
Regional Vanpool Program, TX

Project Life: 1 year
CMAQ  $528,945
Non-CMAQ  $1,170,764
Total $1,699,709
VOC 30.00 (1997/8) 9
NOx 62.00 (1997/8) 10

National median emissions reduction: 11

VOC 1.37 tons/yr.
NOx 1.92 tons/yr

Two CMAQ-funded bicycle and pedestrian projects were reviewed in this analysis. Findings are summarized in Table Three. Projects examined include:

In addition to air quality improvements associated with these projects, a range of other benefits are also generated, such as improved quality of life, reduced congestion, and energy savings. The projects in this analysis are thought to be typical of bicycle and pedestrian projects, which are likely to be one-time, capital investments that generate multi-year benefits.

Project Lifetime: A 30-year lifetime is estimated for both of the bicycle/pedestrian projects studied. These estimates are derived from standard transportation planning and engineering assumptions about the lifetime of bicycle facility improvements.

Project Costs: Annualized pedestrian and bicycle project costs in the study range from $26,594 for a site-specific capital improvement, to $298,170 for a coordinated region-wide bicycle planning initiative. The non-CMAQ share of project funding ranges from 20 percent to 45 percent.

Project Emissions Reductions: Annual VOC emission reductions associated with each project range from 0.26 tons to 7.48 tons. Annual NOx emission reductions are calculated for only one project at 6.41 tons per year. Appendix B contains detailed descriptions of the methodologies used to estimate emissions reductions.

Other Benefits: In addition to providing air quality benefits, bicycle and pedestrian projects also help reduce congestion and save energy. To the extent that they help reduce vehicle travel, they also relieve pressure for highway capacity enhancements, and they support a broad array of environmental goals that are directly linked to increased vehicle travel, such as stormwater quality. Bicycle and pedestrian projects may also support enhanced community quality of life.

Lessons learned from Review of Emissions Methodologies:

Table Three: Bicycle and Pedestrian Projects
Project Name Annual Project Cost 12 Annual Emissions Reduction
(Tons and Year) 13
City of Philadelphia
Bicycle Network Plan, PA

Project Life: 30 years 14
CMAQ:  $238,536
Non-CMAQ: $59,634
Total: $298,170
VOC: 7.48 (1994)
NOx: 6.41 (1994)
Frankfort-Suburban Bike Rack
Incentive Program, IL

Project Life: 30 years
CMAQ:  $14,506
Non-CMAQ: $12,088
Total: $26,594
VOC: 0.26 (Average over
life of project) 15

National median emissions reduction: 16

VOC 0.27 tons
NOx 0.27 tons

Traffic Flow Projects

Five CMAQ-funded traffic flow projects were reviewed in this analysis. Findings are summarized in Table Four. Projects analyzed included:

The projects studied are all identified as long lasting. The actual lifetime of these benefits, however, is uncertain. In addition to air quality improvements associated with these projects, they also help to ease congestion.

Project Lifetime: Lifetimes for the projects reviewed range from 10 to 20 years. These estimates are derived from standard transportation planning/engineering assumptions about the lifetime of traffic flow improvements and highway facilities.

Project Costs: Annualized traffic flow project costs in the study range from $31,979 for an arterial signal interconnect project in Illinois; to $1,435,894 for extension of HOV lanes in Hartford, Connecticut. The non-CMAQ share of project funding for each project reviewed ranges from 20 to 25 percent of total costs.

Project Emissions Reductions: Annual VOC emission reductions associated with each project range from 3 tons to 3,000 tons. Annual NOx emission reductions associated with each project range from 0.25 tons to 1,000 tons. Appendix B contains detailed descriptions of the methodologies used to estimate emissions reductions.

Other Benefits: In addition to providing air quality benefits, traffic flow projects also help reduce congestion and save energy. To the extent that they help improve vehicle traffic flow, they also relieve pressure for highway capacity enhancements.

Lessons learned from Review of Emissions Methodologies:

Table Four: Traffic Flow Projects
Project Name Annual Project Cost 17 Annual Emissions Reduction
(Tons and Year) 18
Arterial Street Signal Interconnect,
Philadelphia, PA

Project Life: 10 years
CMAQ: $171,227
Non CMAQ: $42,807
Total: $214,033
VOC: 19.00 (1994)
NOx: 2.09 (1994)
Signal Systemization Project
along MD 2, MD

Project Life: 12 years
CMAQ $5,036
Non-CMAQ $1,259
Total $6,295
VOC: 2.92 (2005)
Incident Management Program/ATMS, GA 19

Project Life: 10 years 20
CMAQ $673,047
Non-CMAQ $168,262
Total $841,309
VOC: 165.00 (2010)
NOx: 158.00 (2010)
Signal Interconnection Project:
Pulaski Rd from Stevenson Expy
to 87th St, IL

Project Lifetime: 20 years
CMAQ $25,558
Non-CMAQ $6,421
Total $31,979
VOC: 7.60 (Average
over life of project) 21
Extension of HOV Lanes on Interstate 84
from East Hartford to Hartford, CT

Project Life: 20 years 22
CMAQ $1,028,883
Non-CMAQ $387,001
Operating  $20,000 23
Total $1,435,894
VOC 3.3
NOx 1.1

National median emissions reduction: 24

VOC 1.65 tons
NOx 0.55 tons

Transit Projects

Seven CMAQ-funded transit projects were reviewed in this analysis. Findings are summarized in Table Five. Projects analyzed include:

As with shared ride CMAQ projects, there is a contrast between transit projects that fund infrastructure improvements, like purchase of transit equipment, that generate long-term benefits, and projects that fund annual operating costs, like leasing of transit vehicles, and which require annual funding to maintain benefits.

Project Lifetime: Lifetimes for the projects studied range from 1 to 30 years. These estimates are derived from standard transportation planning/engineering assumptions about the typical lifetime of transit improvements and highway facilities.

Project Costs: Annualized transit project costs reviewed in the study range from $31,551 for transit-related ITS to $7,236,659 for new commuter rail vehicles. The non-CMAQ share of project funding ranges from 20 to 96 percent of total costs.

Project Emissions Reductions: Annual VOC emission reductions associated with each project range from 1.1 tons to 29.35 tons. Annual NOx emission reductions associated with each project range from 0.8 tons to 93.2 tons. Appendix B contains detailed descriptions of the methodologies used to estimate emissions reductions.

Other Benefits: In addition to providing air quality benefits, transit projects also help reduce congestion and save energy. To the extent that they help improve vehicle traffic volume, they also relieve pressure for highway capacity enhancements. Transit projects can also help to enhance community quality of life by providing transportation choices and enhancing mobility for those without access to a vehicle.

Lessons learned from Review of Emissions Methodologies:

Table Five: Transit Projects
Project Name Annual Project Cost 25 Annual Emissions Reduction
(Tons and Years) 26
Lake Cook Shuttle Bug, IL
Project Life: 1 year
CMAQ $312,000
Non-CMAQ $78,000
Total $390,000
VOC: 6.43 (1998)
Houston Clean Air Action Program/Transit Subsidy, TX
Project Life: 2 years
CMAQ  $2,625,000
Non-CMAQ $875,000
Total $3,500,000
VOC: 29.35 (1996)
NOx: 34.75 (1996)
Light Rail Vehicles, MD
Project Life: 30 years
CMAQ  $2,159,716
Non-CMAQ  $2,804,407
Operating $2,000,000 27
Total $6,964,122
VOC: 6.19 (1998)
NOx: 20.84 (1998)
University City/30th Street Circulator, PA
Project Life: 1 year
CMAQ $272,000
Non-CMAQ $68,000
Total: $340,000
VOC: 1.1 (1994)
NOx: 0.8 (1994)
Commuter Rail Coaches, MD
Project Life: 30 years
CMAQ  $290,111
Non-CMAQ  $6,946,548
Total $7,236,659 28
VOC: 27.78 (1998)
NOx: 93.20 (1998)
MARTA Intelligent Transportation System
Project Life: 10 years 29
CMAQ NA
Non-CMAQ NA
Total $31,551
VOC: 2 (1999)
NOx: 2.25 (1999)
MARTA Transit Incentives
Project Life: 1 year
CMAQ $300,000
Non-CMAQ $75,000
Total $375,000
VOC 16.5 (1999)
NOx 16.75 (1999)

National median: 30

VOC 1.37 tons
NOx 1.92 tons

Transportation Demand Management Projects

Three CMAQ-funded Transportation Demand Management (TDM) projects were reviewed in this analysis. Findings are summarized in Table Six. Projects analyzed include:

Project Lifetime: Lifetimes for the projects studied range from 2 to 12 years. These estimates are derived from general assumptions about the plausible lifetime for non-traditional TDM improvements.

Project Costs: Annualized TDM project costs in the study range from $293,000 to $450,000. The non-CMAQ share of project funding ranges from 20 to 33 percent of total costs.

Project Emissions Reductions: Annual VOC emission reductions associated with each project range from 4.48 tons to 25.56 tons. Annual NOx emission reductions associated with each project range from 6.94 tons to 26.5 tons. Appendix B contains detailed descriptions of the methodologies used to estimate emissions reductions.

Other Benefits: In addition to providing air quality benefits, TDM projects also help reduce congestion and save energy. To the extent that they help improve vehicle traffic volume, they also relieve pressure for highway capacity enhancements.

Lessons learned from Review of Emissions Methodologies:

Table Six: Transportation Demand Management Projects
Project Name Annual Project Cost 31 Annual Emissions Reduction
(Tons and Years) 32
Long Island TDM Program, New York
Project Life: 5 years
CMAQ $300,000
Non-CMAQ $150,000
Total  $450,000
VOC 4.48 (average)
NOx 6.94 (average)
CO 35.39 (average)
IEPA Public Education & Outreach
Project Life: 2 years
CMAQ $234,400
Non CMAQ $58,600
Total  $293,000
VOC 25.56 (1998)
Atlanta Region Transportation Management Associations, GA
Project Life: 12 years 33
CMAQ NA
Non-CMAQ NA
Total  $298,690
VOC 26.25 (2005)
NOx 26.50 (2005)

National median emissions reduction: 34

VOC 7.15 tons
NOx 12.65 tons

Other Projects

Two CMAQ-funded "Other" category projects were reviewed in this analysis. Both projects are alternative fuels-related. Results are summarized in Table Seven:

Project Lifetime: Project lifetimes for projects in this category varied from 5 to 20 years.

Project Costs: Annualized "other" category project costs reviewed vary from $23,598 to $128,140 per project.

Project Emissions Reductions: Annual VOC emissions reductions associated with each project range from 0.02 tons per year to 2.75 tons per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions associated with each project range from 0.02 to 2.0 tons per year.

Other Benefits: NA ("Other" category projects can generate a broad of benefits, depending on the type of project.)

Lessons learned from Review of Emissions Methodologies:

Table Seven: Other Projects
Project Name Annual Project Cost 35 Annual Emissions Reduction
(Tons and Years) 36
Fairfax County Alternative Fuel Vehicles Program, VA
Project Life: 5 years 37
CMAQ NA
Non-CMAQ NA
Total  $128,140
VOC 0.02 (2000)
NOx 0.02 (2000)
Alternative Fuels Refueling Station, GA
Project Life: 20 years 38
CMAQ $18,879
Non-CMAQ $4,720
Total  $23,598
VOC 2.75 (2005)
NOx 2.00 (2005)

National median: 39

VOC 1.10 tons
NOx 0.55 tons

Conclusions and Perspectives

Estimating the Impacts of the CMAQ Program - Limitations of Existing Data

Each year states provide basic quantitative information to FHWA about the costs and estimated emissions reduction benefits associated with CMAQ projects. These reports provide a rich source of data for analysis of the CMAQ program; however, as the results of this more detailed review of specific projects reveal, there are limitations on the usefulness of the data, including: a lack of specification of project lifetimes, little or no indication of non-CMAQ project costs (nor of allocation of project costs to the various objectives served by the project), and uncertainty in emissions estimates. These limitations, and findings from the review of CMAQ projects, are discussed in more detail in the following sections.

Project Lifetime Information

FHWA's CMAQ data does not include information about project lifetimes. The lifetime over which a project remains active determines, in part, the overall benefits attributable to the program. Key conclusions from the review of CMAQ projects are as follows:

Perspective: Collection of project lifetime information from project contacts as part of on-going CMAQ monitoring efforts would assist program evaluation. The development of a set of typical project lifetimes as a reference for CMAQ funding recipients could help to reduce any burden that is imposed by such an additional data requirement.

Project Cost Information

As part of its CMAQ data tracking initiative, FHWA annually collects information from the states on the CMAQ portion of project costs; however, no information is collected about non-CMAQ costs associated with project implementation. The non-CMAQ share of total project costs varies from project to project. Generally, federal funding requirements mandate a local "match" equal to at least 20 percent of total project costs. Key conclusions from this review include:

Perspective: Collection of information about the non-CMAQ share of project cost from project contacts as a part of on-going CMAQ monitoring efforts would assist program evaluation. Some CMAQ projects are intertwined with other state and local programs, however, and adequately defining project boundaries in terms of costs may be challenging.

Emissions Reduction Methodologies

FHWA's project-level emissions reduction estimates from States are not required to be authenticated. Research conducted as part of this study indicates that emission calculation procedures vary from state to state.

Perspective: Better guidance on emissions calculations will improve program evaluations. Simple guidance enhancements might include establishment of procedures for creating lifetime emission estimates for multi-year projects.

Appendix A

Ancillary Benefits of CMAQ Projects - Two Case Studies

The benefits of the CMAQ program, and particularly projects that promote alternatives to drive alone travel, extend beyond contributions to air quality improvements and congestion reduction. Many CMAQ projects provide ancillary benefits that help to support other transportation-related policies, such as energy conservation, welfare to work, economic development, and community livability initiatives. The complexities of evaluating these benefits are beyond the scope of this project, however, the following two examples describe the kinds of benefits that future assessments may address.

Shuttlebug Project - Connecting Commuter Rail to Suburban Employers

Project Lead: Transportation Management Association of Lake-Cook

Project Background: The Shuttlebug was started in 1996 as a CMAQ "demonstration" project that used shuttle buses to connect commuter rail riders with suburban employers. Now in its third year of funding, the project has proven to be a success, with increases in daily ridership necessitating a shift from 15-seat to 26-seat buses, and new routes planned.

Metra, the Chicago region's rail service, has nearly 1.5 million boardings per week. Most of Metra's riders travel to downtown destinations. For those who work in fast growing suburbs like the Lake Cook Road area however, campus style office and industrial parks often require automobile transportation, even in areas served by rail transit. And as travel grows, traffic corridors such as Lake Cook Road are clogging up quickly.

Growing traffic problems have led several employers in the area to form the Transportation Management Association (TMA) of Lake Cook. The TMA's support for innovative solutions to congestion provided the catalyst for establishing a free shuttle that connects a new local Metra station to major employers nearby, like Underwriters Laboratories, Walgreens, and Morgan Stanley Dean Witter. In fact, employer contributions help to make up the local match for the CMAQ grant used to meet the cost of operating shuttles. The Shuttlebug also receives support from Metra.

The Shuttlebug is operated by Pace, Chicago's suburban bus service, and CMAQ funds are used to help cover the cost of operations.40 The Shuttle Bug serves six routes, and a seventh route is planned. The buses offer high frequency, door-to-door service to about half of the 25,000 employees in the area. Target riders include those who commute out of Chicago to jobs in the suburbs, but significant ridership also comes from suburban residents. The air quality benefits of the Shuttle Bug get a boost because many riders have commutes of more than 15 miles one way. Even more importantly, surveys show that 60 percent of those who take the shuttle previously drove to work alone. Daily ridership now stands at about 550 trips.

Qualitative Ancillary Project Benefits:

In addition to the quantified emission reductions, the Shuttlebug project sponsors note a variety of non-quantified ancillary benefits that include the following:

  1. Increased mobility - makes suburban jobs accessible to workers without cars.
  2. Economic development - employers support the service as a means for attracting workers.
  3. Congestion relief - The region affected by the project is experiencing increasing congestion problems.
  4. More efficient use of transit infrastructure - The shuttle is generating ridership on the return leg of the region's commuter rail service that would otherwise be empty, thus reducing operating costs.
  5. Energy efficiency - The service replaces auto trips with a more energy efficient mode of travel.
Project Cost Effectiveness Adjusted for Ancillary Benefits
Annual Cost: $390,000
Annual VOC Reduction: 6.43 tons
Total Number of Benefits: 6
Annual Cost/Benefit: $65,000
Adjusted Cost/Ton Reduced: $10,000 (rounded)

Financial Incentives for Encouraging Ridesharing; Advantage Rideshare Program, Riverside County, California

Project Lead: Riverside County Transportation Commission

Project Background: In Riverside County, California, a suburb of Los Angeles located about six miles north of the city, local officials have created Advantage Rideshare, an innovative financial incentive-based carpool program that helps address the area's traffic problems, caused in part by a regional imbalance of jobs and housing.

As home prices have grown in the region's employment hubs of Orange County and Los Angeles, many workers have opted to live further away in areas like Riverside County and the so-called 'Inland-Empire' is booming with residential development. In fact, one-third of Riverside County commuters travel to workplaces outside the county, causing traffic jams along State Route 91 (SR-91), which provides the only direct access to adjacent counties.

In 1989, Riverside County voters approved "Measure A," which increased the county's sales tax by ½ of 1 percent for 20 years to pay for congestion-related transportation improvements. Advantage Rideshare was begun in 1991, as part of the Measure A initiative and has been operated continuously since.

Advantage Rideshare, is operated by the Riverside County Transportation Commission (RCTS). The program offers a financial incentive to motivate Riverside County residents who currently drive alone to and from work to use alternative modes of transportation. Since the program began the annual budget for the program has been funded from a variety of sources, including CMAQ dollars. The budget covers marketing, administration and the cost of providing financial incentives.

The centerpiece of the program is a subsidy to those who currently drive alone to work and switch to alternative modes who are eligible for $2 in gift certificates - redeemable at a local shopping mall or grocery store - for each day they use another commute mode during their first three months in the program. After six months in the program, participants become eligible for a 'club ride' membership card good for merchant discounts at local area restaurants and business establishments. The Advantage Rideshare program is widely promoted at employers' worksites through customized flyers, rideshare fairs, and presentations to management teams or employees.

A comprehensive tracking study conducted by an RCTS consultant demonstrates the effectiveness of the program - approximately 79 percent of participants continue to rideshare after their first three months and since 1993 over 7,000 commuters have participated in the program. The Advantage Rideshare program was honored by EPA with a 'Way to Go' award in 1996.

Qualitative Ancillary Project Benefits:

In addition to the quantified emission reductions, the Advantage Rideshare project may reasonably be expected to have a variety of non-quantified benefits; these include, but are not limited to, the following:

Project Cost Effectiveness Adjusted for Ancillary Benefits
Annual Cost: $417,443
Annual VOC/NOx Reduction: 2.64 tons
Total Number of Benefits: 5
Annual Cost/Benefit: $83,489
Adjusted Cost/Ton Reduced: $32,000 (rounded)

Endnotes

1 As summarized in Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program, A Summary of Sixth-Year Activities (FY 1997), FHWA, March 1997 (and previous annual versions)

2 A Preliminary Assessment of the CMAQ Program's Contribution towards Meeting Ozone Standards, Apogee Research, Inc. 1997 et al.

3 Inspection and Maintenance projects are not included in this study, as programs are a requirement of the Clean Air Act.

4 As summarized in Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program, A Summary of Sixth-Year Activities (FY 1997), FHWA, March 1997 (and previous annual versions)

5 As reported in Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program, A Summary of Sixth-Year Activities (FY 1997), FHWA, March 1997

6 Multi-year project costs annualized using 7% discount rate.

7 Emissions estimates presented as reported, therefore not all projects have estimates for VOC, NOx, CO and PM10

8 Lifetime estimate calculated based on project description provided by project contact.

9 Based on most recent 12 month calendar time period for which estimates available.

10 Based on most recent 12 month calendar time period for which estimates available.

11 National median taken from "CMAQ, A Summary of Sixth Year Activities (FY 1997)," FHWA, 1999. (Note: All data converted from kg/day to tons/yr, using assumption that projects are effective for 250 days per year)

12 Multi-year project costs annualized using 7% discount rate.

13 Emissions estimates presented as reported, therefore not all projects have estimates for VOC, NOx, CO and PM10

14 Project life estimate based on assumed lifetime of capital improvements described in IL bicycle project.

15 Emissions reduction was estimated on yearly basis for lifetime of project.

16 National median taken from "CMAQ, A Summary of Sixth Year Activities (FY 1997)," FHWA, 1999. (Note: All data converted from kg/day to tons/yr, using assumption that projects are effective for 250 days per year)

17 Multi-year project costs annualized using 7% discount rate.

18 Emissions estimates presented as reported, therefore not all projects have estimates for VOC, NOx, CO and PM10

19 Additional capital and operating costs are acknowledged to be associated with the emissions reduction attributed to this project, however, estimation of these costs was beyond the scope of study.

20 Project lifetime based on estimate of typical lifetime for ITS equipment

21 Emissions reduction was estimated on yearly basis for lifetime of project.

22 Project lifetime based on consultation with state DOT highway staff

23 Annual operating costs based on Hagler Bailly work for Houston-Galveston MPO (assumes $8-10,000/lane mile)

24 National median taken from "CMAQ, A Summary of Sixth Year Activities (FY 1997)," FHWA, 1999. (Note: All data converted from kg/day to tons/yr, using assumption that projects are effective for 250 days per year)

25 Multi-year project costs annualized using 7% discount rate.

26 Emissions estimates presented as reported, therefore not all projects have estimates for VOC, NOx, CO and PM10

27 Operating costs based on National Transit Database information.

28 Operating costs assumed to remain unchanged because new (larger) cars replace existing cars.

29 Project lifetime based on estimate of typical lifetime for ITS equipment.

30 National median taken from "CMAQ, A Summary of Sixth Year Activities (FY 1997)," FHWA, 1999. (Note: All data converted from kg/day to tons/yr, using assumption that projects are effective for 250 days per year)

31 Multi-year project costs annualized using 7% discount rate.

32 Emissions estimates presented as reported, therefore not all projects have estimates for VOC, NOx, CO and PM10

33 Project lifetime estimated based on project description information

34 National median taken from "CMAQ, A Summary of Sixth Year Activities (FY 1997)," FHWA, 1999. (Note: All data converted from kg/day to tons/yr, using assumption that projects are effective for 250 days per year)

35 Multi-year project costs annualized using 7% discount rate.

36 Emissions estimates presented as reported, therefore not all projects have estimates for VOC, NOx, CO and PM10

37 Project lifetime assumed based on anticipated life of average fleet vehicle.

38 Project lifetime assumed.

39 National median taken from "CMAQ, A Summary of Sixth Year Activities (FY 1997)," FHWA, 1999. (Note: All data converted from kg/day to tons/yr, using assumption that projects are effective for 250 days per year)

40 CMAQ funding requirements place a limit of 3 years on use of funds for transit operating expenditures.

Updated: 07/06/2011
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