Office of Planning, Environment, & Realty (HEP)
Planning • Environment • Real Estate
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 

Δ Speed  + 4 mph  
Δ Delay  NA  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   40.076 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx  NA 

Δ CO  NA  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total   40.076 kg/day (0.0442 tpd) 
Project life: 10yrs  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $660,000  $0  $660,000 
Materials provided by the local sponsor indicate no local match for this project. The cost effectiveness analysis provided by the project sponsor assumes the service life of the project and amortization period are 15 years. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $660,000  $0  $660,000  
Total annualized public cost  $110,256  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $660,000  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $660,000 
NOTE: Emissions reductions reported by the project sponsor do not match the emissions reductions in the CMAQ database (57 kg/day VOC).
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 
Travel analysis performed by VISSIM Microscopic Simulation model used recent traffic counts and traffic signal information to give an average delay in seconds per vehicle at the intersection. (Total Delay = Peak Hour volume * Average Delay in sec/veh/3600). Hourly reduction in delay is calculated separately for the AM and PM peak periods and summed. The analysis showed that the proposed improvements would enhance traffic flow during peak hours increasing from 5,800 to 6,500 VPH in the AM peak, and from 6,200 to 6,700 VPH in the PM peak. Average delay would drop from 92.6 to 36.0 sec/veh in the AM peak, and 178.3 to 34.4 sec/veh in the PM peak. Net reduction in delay is 84.2 vehhr/hr in the AM peak and 304.5 vehhr/hr in the PM peak. Intersection analysis also shows change in LOS for each intersection segment. 
Δ Speed  NA  
Δ Delay   388 vehiclehours/hour  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   20.12 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   5.18 kg/day 
Emissions reduction = Delay in vehiclehours/hour * Emissions Factor * 2.5 (conversion of gm/mi to gm/hr) * 2 hours per day (calculated for 2hour Am peak and 2hour Pm peak separately, and summed) 
Δ CO  NA  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total   25.30 kg/day (0.028 tpd) 
Project life: 10yrs  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $4,400,000  $1,100,000  $5,500,000 
Assumes that project has benefits 260 days per year. To calculate overall costeffectiveness, need to develop assumptions regarding useful life of project (could be 20 years for an infrastructure project of this nature, although it's not clear that delay reductions will remain constant over this long of a period). 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $4,400,000  $1,100,000  $5,500,000  
Total annualized public cost  $904,773  
Annual revenues  NONE  
Net public cost  $5.5 M  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $5.5 M 
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 
Delay = 4 minutes per vehicle, based on a report on the Integrated Traffic SigNAl System from 2001, which determined the reduction in delay and corresponding emissions savings by using an average reduction for 18 intersections and projecting it throughout the total system. Vehicle counts provided by Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Division of Planning 
Δ Speed  NA  
Δ Delay   4 min/vehicle  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   35.5 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   9.1 kg/day 
Emissions factors are based on EPA calculations for general vehicle fleet mix. The percentage of vehicle types or classifications was used to determine the grams of pollutant reduced per minute by the reduction in delay, using Our Nation's Highways, from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). (average of vehicle counts per arterial) x (minute of delay reduced by fiber optic) x (g/min per VOC, NOx, CO) = total grams VOC, NOx, CO per day 
Δ CO   378.0 kg/day  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total   44.6 kg/day (0.05 tpd) 
Project life: NA  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $320,000  $80,000  $400,000 
Costeffectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $320,000  $80,000  $400,000  
Total annualized public cost  NA  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $400,000  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $400,000 
NOTE: Emissions reductions reported in CMAQ database differ from estimates provided or calculated from sponsorprovided documentation. Reductions reported in the CMAQ database were reported in the template. The project calculation showed much higher values (200.94 kg/day VOC, 54.89 kg/day NOx, 2,272 kg/day CO); however, a more recent, similar project reported figures closer to the values reported in the CMAQ database. The project specifics seem to indicate that the delay reduction (4 min/vehicle) is an extrapolation of the effects of the project across the entire system, not just for the 18 intersections.
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 
Modeling done using Syncro Version 5 for the PM period. There is minor congestion during the entire business day, so the AM and PM Peak Periods are similar. The change in delay was calculated for four (4) intersections using the following formula: (Approach Volume * Stop Control Delay) (Approach Volume * Signalized Delay) = Total Delay Reduction

Δ Speed  NA  
Δ Delay   702 hours/day  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   5.115 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   3.909 kg/day 
Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile6. Idle emissions calculated using exhaust emissions for a 2.5 mile/hour average speed. The Mobile Factors used Main Street as a Minor Arterial Urban Class 16 and all intersecting streets as Local Urban Class 19 to determine emissions. 
Δ CO   90.710 kg/day  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total  9.02 kg/day (0.0099 tpd) 
Project life: 510yrs  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $355,302  $284,241  $639,543 
Documentation provided by the State indicates the project was funded in FY 2005 and 2006 and some portion of funds deobligated in FY 2007. Costeffectiveness was not provided by sponsor.
Project sponsor assumes service life is 5 years. The costeffectiveness analysis in this study used 10 years for consistency with other signalization projects. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $355,302  $284,241  $639,543  
Total annualized public cost  $98,414  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $639,543  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $639,543 
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 

Δ Speed  + 4 mph  
Δ Delay  NA  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   14.969 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx  + 2.206 kg/day 
Emissions factors for before project implementation and after project implementation based on MOBILE6 and average speeds of 34 mph and 38 mph, respectively. Emissions reduction = VMT x (Emissions Factor before project Emissions Factor after project)

Δ CO  NA  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total   12.763 kg/day (0.014 tpd) 
Project life: 10yrs  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $33,000  $0  $33,000 
Costeffectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $33,000  $0  $33,000  
Total annualized public cost  $5,078  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $33,000  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $33,000 
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 
Reduction in delay determined by the Synchro model output, based on a onehour simulation. These one hour peak delay reductions, per day, were used to determine an average delay for two hours of peak travel reductions. 
Δ Speed  NA  
Δ Delay   63 vehiclehours  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   2.889 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   1.089 kg/day 
The delay reductions were used to calculate the emissions savings using emissions factors provided by US EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Reduction in delay * average of vehicle mix for kg/min per CO, NOx, VOC * 255 days per year. 
Δ CO   44.95 kg/day  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total   4 kg/day (0.0044tpd) 
Project life: 10yrs  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $400,000  $100,000  $500,000 
Assumes benefits 255 days/year. Costeffectiveness was not provided by project sponsor. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $400,000  $100,000  $500,000  
Total annualized public cost  $74,536  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $500,000  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $500,000 
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Δ VMT  NA 
48,670 average traffic volumes for Year 2009 were calculated using the CDTC STEP Model. The CDTC STEP Model forecast was validated using a 1999 intersection count and used to calculate seconds of delay for approach vehicles with the existing signalized intersection. The RODEL Roundabout Capacity Model was used to conduct an analysis of the Washington Avenue/Fuller Road intersection and was used to calculate seconds of delay for approach vehicles under the new, roundabout build scenario. (11.5 sec avg "No Build" delay 5 sec avg "New Roundabout" delay = 6.5 sec avg change in delay.
VMT was estimated using a quarter mile approach for each leg of the intersection. Speeds were calculated over that same distance as 15 mph under existing conditions and 29 mph with the roundabout. The STEP model was also used to calculate seconds of delay for vehicles with the existing signalized intersection for the nobuild scenario. The NYSDOT Roundabout Design Unit conducted an analysis of the proposed improvement using the RODEL Roundabout Capacity model to calculate seconds of delay for approach vehicles under the build scenario.  
Δ Speed  + 14 mph  
Δ Delay   6.5 sec/veh.  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   24.17 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   1.94 kg/day 
The NYSDOT software package CMAQtraq was used to estimate emissions, using the "Traffic Flow Improvements" module. Effects were calculated for 250 days/year with the following emissions factors (g/mile):

Δ CO   24.17 kg/day  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total   26.11 kg/day (0.029 tpd) 
Project life: NA  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $2.0 M  $2.87 M  $4.87 M 
Funding will include planning, design, and construction of the intersection improvement. A cost effectiveness calculation was not provided by the project sponsor. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $2.0 M  $2.87 M  $4.87 M  
Total annualized public cost  $467,981  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $4.87 M  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $4.87 M 
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 
The overall level of VMT and vehicle trips is not assumed to be affected. Emissions reductions will occur through a reduction in nonrecurring congestion. 
Δ Speed  NA  
Δ Delay  NA  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   189.601 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   488.972 kg/day 
Emissions factors for baton rouge based on MOBILE Model; assumed running speed of 40 MPH. Emissions reductions were applied to the length of I10, as follows:

Δ CO  NA  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total  678.573 kg/day (0.748 tpd) 
Project life: 10yrs  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $2,712,940  $0  $2,712,940 
Assumes that project has benefits 260 days per year (all weekdays). Costeffectiveness calculation will need to take into account the life of the capital equipment. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $2,712,940  $0  $2,712,940  
Total annualized public cost  $443,109  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $2,712,940  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $2,712,940 
NOTE: Assumption that 4.9% of freeway emissions are due to nonrecurring congestion is based on old source and there may be more recent data available. Calculation seems to assume 90% reduction in emissions associated with nonrecurrent congestion, and it is not clear that the effectiveness of each ITS component should be additive.
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 
The assumptions for input into TCM Tools included the expectation that the project will improve both peak and offpeak period speeds by 10% (from 19 to 21 mph), with an average daily traffic (ADT) of 200,000 in 2010. 
Δ Speed  + 2 mph  
Δ Delay  NA  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   76 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   4 kg/day 
Emissions reductions calculated using the TCM Tools program created by Parsons Brinkerhoff and Sierra Research in 1994, which applies project data to the project year's (2004) MOBILE emissions factors and regional data to produce the emissions reductions for CO, VOCs, and NOx. 
Δ CO   939 kg/day  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total   80 (kg/day) (0.088 tpd) 
Project life: 10yrs  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $998,037  $1,001,963  $2.0 M 
Total Project Cost: ~$2,000,000 (other funds in the project include other federal and State/local funds). Costeffectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor. Project assumes benefits 252 days per year. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $998,037  $1,001,963  $2.0 M  
Total annualized public cost  $318,190  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $2.0 M  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $2.0 M 
NOTE: The CMAQ project amount in the CMAQ database is $862,192 for this project. Total project costs and CMAQ funding provided by the State were used to calculate the amounts in the table.
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT   23,561 /day 
Length is 13.94 miles, 10.22 in Fairfield County and 3.72 miles in Greater Connecticut. The "Connecticut Freeway Management System" report documents the effects of incident management systems. Based on the report, this type of system will result in annual delay savings of 1.72 million vehicle hours (MVH) for a corridor length of 65 miles, based on a congested incident speed of 5 mph, and a free flow speed of 55 mph. The daily VMT traveled without an IM system in place is 1.72 MVH x 5 mph / 365 days = 23,561 VMT. 
Δ Speed  NA  
Δ Delay  NA  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   6.11 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   3.00 kg/day 
For Fairfield County:
For Greater Connecticut Area:

Δ CO  NA  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}   0.004 kg/day  
Δ Total   9.11 kg/day (0.01 tpd) 
Project life: 10yrs  Interest rate: 7%  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $1,279,246  $142,138  $1,421,384  
Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $1,279,246  $142,138  $1,421,384  
Total annualized public cost  $218,725  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $1,421,384  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $1,421,384 
NOTE: Emissions reductions reported in CMAQ database differ from estimates provided or calculated from sponsorprovided documentation (9.1 kg/day VOC, 4.6 kg/day NOx).
Δ Vehicle trips  NA  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT  NA 
Incident Delay = Traffic volume * (Average number of blocked lanes during incidents / total lanes in corridor) * Incident duration Change in delay = Incident delay without project Incident delay with project 
Δ Speed  NA  
Δ Delay: (vehicle hours/incident)   3,849 / incident  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   31.25 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   11.88 kg/day 
For each pollutant, the Change in delay * Emissions Factor / 1,000 * 111 annual incidents / 260 working days = kg of emissions reduced per day. 
Δ CO  NA  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}   0.12 kg/day  
Δ Total  43.1 kg/day 
Project life: 1 yrs  Interest rate: 7 %  
CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  

Capital  $0  $0  $0 
Cost information is provided for 1 year of operating funding, or 260 days per year. Project sponsor calculated cost effectiveness as: the Annual project cost / (Emissions reduced * 260 days)


Adm/oper  $240,000  $560,000  $800,000  
Total  $240,000  $560,000  $800,000  
Total annualized public cost  $800,000  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $800,000  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $800,000 
Δ Vehicle trips   2,929 /day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ VMT   58,589 /day 

Δ Speed  NA  
Δ Delay  NA  
Δ SOV  NA  
Δ CP/VP  NA  
Δ Transit  NA  
Δ Walk  NA  
Δ Bike  NA 
Δ VOC   68.78 kg/day  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS: 

Δ NOx   135.32 kg/day 
Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile6 running emissions factors, assuming a 43 mph running speed on freeways before the project = NOx: 1.22 and VOC 0.53 grams/mile. Speedbased running exhaust emissions factor for the HOV facility, assuming a 51 mph speed = NOx: 1.32 and VOC 0.51 grams/mile. Speedbased running exhaust emissions factor for general purpose lanes, assuming a 43 mph speed = NOx: 1.22 and VOC 0.53 grams/mile. Calculate change in running exhaust emissions from vehicles shifting from general purpose lanes to HOV lanes. Assume Average Peak Traffic on HOV lanes after project is 783 vehicles/hour and 6 peak hours per day. The HOV length is 20.9 miles. Calculate change in running exhaust emissions from vehicles in general purpose lanes as a result of vehicles shifted away from general purpose lanes. Assume Average Peak Traffic on general purpose lane before project is 10,358 vehicles/hour and the Average Peak Traffic on general purpose lane after project is 10,797 vehicles/hour. Calculate the reduction in auto start emissions from trip reductions using an auto trip end emissions factor for NOx: 0.39 grams/mile and VOC: 1.25 grams/mile and the trip reductions. Calculate the reduction in auto running exhaust emissions from trip reductions using the emissions factor before project implementation and the vehicle miles reduced. 
Δ CO  Kg  
Δ PM_{10}  NA  
Δ PM_{2.5}  NA  
Δ Total   204.10 kg/day (0.22 tpd) 
Project life: 20 yrs  Interest rate: 7 %  

CMAQ  NONCMAQ  TOTAL  METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:  
Capital  $17.152 M  $237,418,093  $254,570,093 
The funding details for this project are as follows: $254,570,093 total at letting ($229,853,137 Category 2 funds (NHS account in Texas), $17,152,000 CMAQ, $4,288,000 State funds, $122,856 TxDOT Green Ribbon Funds, and $3,154,100 local). A cost effectiveness calculation was not provided by the project sponsor. 

Adm/oper  $0  $0  $0  
Total  $17.152 M  $237,418,093  $254,570,093  
Total annualized public cost  $28,194,000  
Annual revenues  None  
Net public cost  $254,570,093  
Annual private cost  NA  
Total net cost  $254,570,093 