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SAFETEA-LU Evaluation and Assessment Phase I

Appendix C. CMAQ Project Templates

Category: TECHNOLOGY IMPROVMENTS

Subcategory: Conventional Bus Replacements

CMAQ Project ID: MD20020008
Project Year: 2002
Location: Maryland
MPO: Metropolitan Washington COG
Description: 100 Replacement Local Buses - Purchase of 100 conventionally fueled local buses for the Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) fleet. The new buses will replace 100 buses older buses that have been in operation since 1988.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips 0 METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT 0

MTA buses operate an average of 330 days and travel an average of 26,650 miles each year. (26,650 miles * 100 buses = 2,665,000 VMT)

Because the buses will replace existing buses, there are no estimated travel impacts.

Δ Speed 0
Δ Delay 0
Δ SOV 0
Δ CP/VP 0
Δ Transit 0
Δ Walk 0
Δ Bike 0
Emissions
Δ VOC - 17.0 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 188.9 kg/day
  • Emissions savings were estimated using the difference between the emissions factors for the 1988 buses and the 2002 replacement buses:
    • VOC: 4.660 g/mi (1988 bus) 2.560 g/mi (2002 bus) = 2.100 g/mi savings
    • NOx: 36.24 g/mi (1988 bus) 12.88 g/mi (2002 bus) = 23.36 g/mi savings
  • VOC reduced = (2,665,000 VMT * 2.1 g/mi savings) / 330 days = 17.0 kg/day
  • NOX reduced = (2,665,000 VMT * 23.36 g/mi savings) / 330 days = 188.9 kg/day
Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total NA
Costs
Project life: 4 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $5.0 M $21.5 M $26.5 M

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by sponsor. In order to calculate cost-effectiveness, estimate the remaining useful life of the older vehicles.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $5.0 M $21.5 M $26.5 M
Total annualized public cost $9,180,000
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $26.5 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $26.5 M

NOTE: Emissions reductions that come from replacing an older vehicle with a newer, cleaner vehicle will not provide emissions reduction credit longer than the period of time that the older vehicle would have been kept in service without the replacement program (per EPA's Diesel Retrofit SIP and Conformity guidance, http://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/publications.htm.) The duration of benefit will therefore depend on the remaining life of the vehicles. This causes some difficulty in calculating cost-effectiveness, since the buses will be used for perhaps another 12+ years (and will allow for continued transit services), but the emissions benefits associated with replacement may only last for a couple years.

Category: TECHNOLOGY IMPROVMENTS

Subcategory: Conventional Bus Replacements

CMAQ Project ID: Not Yet Assigned
Project Year: 2003
Location: Southwest Ohio
MPO: Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana Regional COG
Description: 61 Replacement Buses - This project will fund the purchase of 61 new 40-foot coaches to replace 15-year old ones. The new coaches will reduce air pollution because they are manufactured to adhere to much stricter air quality standards than the coaches they replace. The coaches will be equipped with security cameras and bike racks to increase security and provide multimodal connectability. The coaches are lift-equipped for disability accessibility. They also come equipped with ITS equipment and METRO, which are connected to ARTIMIS, allowing the transfer of information on highways to aid in congestion relief.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT + 45 bus miles/day

Methodology does not account for any reduction in person motor vehicle travel, simply the replacement of existing buses. The methodology actually assumes an increase in VMT from the buses, as the new buses travel more.

Average daily VMT for old buses = 77 VMT is the default value for 15-year old urban transit buses using MOBILE 6.2.

Average daily VMT for new buses = 122 VMT is the default value for 1-year old urban transit buses using MOBILE 6.2.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC -9.639 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx -35.530 kg/day

Calculation used MOBILE 6.2 emissions factors for 15-year old and 1-year old urban transit buses operating on local streets.

  • Emissions factors for 15-year old urban transit buses:
  • VOC = 2.74 g/mile; NOx = 24.20 g/mile; CO = 12.61 g/mile
  • Emissions factors for 1-year old urban transit buses
  • VOC = 0.44 g/mile; NOx = 10.59 g/mile; CO = 6.44 g/mile

Bus emissions are calculated by multiplying VMT by emissions factor.
Total old bus emissions Total new bus emissions = Total emissions reduction

  • VOC: 12934 3295 = 9.639 kg/day
  • CO: 59499 47860 = 11.639 kg/day
  • NOX: 114234 78704 = 35.530 kg/day
Δ CO -11.639 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total NA
Costs
Project life: 4 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $4,864,440 $2,084,760 $6,949,200

A cost effectiveness calculation was not provided by the project sponsor. Emissions reductions that come from replacing an older vehicle with a newer, cleaner vehicle will not provide emissions reduction credit longer than the period of time that the older vehicle would have been kept in service without the replacement program (per EPA's Diesel Retrofit SIP and Conformity guidance.) The duration of benefit will therefore depend on the remaining life of the vehicles. This causes some difficulty in calculating cost-effectiveness, since the buses will be used for perhaps another 12+ years (and will allow for continued transit services).

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $4,864,440 $2,084,760 $6,949,200
Total annualized public cost $2,353,000
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $6,949,200
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $6,949,200

NOTE: The methodology uses MOBILE6.2 defaults, but do not appear to be based on actual travel data for these buses. It is unclear why the new buses would travel more than the old buses, so this seems to be a very conservative assumption (reduces the amount of emissions benefit). Emissions reductions reported in the CMAQ database differ from estimates provided or calculated from sponsor-provided documentation (-1 kg/day VOC, -60 kg/day CO, and -22 kg/day NOx).

Category: TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Alternative Fuel Vehicles/Fueling Facilities

CMAQ Project ID: ME20020020
Project Year: 2002
Location: Cumberland County, Maine
MPO: Portland Area Comprehensive Transportation Study
Description: Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Station - This project will fund the construction of a fast fill compressed natural gas facility for public and private fleets based in, or operating from the Greater Portland area. This project will be implemented in conjunction with an effort by METRO to convert the transit bus fleet to natural gas. The agency anticipates converting 4 buses by 2004 and a total of 21 buses by 2015.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

METRO's existing buses use an average of 32 gallons of diesel fuel per day.

  • 2004: 4 buses * 32 gallons of fuel = 128 gallons/day
  • 2015: 21 buses * 32 gallons of fuel = 672 gallons/day
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 2.768 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 2.13 kg/day
  • Assumes that diesel engines emit 27.04 g/gal of VOC and 83.2 g/gal of NOx.
  • Assumes that natural gas reduces VOC emissions by 80% over diesel fuel
  • Assumes that natural gas reduces NOx emissions by 20% over diesel fuel
  • 2004 VOC: 128 gallons/day * 27.04 g/gal * 0.8 = 2.768 kg/day
  • 2004 NOx: 128 gallons/day * 83.2 g/gal * 0.2 = 2.13 kg/day
  • 2015 VOC: 672 gallons/day * 27.04 g/gal * 0.8 = 14.536 kg/day
  • 2015 NOx: 672 gallons/day * 83.2 g/gal * 0.2 = 11.182 kg/day
Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -4.90 kg/day
(0.0054 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 12 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $150,000 $1,155,903 $1,305,903  
Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $150,000 $1,155,903 $1,305,903
Total annualized public cost $192,912
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $1,305,903
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $1,305,903

Category: TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Alternative Vehicles/ Fueling Facilities

CMAQ Project ID: PA20020062
Project Year: 2002
Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
MPO: Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission
Description: Purchase 12 New Alternative Fuel Bus - This project will fund the acquisition of 12 forty-foot, low floor hybrid/electric-powered buses with an option to purchase 20 additional buses. These buses, through the combination of an internal-combustion engine to produce electricity, storage batteries, and an electric propulsion system, will provide a quieter ride for riders, reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, and improve brake life through regenerative braking.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

The 12 buses being retired used diesel fuel and had an annual 27,207 vehicle revenue miles per bus.

The 12 replacement buses are hybrid/electric vehicles and will still have an annual 27,207 vehicle revenue miles per bus.

Total revenue miles are multiplied by a 1.15 deadhead factor to account for vehicle travel to and from the programmed bus routes.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 3.0 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 91.0 kg/day

Emissions factors were calculated from the Mobile model using an average running speed of 13.5 mph for both conventional and replacement buses.

Emissions reductions were calculated for the year 2002, assuming operation 250 days per year using an interim version of PAQONE created specifically for DVRPC to calculate air quality benefits. A diesel fuel type was selected for the older buses and a CNG fuel type for the newer ones.

Δ CO - 12.0 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -94 kg/day
(0.1035 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 4 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $5.608 M $1.402 M $7.010 M

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $5.608 M $1.402 M $7.010 M
Total annualized public cost $2,428,000
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $7,010,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $7,010,000

NOTE: The calculations provided in the documentation are unclear and might suggest that the formula for vehicle travel to/from bus routes = 108.8 daily mileage per bus x 12 buses x difference in emissions rates x 1.15 deadhead factor. Emissions reductions that come from replacing an older vehicle with a newer, cleaner vehicle will not provide emissions reduction credit longer than the period of time that the older vehicle would have been kept in service without the replacement program (per EPA's Diesel Retrofit SIP and Conformity guidance). The duration of benefit will therefore depend on the remaining life of the vehicles.

Category: TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Alternative Vehicles/ Fueling Facilities

CMAQ Project ID: CT20050025
Project Year: 2005
Location: Connecticut
MPO: No MPO Identified/State-sponsored project
Description: CT Clean Fuels Program - This project is the funding of provision of technical assistance to municipalities and other entities that implement alternate fuel projects in the NY/NJ/CT non-attainment area these include purchases of diesel particulate filters for buses and other equipment. The purchase and/or conversion of alternate fuel vehicles in the public or private sector are aimed primarily at air quality improvement. Alternate fuel vehicles replace conventionally powered vehicles, resulting in lower levels of controlled emissions.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA
  • Type of equipment = Diesel Particulate Filters.
  • # of DPFs installed = 9, with plans to install 31 more.
  • Average daily distance driven based on MOBILE6.2 estimates:
    • Light duty trucks/vans = 34.3 miles/day
    • Passenger cars = 28.8 miles/day
  • Average number of days/week vehicle is used = 5 days/week.
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 6.75 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx -12.49 kg/day

Emissions reduction benefits calculated using the Department of Energy's "AirCRED" model, with variables such as the number of vehicles, the type of vehicles, an estimate of average daily distance driven, and the average number of days per week the vehicle is used, entered into the model.

NY/NJ/CT Moderate Ozone Non-Attainment Area:
  • VOC emissions reduction = 0.10 lbs NMHC/day x 0.4536 lb/kg x 153 days = 6.94 kg/day. Then, convert NMHC to VOC = 6.94 kg/day / 0.93 x 0.45 = 3.36 kg/day.
  • NOx emissions reduction = 0.06 lbs/day x 0.4536 lb/kg x 153 days = 4.16 kg/day.
Greater Connecticut Moderate Ozone Non-Attainment Area:
  • VOC emissions reduction = 0.11 lbs MHC/day x 0.4536 lb/kg x 153 days = 7.63 kg/day. Then, convert NMHC to VOC = 7.63 / 0.93 x 0.45 = 3.39 kg/day
  • NOx emissions reduction = 0.12 lbs/day x 0.4536 lb/kg x 153 days = 8.33 kg/day
Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -19.2 kg/day
Costs
Project life: 7 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $688,800 $172,200 $861,000

Assumes benefits for 153 days/year.

A cost effectiveness calculation was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $688,800 $172,200 $861,000
Total annualized public cost $172,670
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $861,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $861,000

NOTE: Emissions reductions reported in CMAQ database (-11.4 kg/day VOC, -40.3 kg/day NOx) differ from estimates provided or calculated from sponsor-provided documentation.

Category: TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Alternative Fuel Vehicles/ Fueling Facilities

CMAQ Project ID: Not Yet Assigned
Project Year: 2007
Location: Nassau County, New York
MPO: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council
Description: Purchase 3 Forty-Foot Urban Transit CNG Buses - This project will fund the purchase of three replacement, 40-foot CNG transit buses. The present buses will be at the end of their useful life and continued use would result in increased maintenance, increased costs, and poor, inefficient service.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

The three buses being replaced are 1997 CNG buses which average 14 mph. Each bus travels 160 miles each day and operates 360 days per year.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 1.50 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 4.34 kg/day

"After" analysis conducted using CO, VOC, and PM emissions factors from a 2004 model year 6081H John Deere engine test conducted by University of West Virginia for Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA).

"Before" emissions factors for CO, NOx, and VOC derived from 1990 and 2000 NYSDOT emissions factor tables for Nassau County. "Before" emissions factors for PM10 and PM2.5 are default 2000 values from the CMAQtraq program from NYSDOT.

Emissions factors used in calculations:
  BEFORE AFTER
CO (g/mi) 15.79 0.13
VOC (g/mi) 3.14 0.05
NOx (g/mi) 25.54 16.62
PM2.5 (g/mi) 2.88 0.0061
PM10 (g/mi) 3.1570 ---
Δ CO - 7.62 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 - 1.40 kg/day
Δ Total NA
Costs
Project life: yrs Interest rate: %
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $1.0 M $250,000 $1.25 M

The project life of the new CNG buses is 8 years. However, since comparison is against old buses which are near the end of their useful life, the cost-effectiveness analysis in this study accounts for fewer years.

No cost effectiveness calculations were provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $1.0 M $250,000 $1.25 M
Total annualized public cost $375,700
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $1.25 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $1.25 M

NOTE: Typically, replacement projects should only account for remaining useful life of the old buses, or the different in cost and emissions associated with a CNG bus vs. a conventional diesel bus.

Updated: 07/06/2011
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