Skip to content U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway AdministrationU.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration

Office of Planning, Environment, & Realty (HEP)
PlanningEnvironmentReal Estate

HEP Events Guidance Publications Awards Contacts

SAFETEA-LU Evaluation and Assessment Phase I

Appendix C. CMAQ Project Templates

Category: FREIGHT/ INTERMODAL

Subcategory: Freight/Intermodal

CMAQ Project ID: ME20000004
Project Year: 2000
Location: Cumberland and York Counties, Maine
MPO: Lewiston-Auburn Comprehensive Transportation Study
Description: South Portland Truck to Rail Intermodal Facility - The South Portland Truck to Rail Intermodal Facility will provide funding to construct rail siding as part of an intermodal transfer. Inbound kaolin clay is currently transloaded from ships onto trucks for transport to paper mills. After completion of this project, the raw materials will be transported via rail, reducing the number of heavy duty vehicle trips required. The emissions analysis was conducted in 1999 and assumed the project would reach full capacity by 2006.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 2,250 /year METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 225,000 /year

Assume the rate of usage is a constant 2,250 trucks per year by 2006 and one third of the trucks go North, one third South and one third West. Assume the average mileage per truck is 100 miles round trip and all truck emissions from heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) traveling at 40 mph. The facility will operate 365 days per year.

  • 1999750 trucks removed = 75,000 miles reduced
  • 2006:2,250 trucks removed = 225,000 miles reduced
  • 2015:2,250 trucks removed = 225,000 miles reduced
  • 2018:2,250 trucks removed = 225,000 miles reduced
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 0.71 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 4.22 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile running emissions factors for HDDV at 40 mph. Emissions were calculated for 2006, 2015, and 2018 for comparison purposes.

Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 4.93 kg/day
(0.0054 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $283,941 $71,239 $355,180  
Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $283,941 $71,239 $355,180
Total annualized public cost $41,096
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $355,180
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $355,180

NOTE: Analysis does not account for any increase in railroad emissions.

Category: FREIGHT/ INTERMODAL

Subcategory: Freight/Intermodal

CMAQ Project ID: ME20020005
Project Year: 2002
Location: Cumberland and York Counties, Maine
MPO: Portland Area Comprehensive Transportation Study
Description: South Portland Rail Line Rehab for Freight Shipping - This project will fund the rehabilitation and/or replacement of tracks on the Sprague Industrial Spur. The rehab of the rail will allow freight to be shipped by rail instead of truck. Existing train traffic will not be impacted as additional freight will be added to existing trains. The project assuming that the existing truck traffic is traveling along the interstate south to reach Boston and beyond.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 1,000/ year METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 70,000 /year

The number of trucks being removed from the highway is approximately 1,000 annually. Assumes that the trucks would normally travel down I-95 to Kittery traveling at an average speed 50 mph in Cumberland County and 60 mph in York County on the interstate. Assumes each round trip truck trip would be approximately 70 miles. Assume all truck emissions are from heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) and the siding works 5 days a week 52 weeks a year.

  • 2006:1,000 trucks removed per year = 70,000 miles reduced
  • 2015:1,000 trucks removed per year = 70,000 miles reduced
  • 2020:1,000 trucks removed per year = 70,000 miles reduced
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 0.18 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 1.96 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile running emissions factors for HDDV at 50 and 60 mph. Emissions were calculated for 2006, 2015, and 2018 for comparison purposes.

Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 2.14 kg/day
(0.0024 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $128,501 $365,597 $494,098  
Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $128,501 $365,597 $494,098
Total annualized public cost $54,720
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $494,098
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $494,098

NOTE: Analysis does not account for any increase in railroad emissions.

Category: FREIGHT/INTERMODAL

Subcategory: Freight/Intermodal

CMAQ Project ID: PA20020059, PA20030090
Project Year: 2002 - 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
MPO: Southwestern Pennsylvania Regional Planning Commission
Description: Westmoreland Intermodal Freight Facility - The Westmoreland Intermodal Center is a project to reduce the amount of freight cargo traveling through downtown Pittsburgh. A portion of the cargo currently entering and leaving the region on trucks will be diverted onto rail freight carriers at the Facility, reducing congestion on the region's freeways and major arterials. Currently, cargo either enters the region on trucks via major radial highways and is delivered to various points through the region or is picked-up at various points and leaves the region on trucks via the highways. By diverting a portion of the cargo to rail freight carriers serving the Intermodal Facility, the cargo will be transloaded to/from trucks at the facility for pick-up/delivery through the region.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 897/day
  • Assume 500,000 tons of cargo each year will be diverted to the Facility, the equivalent of 20,000 truck loads per year. Assume an average 1-way freight trip in the region without the facility is 94 miles, and with the facility will be 80 miles.
  • Daily VMT reduction = 20,000 year truck trips / 312 operating days per year * 14 miles per trip = 897.4 VMT.

Calculate the change in truck VMT to deliver cargo with and without construction of the Facility.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 0.001 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 13.3 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using heavy duty diesel emissions factors from Mobile 5a_H emissions model for years 2001, 2004, and 2012 to compare emissions with and without construction of the facility. (Emissions change due to implementation of project = Yearly VMT x Emissions factor / 1000.)

Emissions reductions reported are for 2001 only. Travel speeds determined from the SPC travel demand model. Note that the average speed for a truck trip from the Intermodal Facility to the average pick-up/delivery point (38 mph) is lower than the average speed for a truck trip from a highway entering into the region to the average pick-up/delivery point (47 mph).

  • No Build Emissions @ 47.0 mph:
    • VOC = 1,872,000 x 1.06 / 1000 = 1,982.32 kg/year
    • NOx = 1,872,000 x 9.44 / 1000 = 17,671.68 kg/year
    • CO = 1,872,000 x 5.24 / 1000 = 9,809.28 kg/year
  • Build Emissions @ 38.0 mph:
    • VOC = 1,600,000 x 1.24 / 1000 = 1,984.00 kg/year
    • NOx = 1,600,000 x 8.45 / 1000 = 13,520.00 kg/year
    • CO = 1,600,000 x 5.76 / 1000 = 9,216.00 kg/year
  • Emissions Change = Build No Build Emissions.
    • VOC emissions change = 1,984.00 - 1,982.32 = -0.32 kg/year
    • NOx emissions change = 13,520.00 17,671.68 = -4,151.68 kg/year
    • CO emissions change = 9,216.00 9,809.28 = -593.28 kg/year
Δ CO - 1.90 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -13.3 kg/day
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $7.6 M $1.9 M $9.5 M

Assume trucks operate at the facility 6 days/week and the total service life of the project is 10 years. The cost-effectiveness analysis in this study assumes a 20-year service life.

Cost-effectiveness calculations were not provided by sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $7.6 M $1.9 M $9.5 M
Total annualized public cost $1,028,000
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $9.5 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $9.5 M

NOTE: State provided information indicates total CMAQ funding of $7.6 M and a $1.9 M local match. The CMAQ database lists the project in FY 2002 ($8,750,000) and 2003 ($1,357,000) for a CMAQ funding total of $10,107,000. Analysis does not account for any increase in rail emissions. In the CMAQ database, kg/year figures were incorrectly reported as kg/day.

Category: FREIGHT/INTERMODAL

Subcategory: Freight/Intermodal

CMAQ Project ID: NY20040036
Project Year: 2004
Location: Staten Island, New York
MPO: Poughkeepsie-Dutchess County Transportation Council
Description: Arlington Intermodal Yard- This project will fund intermodal capacity improvements to the Staten Island Railroad's(SIRR) Arlington Yard. The project will improve the efficiency of rail shipments to and from Staten Island and the continental United States by increasing the reliability of the rail service and reduce the movement of freight shipments by truck through the NY metropolitan area. The project will extend rail track an additional 3,500 feet, construct a runaround track adjacent to the tail track, and construct a new right-hand crossover between the west end of the tail track and the runaround track. These seemingly minor improvements will greatly increase rail efficiencies at the yard by allowing one locomotive to be housed in the yard to classify and haul traffic for pickup or delivery.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 26,054 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 140,538 /day

The emissions calculation breaks the project into two segments: Visy Paper Mill Bayoone Bridge and Transfer Station Goethal Bridge.

Visy/Bayoone Segment

Average speed of 30 mph assumed for the transportation of freight by 10,268 heavy duty trucks per day. The average miles of vehicle travel per day is 6, for 302 days/year.

  • Daily VMT Reduction = 10,268 trucks x 6 miles = 61,608.
  • Yearly VMT Reduction = 61,608 x 302 days = 18,605,616
Trans/Goethal

Average speed of 30 mph assumed for the transportation of freight by 15,786 heavy duty trucks per day. The average miles of vehicle travel per day is 5, for 302 days/year.

  • Daily VMT Reduction = 15,786 trucks x 5 miles = 78,930.
  • Yearly VMT Reduction = 78,930 x 302 days = 23,836,860.00
  • Daily VMT Reduction = 23,836,860 / 302 days/year = 78,930 VMT reduction.
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 209.01 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 1,008.80 kg/day

The NYSDOT software package CMAQtraq was used to estimate emissions for both segments, using the "Goods Vehicle Reduction" module. Effects were calculated for 302 days/year with the following emissions factors (g/mile):

  • VOC emissions factor = 1.49
  • NOx emissions factor = 7.18
  • CO emissions factor = 12.18
  • PM10 emissions factor = 0.2633
  • PM2.5 emissions factor = 0.2184

Total Emissions reduced = (Emissions factor * Visy/Bayoone miles reduced) + (Emissions factor * Trans/Goethal miles reduced)

Δ CO - 1,712.21 kg/day
Δ PM10 - 37.00 kg/day
Δ PM2.5 - 30.07 kg/day
Δ Total NA
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $1.7 M $7.3 M $9.0 M

The NY Economic Development Commission will provide the local share of funding, as well as provide for the ancillary development costs. A cost effectiveness calculation was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $1.7 M $7.3 M $9.0 M
Total annualized public cost $949,300
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $9.0 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $9.0 M

NOTE: The $1.7 Million CMAQ funding total provided by the project sponsor does not match the $1.3 Million listed in the CMAQ database. The analysis seems to assume a very large number of trucks reduced, and does not account for rail emissions. It is not entirely clear if the truck assumptions were meant to be annual estimates rather than daily.

Category: FREIGHT/INTERMODAL

Subcategory: Freight/Intermodal

CMAQ Project ID: PA20040076
Project Year: 2004
Location: Indiana County, Pennsylvania
MPO: Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission MPO
Description: Norfolk Southern Rail Extension and Rehabilitation - This project will fund the construction of 5.25 miles and rehabilitation of 7 miles of rail track between Saltsburg and Shelocta, in Indiana County in order to create a more direct route for delivery of coal to the Keystone Power Station at Shelocta. Currently, coal is delivered by a combination of truck and rail freight movement. Increasing the amount of coal delivered via rail, will reduce the amount delivered by trucks. The new rail route is 106 miles less than the current route and has an easier grade, higher speed, and higher capacity than the existing rail line. Locomotive power required to haul 130 loaded coal cars per train over the new route will be less than that required to operate over the existing route with only 100 loaded coal cars per train; therefore, it is estimated that the new route will enable a decrease in the locomotive power required while, at the same time, increase by 30% the tonnage hauled per train.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 174 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 8,970 /day
  • Average Mine-based 2-way trip length = 41.26 miles
  • Average Home-based 2-way trip Length is assumed to be 25% of the Mine-based length = 10.315 miles
  • Number of yearly 2-way truck trips before project = 107,396
  • Number of yearly 2-way truck trips after project = 63,918
  • Total Daily Truck VMT = Daily Mine-based VMT + Daily Home-based VMT
  • Daily Truck VMT Savings = VMT before project VMT after project
  • VMT before = 5,538,967/year = 22,156/day; VMT after = 3,296,575/yr = 13,186/day
  • Δ VMT = 8,970/day

Assumes that ½ of the total coal delivered by truck to the power station originates in the project area, and consequently, ½ of the total truck VMT. Delivery occurs 250 days of the year. Estimated tons of coal that will be diverted from truck to rail = 1,000,000 tons/year.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 11.48 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 53.46 kg/day
  • Emissions reductions were calculated for heavy duty diesel trucks at an average speed of 36 mph using MOBILE6 emissions factors for 2004 and 2012.
  • Reported emissions reductions are for 2004 only.
  • Emissions factors:
    VOC = 1.28; NOx = 7.21; CO = 5.96
Δ CO - 64.67 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -64.94 kg/day
(0.0715 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $10 M $2.5 M $12.5 M

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by sponsor.

Annualized cost = $12.5 m x 0.081 CRF = $1.0125 mil

C/E = $1.0125 mil / (0.0715 x 250) = $56,643/ton

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $10 M $2.5 M $12.5 M
Total annualized public cost $1,318,500
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $12.5 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $12.5 M

NOTE: The travel and emissions impact calculations did not include train emissions effects due to the increased tonnage of coal being carried by the rail cars.

Category: FREIGHT/INTERMODAL

Subcategory: Freight/Intermodal

CMAQ Project ID: CT20060022
Project Year: 2006
Location: New Haven, Connecticut
MPO: South Central Regional COG
Description: Freight Rail Construction along Waterfront Street - This project will advance the railroad track installation on Waterfront St. in New Haven and the associated utility relocations. The track work will be performed by force account and the right of way for this work will be transferred from another project ( 92-541). The railroad track installation will improve air quality and reduce congestion by diverting some share of the transportation of freight and cargo through New Haven from truck to rail.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 15.38/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 1,408 /day
  • Travel impact information was provided by the operator of the rail service in the area.
  • Assumes 1,000 railcar shipments annually are diverted from truck to rail.
  • Vehicle trips removed per year = 1,000 railcar shipments annually x 4 truck-equivalent per railcar / 260 days per year = 15.38 vehicle trips removed per day.
  • 50% of truck trips are one-way (61 miles average) and 50% of truck trips are round-trip (122 miles average) from the Port of New Haven.
  • Daily VMT reduction = (50% x 4000 annual truck trips x 61 miles / 260 days/year) + (50% x 4000 truck trips x 122 miles / 260 days/year ) = 1,408 VMT reduced daily.
  • In the PM2.5 non-attainment areas, 50% of truck trips are one-way (27 miles average) and 50% of truck trips are round trip (43 miles average).
  • Daily VMT reduction = (50% x 4000 annual truck trips x 27 miles / 260 days/year) + (50% x 4000 truck trips x 54 miles / 260 days/year) = 623 VMT reduced daily in PM2.5 non-attainment areas.
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 0.460 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 18.437 kg/day
  • Assumes 90% of a typical truck trip is on expressway and 10% is on arterial.
  • Emissions factors, expressway:
    VOC = 0.314 g/mile; NOx = 13.630 g/mile; PM2.5 = 0.261 g/mile
  • Emissions factors, arterial:
    VOC = 0.453 g/mile; NOx = 8.300 g/mile; PM2.5 = 0.260 g/mile
  • VOC emissions reduction = (1,408 VMT reduction x 0.314 g/mile x 90%) + (1,408 VMT reduction x 0.453 g/mile x 10%) = 461 g/day VOC reduction
  • NOx emissions reduction = (1,408 VMT reduction x 13.630 x 90%) + (1,408 VMT reduction x 8.3 g/mile x 10%) = 18,441 g/day NOx reduction
  • PM2.5 emissions reduction = (623 VMT reduction x 0.261 g/mile x 90%) + (623 VMT reduction x 0.260 g/mile x 10%) = 162 g/day PM2.5reduction

Additional locomotive emissions due to increased train trip length to service the additional trackage (Additional emissions = gallons consumed x emissions factor):

  • Estimate 15 gallons of additional fuel consumed per day. Use EPA emissions factors, based on the age of the locomotive fleet.
  • VOC = 15 gallons x 21.0 g/gal = 0.32 g/day of additional VOC emissions.
  • NOx = 15 gallons x 262.0 g/gal = 3.93 g/day of additional NOx emissions.
  • PM2.5 = 15 gallons x 9.2 g/gal = 0.14 g/day of additional PM2.5 emissions.
Overall emissions reductions:
  • VOC emissions reduction = 461 0.32 = 460.68 g/day
  • NOx emissions reduction = 18,441 3.93 = 18,437.07 g/day
  • PM2.5 emissions reduction = 162 0.14 = 161.86 g/day
Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 - 0.162 kg/day
Δ Total NA
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $1,409,600 $352,400 $1,762,000

Assumes project has movement 260 days/year.

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $1,409,600 $352,400 $1,762,000
Total annualized public cost $174,100
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $1,762,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $1,762,000

NOTE: Sponsor's calculation incorrectly showed value in kg rather than grams, overstating emissions effects. The analysis could also consider what portion of the truck's VMT is occurring in the impact area.

Updated: 07/06/2011
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000