Skip to content U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway AdministrationU.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration

Office of Planning, Environment, & Realty (HEP)
PlanningEnvironmentReal Estate

HEP Events Guidance Publications Awards Contacts

SAFETEA-LU Evaluation and Assessment Phase I

Appendix C. CMAQ Project Templates

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Traffic Signalization

CMAQ Project ID: MI20020058
Project Year: 2002
Location: Macomb County, Michigan
MPO: Southeast Michigan Council of Governments
Description: Signal Timing along Ryan Rd. 8 Mile to 23 Mile - This project will fund the coordination of traffic signals along Ryan Rd. from 8 mile to 23 mile in Warren, Sterling Heights, and Shelby Township in Michigan. Macomb County borders the City of Detroit to the South and Lake St. Clair to the east; Ryan Rd. serves as a major North-South arterial in the area. As a result of this project, vehicle travel speeds are expected to increase 4 mph during both peak and off-peak periods.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA
  • Miles of urban minor arterial affected: 15 miles
  • Daily, 2-way traffic volume = 23,519 vehicles with 40% of travel occurring in peak periods.
    • Peak VMT = 15 miles * 23,519 vehicles * 0.4 = 141,114 miles
    • Off Peak VMT = 15 miles * 23,519 vehicles * 0.6 = 211,671 miles
  • Travel Speeds before project are 31 mph in peak, and 41 mph in off-peak.
  • Travel Speeds after project are 35 mph in peak, and 45 mph in off-peak.
Δ Speed + 4 mph
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 40.076 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx NA
  • Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile 5a running emissions factors (g/mile) for VOC at the following speeds:
    • Peak:31 mph: VOC = 1.84335 mph: VOC = 1.697
    • Off Peak:41 mph: VOC = 1.52645 mph: VOC = 1.434
  • Calculate daily emissions reduced = (change in peak emissions * Peak VMT) + (change in off-peak emissions * Off-peak VMT)
    • VOC Emissions = ((1.697 - 1.843) * 141,114 miles) + ((1.434 - 1.526) * 211,671 miles) / 1,000 = - 40.076 kg/day
Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 40.076 kg/day (0.0442 tpd)
Costs
  Project life: 10yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $660,000 $0 $660,000

Materials provided by the local sponsor indicate no local match for this project.

The cost effectiveness analysis provided by the project sponsor assumes the service life of the project and amortization period are 15 years.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $660,000 $0 $660,000
Total annualized public cost $110,256
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $660,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $660,000

NOTE: Emissions reductions reported by the project sponsor do not match the emissions reductions in the CMAQ database (-57 kg/day VOC).

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Traffic Signalization

CMAQ Project ID: LA20040001
Project Year: 2004
Location: Baton Rouge, Louisiana
MPO: Capital Regional Planning Commission
Description: Continuous Flow Intersection at Airline and Sherwood Forest Blvd. - The project involves the modification of an intersection Airline Highway @ Sherwood Forest Blvd. in order to increase traffic flow and reduce congestion and delay using an innovative intersection improvement concept called continuous flow intersection (CFI). This concept eliminates volume build-up due to the left-turn cycle of the traffic signals by moving the left-turn out of the main intersection, thus allowing through-traffic and left-turning traffic to move through the intersection at the same time. The improvements will reduce total traffic delay by 3 hours during both the morning and evening peak hours. The improvements will also enhance traffic flow and reduce emissions during off-peak times, but the benefit will be greatest during peak hours.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

Travel analysis performed by VISSIM Microscopic Simulation model used recent traffic counts and traffic signal information to give an average delay in seconds per vehicle at the intersection. (Total Delay = Peak Hour volume * Average Delay in sec/veh/3600). Hourly reduction in delay is calculated separately for the AM and PM peak periods and summed.

The analysis showed that the proposed improvements would enhance traffic flow during peak hours increasing from 5,800 to 6,500 VPH in the AM peak, and from 6,200 to 6,700 VPH in the PM peak. Average delay would drop from 92.6 to 36.0 sec/veh in the AM peak, and 178.3 to 34.4 sec/veh in the PM peak. Net reduction in delay is 84.2 veh-hr/hr in the AM peak and 304.5 veh-hr/hr in the PM peak.

Intersection analysis also shows change in LOS for each intersection segment.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay - 388 vehicle-hours/hour
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 20.12 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 5.18 kg/day
  • Emissions reductions calculated from changes in delay.
  • Emissions factors were developed using MOBILE6, using 2.5 Mph speed, and converted into idle emissions factors.
  • Emissions factor for VOC = 10.35 g/mi
  • Emissions factor for NOX= 2.67 g/mi

Emissions reduction = Delay in vehicle-hours/hour * Emissions Factor * 2.5 (conversion of gm/mi to gm/hr) * 2 hours per day (calculated for 2-hour Am peak and 2-hour Pm peak separately, and summed)

Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 25.30 kg/day
(0.028 tpd)
Costs
  Project life: 10yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $4,400,000 $1,100,000 $5,500,000

Assumes that project has benefits 260 days per year. To calculate overall cost-effectiveness, need to develop assumptions regarding useful life of project (could be 20 years for an infrastructure project of this nature, although it's not clear that delay reductions will remain constant over this long of a period).

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $4,400,000 $1,100,000 $5,500,000
Total annualized public cost $904,773
Annual revenues NONE
Net public cost $5.5 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $5.5 M

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Traffic Signalization

CMAQ Project ID: KY20050008
Project Year: 2005
Location: Lexington, Kentucky
MPO: Lexington Area MPO
Description: Fiber Optic Cable Installation For Traffic Signal Optimization - This project will fund an expansion of the fiber optic cable installation for the arterial road network in Fayette County. Fiber optic cables provide a more reliable and dependable communication medium for the current traffic signal system data and video needs. It also provides the needed communications infrastructure into the foreseeable future for roadside subsystems like vehicle detection and surveillance. Fiber optic cable installation greatly reduces maintenance requirements of the existing, aging copper wire and analog telephone communication infrastructure and it all but eliminates the interruption of service due to lightning strikes and electrical power surges. Thus, this technology has helped to eliminate most of the need to block traffic lanes for repairs, thereby improving the safety of the roadway for all users and lessening delays caused by lane blockages.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

Delay = 4 minutes per vehicle, based on a report on the Integrated Traffic SigNAl System from 2001, which determined the reduction in delay and corresponding emissions savings by using an average reduction for 18 intersections and projecting it throughout the total system.

Vehicle counts provided by Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Division of Planning

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay - 4 min/vehicle
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 35.5 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 9.1 kg/day

Emissions factors are based on EPA calculations for general vehicle fleet mix. The percentage of vehicle types or classifications was used to determine the grams of pollutant reduced per minute by the reduction in delay, using Our Nation's Highways, from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).

(average of vehicle counts per arterial) x (minute of delay reduced by fiber optic) x (g/min per VOC, NOx, CO) = total grams VOC, NOx, CO per day

Δ CO - 378.0 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 44.6 kg/day
(0.05 tpd)
Costs
Project life: NA Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $320,000 $80,000 $400,000

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $320,000 $80,000 $400,000
Total annualized public cost NA
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $400,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $400,000

NOTE: Emissions reductions reported in CMAQ database differ from estimates provided or calculated from sponsor-provided documentation. Reductions reported in the CMAQ database were reported in the template. The project calculation showed much higher values (-200.94 kg/day VOC, -54.89 kg/day NOx, -2,272 kg/day CO); however, a more recent, similar project reported figures closer to the values reported in the CMAQ database. The project specifics seem to indicate that the delay reduction (4 min/vehicle) is an extrapolation of the effects of the project across the entire system, not just for the 18 intersections.

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Traffic Signalization

CMAQ Project ID: OH20050033
Project Year: 2005
Location: Newark, Ohio
MPO: Licking County Area Transportation Study
Description: Signal Timing along West Main Street This project will coordinate the signals at intersections along Main Street in Newark, Ohio. The data for this study were taken directly from a 1999 traffic study, which determined which intersections should qualify for signal timing to reduce the amount of delay and emissions. The intersections are Main street and Williams Street, Fulton Street, SR79 south bound ramps, SR79 north bound ramps, Union Street, and Eleventh Street.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

Modeling done using Syncro Version 5 for the PM period. There is minor congestion during the entire business day, so the AM and PM Peak Periods are similar. The change in delay was calculated for four (4) intersections using the following formula: (Approach Volume * Stop Control Delay) (Approach Volume * Signalized Delay) = Total Delay Reduction

  • SR79S (1,568 veh * 26.1 veh/sec) (1,568 veh * 6.5 veh/sec) = -8.54 hours/day
  • SR79N (1,523 veh * 1,579 veh/sec) (1,523 veh * 15.5 veh/sec) = -661.7 hour/day
  • Union St. (1,580 veh * 9.2 veh/sec) (1,580 veh * 22.6 veh/sec) = +5.88 hours/day
  • 11th St. (1,536 veh * 95.4 veh/sec) (1,568 veh * 7.2 veh/sec) = -37.63 hour/day
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay - 702 hours/day
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 5.115 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 3.909 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile6. Idle emissions calculated using exhaust emissions for a 2.5 mile/hour average speed.

The Mobile Factors used Main Street as a Minor Arterial Urban Class 16 and all intersecting streets as Local Urban Class 19 to determine emissions.

Δ CO - 90.710 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -9.02 kg/day
(0.0099 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 5-10yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $355,302 $284,241 $639,543

Documentation provided by the State indicates the project was funded in FY 2005 and 2006 and some portion of funds de-obligated in FY 2007. Cost-effectiveness was not provided by sponsor.

FFY 05 FFY 06 FFY 07 Total Obligated
$55,214.50 $359,563.00 -$59,475.57 $355,301.93

Project sponsor assumes service life is 5 years. The cost-effectiveness analysis in this study used 10 years for consistency with other signalization projects.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $355,302 $284,241 $639,543
Total annualized public cost $98,414
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $639,543
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $639,543

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Traffic Signalization

CMAQ Project ID: TN20050016
Project Year: 2005
Location: Knoxville, Tennessee
MPO: Knoxville Urbanized Area MPO
Description: Signal Timing on SR-169 Cedar Bluff to College St. - This project will fund the traffic signal timing and synchronization of traffic signals along Middlebrook Park from Cedar Bluff St. to College St.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA
  • Daily VMT = 25,935 average daily traffic x 9.47 mile corridor length = 245,065 VMT on corridor.
  • An average improvement in speed/travel of 12% for traffic signal upgrades of this type is noted in the publication "A Toolbox for Alleviating Traffic Congestion and Enhancing Mobility" from ITE.
  • Average speed increased from 34 mph to 38 mph.
Δ Speed + 4 mph
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 14.969 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx + 2.206 kg/day

Emissions factors for before project implementation and after project implementation based on MOBILE6 and average speeds of 34 mph and 38 mph, respectively.

Emissions reduction = VMT x (Emissions Factor before project Emissions Factor after project)

  • VOC Emissions reduction = 245,065 VMT x (1.883 1.826) / 1000 = 14.969 kg/day
  • NOx Emissions reduction = 245,065 x (1.847 1.856) / 1000 = -2.206 kg/day
Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 12.763 kg/day
(0.014 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 10yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $33,000 $0 $33,000

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $33,000 $0 $33,000
Total annualized public cost $5,078
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $33,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $33,000

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Traffic Signalization

CMAQ Project ID: KY20060009
Project Year: 2006
Location: Kentucky
MPO: Lexington Area MPO
Description: Installation of Reversible Lanes on Nicholasville Road (US-27) - This project will create a third northbound traffic lane for the morning peak period using reversible lane controls on Nicholasville Road (US 27) from Southpoint Drive to Tiverton Way. By taking advantage of unutilized median space and low early morning left-turning volumes at the intersection, reversible lane control methods can be used to reassign one of the left-turn lanes as a through-lane during the high-volume period. The project will also require the expansion of the computerized traffic signal system to add new reversible lane signals. This project will improve the traffic flow on Nicholasville Road, which will in turn reduce traffic congestion, accidents, and delays, and ultimately improve air quality.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA
  • Delay (vehicle-hours):
    • 2006 No-build = 362 vehicle-hours of delay
    • 2006 Build = 299 vehicle-hours of delay
  • Change in delay due to project implementation = 362 - 299 = 63 vehicle-hours = 17% reduction in delay

Reduction in delay determined by the Synchro model output, based on a one-hour simulation. These one hour peak delay reductions, per day, were used to determine an average delay for two hours of peak travel reductions.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay - 63 vehicle-hours
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 2.889 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 1.089 kg/day

The delay reductions were used to calculate the emissions savings using emissions factors provided by US EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality.

Reduction in delay * average of vehicle mix for kg/min per CO, NOx, VOC * 255 days per year.

Δ CO - 44.95 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 4 kg/day
(0.0044tpd)
Costs
Project life: 10yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $400,000 $100,000 $500,000

Assumes benefits 255 days/year.

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $400,000 $100,000 $500,000
Total annualized public cost $74,536
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $500,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $500,000

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Traffic Signalization

CMAQ Project ID: Not Yet Assigned
Project Year: 2007
Location: Albany, New York
MPO: Capital District Transportation Committee (CDTC)
Description: Construction of a Two Lane Roundabout at Fuller and Washington - This project will fund the construction of a two-lane roundabout at the intersection of Washington Avenue and Fuller Road (County Road 156) in the City of Albany, Albany County. The intersection currently operates under the control of a traffic signal. The roundabout intersection will include the construction of sidewalks.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

48,670 average traffic volumes for Year 2009 were calculated using the CDTC STEP Model. The CDTC STEP Model forecast was validated using a 1999 intersection count and used to calculate seconds of delay for approach vehicles with the existing signalized intersection. The RODEL Roundabout Capacity Model was used to conduct an analysis of the Washington Avenue/Fuller Road intersection and was used to calculate seconds of delay for approach vehicles under the new, roundabout build scenario. (11.5 sec avg "No Build" delay 5 sec avg "New Roundabout" delay = 6.5 sec avg change in delay.

Washington Ave and Fuller Rd Roundabout Capacity RODEL Analysis 1999 counts
Leg Flow (veh/hr) Avg Delay Avg Queue Max Delay Max Queue
Washington Ave EB 1212 5 sec 2 7 sec 2
Fuller Rd NB 591 5 sec 1 7 sec 1
Washington Ave WB 1368 6 sec 2 9 sec 3
Fuller Rd SB 885 4 sec 1 6 sec 1
Washington Ave and Fuller Rd Roundabout Capacity RODEL Analysis 1999 counts increased to 2009 total approach volume of CDTC STEP Model
Leg Flow (veh/hr) Avg Delay Avg Queue Max Delay Max Queue
Washington Ave EB 1454 14 sec 5 25 sec 9
Fuller Rd NB 709 10 sec 2 18 sec 3
Washington Ave WB 1642 16 sec 7 30 sec 13
Fuller Rd SB 1062 6 sec 2 11 sec 3

VMT was estimated using a quarter mile approach for each leg of the intersection. Speeds were calculated over that same distance as 15 mph under existing conditions and 29 mph with the roundabout.

The STEP model was also used to calculate seconds of delay for vehicles with the existing signalized intersection for the no-build scenario. The NYSDOT Roundabout Design Unit conducted an analysis of the proposed improvement using the RODEL Roundabout Capacity model to calculate seconds of delay for approach vehicles under the build scenario.

Δ Speed + 14 mph
Δ Delay - 6.5 sec/veh.
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 24.17 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 1.94 kg/day

The NYSDOT software package CMAQtraq was used to estimate emissions, using the "Traffic Flow Improvements" module. Effects were calculated for 250 days/year with the following emissions factors (g/mile):

  • CO = Before: 18.01 After: 16.02
  • VOC = Before: 1.01 After: 0.71
  • NOx = Before: 0.95 After: 0.79
Δ CO - 24.17 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 26.11 kg/day
(0.029 tpd)
Costs
Project life: NA Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $2.0 M $2.87 M $4.87 M

Funding will include planning, design, and construction of the intersection improvement. A cost effectiveness calculation was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $2.0 M $2.87 M $4.87 M
Total annualized public cost $467,981
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $4.87 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $4.87 M

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Freeway Management

CMAQ Project ID: LA20030008
Project Year: 2003
Location: Baton Rouge, Louisiana
MPO: Capital Regional Planning Commission
Description: ITS on I-10 from Acadian St. to Highland Blvd. - Project will continue phase II of the Baton Rouge ITS plan, and include installing freeway ITS components along I-10 from Acadian St. to Highland Blvd. to assist with incident detection and response, motorist assistance, and surveillance.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

The overall level of VMT and vehicle trips is not assumed to be affected. Emissions reductions will occur through a reduction in nonrecurring congestion.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 189.601 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 488.972 kg/day

Emissions factors for baton rouge based on MOBILE Model; assumed running speed of 40 MPH. Emissions reductions were applied to the length of I-10, as follows:

  1. Freeway emissions = freeway VMT (from Tranplan model) * Emissions factor (from MOBILE in grams/mile)
  2. Freeway emissions due to nonrecurring congestion = freeway emissions * 0.049 (assumes 4.9% of freeway emissions are caused by nonrecurring congestion using data from Lindley, J. A. "Urban Freeway Congestion: Quantification of the Problem and Effectiveness of Potential Solutions." 1987).
  3. Emissions reduced due to program = freeway emissions due to nonrecurring congestion * effectiveness factor. Effectiveness factor assumed to be 0.90, based on effectiveness rate of 50% for Incident Detection and Response, 25% for Motorist Assistance, and 15% for Surveillance.
Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -678.573 kg/day
(0.748 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 10yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $2,712,940 $0 $2,712,940

Assumes that project has benefits 260 days per year (all weekdays). Cost-effectiveness calculation will need to take into account the life of the capital equipment.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $2,712,940 $0 $2,712,940
Total annualized public cost $443,109
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $2,712,940
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $2,712,940

NOTE: Assumption that 4.9% of freeway emissions are due to nonrecurring congestion is based on old source and there may be more recent data available. Calculation seems to assume 90% reduction in emissions associated with non-recurrent congestion, and it is not clear that the effectiveness of each ITS component should be additive.

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Freeway Management

CMAQ Project ID: WA20040027
Project Year: 2004
Location: Seattle, Washington
MPO: Puget Sound Regional Council
Description: Duwamish ITS System - This project will minimize the conflicts among freight movement, transit travel, commuter traffic, and ferry access, while enhancing safety and mobility for people and goods. The project will include, among other things: interconnection of traffic signals and controller equipment upgrading, installation of variable message signs and other driver information systems, implementation of traffic control strategies, and CCTV and roadway signs to monitor traffic conditions and accidents.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

The assumptions for input into TCM Tools included the expectation that the project will improve both peak and off-peak period speeds by 10% (from 19 to 21 mph), with an average daily traffic (ADT) of 200,000 in 2010.

Δ Speed + 2 mph
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 76 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 4 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using the TCM Tools program created by Parsons Brinkerhoff and Sierra Research in 1994, which applies project data to the project year's (2004) MOBILE emissions factors and regional data to produce the emissions reductions for CO, VOCs, and NOx.

Δ CO - 939 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 80 (kg/day)
(0.088 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 10yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $998,037 $1,001,963 $2.0 M

Total Project Cost: ~$2,000,000 (other funds in the project include other federal and State/local funds). Cost-effectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor.

Project assumes benefits 252 days per year.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $998,037 $1,001,963 $2.0 M
Total annualized public cost $318,190
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $2.0 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $2.0 M

NOTE: The CMAQ project amount in the CMAQ database is $862,192 for this project. Total project costs and CMAQ funding provided by the State were used to calculate the amounts in the table.

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Freeway Management

CMAQ Project ID: CT20050001
Project Year: 2005
Location: Connecticut
MPO: South Central Regional COG MPO
Description: Incident Management System on I-95 - This project will fund the construction of a 13.94 mile portion of an incident management system on I-95 from exit 56 to exit 64. The overall project will include the installation of a fiber-optic communication system, video surveillance, traffic flow monitors, and a link to the Bridgeport Operations Center. The incident management project will provide an effective means of managing traffic congestion by allowing operational problems to be identified sooner and by enabling faster dispatch of the proper response equipment and medical services to a site.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 23,561 /day

Length is 13.94 miles, 10.22 in Fairfield County and 3.72 miles in Greater Connecticut.

The "Connecticut Freeway Management System" report documents the effects of incident management systems. Based on the report, this type of system will result in annual delay savings of 1.72 million vehicle hours (MVH) for a corridor length of 65 miles, based on a congested incident speed of 5 mph, and a free flow speed of 55 mph. The daily VMT traveled without an IM system in place is 1.72 MVH x 5 mph / 365 days = 23,561 VMT.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 6.11 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 3.00 kg/day
For Fairfield County:
  • VOC reduction = (1.700 0.490) x 23,561 / 65 miles x 10.22 miles = 4.48 kg/day
  • NOx reduction = (1.988 1.395) x 23,561 / 65 miles x 10.22 miles = 2.20 kg/day
  • PM2.5 reduction = (0.288 0.287) x 23,561 / 65 miles x 10.22 = 0.004 kg/day
For Greater Connecticut Area:
  • VOC reduction = (1.700 0.490) x 23,561 / 65 miles x 3.72 miles = 1.63 kg/day
  • NOx reduction = (1.988 1.395) x 23,561 / 65 miles x 3.72 miles = 0.80 kg/day
Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 - 0.004 kg/day
Δ Total - 9.11 kg/day
(0.01 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 10yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $1,279,246 $142,138 $1,421,384  
Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $1,279,246 $142,138 $1,421,384
Total annualized public cost $218,725
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $1,421,384
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $1,421,384

NOTE: Emissions reductions reported in CMAQ database differ from estimates provided or calculated from sponsor-provided documentation (-9.1 kg/day VOC, -4.6 kg/day NOx).

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Freeway Management

CMAQ Project ID: Not Yet Assigned
Project Year: 2007
Location: Birmingham, AL
MPO: Birmingham RPC
Description: Alabama Service Patrols Program - The Alabama Service and Assistance Patrol, or "A.S.A.P" has been a program of the Alabama Department of Transportation and the Alabama State Troopers since 1997. A.S.A.P service trucks offer a variety of free services to disabled motorist to reduce response time by appropriate authorities responding to traffic related incidents and to minimize major disruption of interstate flow at an incident location. In addition, video cameras placed along interstate routes permit the State Troopers to monitor traffic flow at priority, high-traffic flow locations, which are more likely to have a traffic incident. A.S.A.P. operators patrol from 6 am to 10 pm..
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA
  • 306 total vehicles were relocated to ramps and 69 accidents were relocated from a travel lane. Data provided by Alabama DOT for 7/3/2006-6/29/2007 period.
  • Estimated percentage of disabled vehicles which occur during peak period = 25%
  • Estimated percentage of incidents which occur in peak period = 50%
  • Total numbers of accidents (travel lane opened during project) = 111 accidents
  • Traffic volume prior to project = 1400 vehicle/hour/lane
  • Average number of blocked lanes during incidents = 1.1 lanes
  • Average number of lanes for the InterState highway = 3 lanes
  • Incident duration prior to project = 1.10 hours
  • Incident duration after project implementation = 0.71 hours

Incident Delay = Traffic volume * (Average number of blocked lanes during incidents / total lanes in corridor) * Incident duration

Change in delay = Incident delay without project Incident delay with project
(7,126 vehicle hours 3,277 vehicle hours = 3,849 vehicle hours)

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay: (vehicle hours/incident) - 3,849 / incident
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 31.25 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 11.88 kg/day
  • HC Idle Emissions Factor during incident 19.018 grams/hour
  • NOx Idle Emissions Factor during incident 7.230 grams/hour
  • PM 2.5 Standard PM idle emissions factor 0.072 grams/hour (2005)
  • PM 2.5 Standard NOx idle emissions factor 6.618 grams/hour (2005)

For each pollutant, the Change in delay * Emissions Factor / 1,000 * 111 annual incidents / 260 working days = kg of emissions reduced per day.

Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 - 0.12 kg/day
Δ Total -43.1 kg/day
Costs
Project life: 1 yrs Interest rate: 7 %
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $0 $0 $0

Cost information is provided for 1 year of operating funding, or 260 days per year.

Project sponsor calculated cost effectiveness as: the Annual project cost / (Emissions reduced * 260 days)

  • VOC Cost Effectiveness: $105 dollars/kg/year
  • NOx Cost Effectiveness: $277 dollars/kg/year
  • PM2.5 Cost Effectiveness: $27,827 dollars/kg/year
Adm/oper $240,000 $560,000 $800,000
Total $240,000 $560,000 $800,000
Total annualized public cost $800,000
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $800,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $800,000

Category: TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVMENTS

Subcategory: HOV Lanes

CMAQ Project ID: TX20020069
Project Year: 2002
Location: Dallas, Texas
MPO: North Central Texas Council of Governments
Description: Dallas HOV Interchange - This project will fund the construction of an HOV Interchange at IH635 and US75 in Dallas. The project was selected by the Regional Transportation Council (Dallas-Fort Worth MPO policy body) in 2001. The project was originally funded almost entirely through the National Highway System (NHS) program, but in 2001, CMAQ funding was added for the construction of the HOV portion of the interchange. The project was selected during a strategic assessment of regional priorities by the Regional Transportation Council. The reduction methodology is adapted from "The Texas Guide to Accepted Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Strategies" published by Texas Transportation Institute, 2003.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 2,929 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 58,589 /day
  • Assume the number of HOV users per day is 10053.72 and the average vehicle occupancy of rideshares is 2.14 persons per vehicle. Also assume the percentage of people attracted to the HOV which:
    • Use transit = 0.14
    • Use transit and previously drove alone= 0.56
    • Use ride share = 0.83
    • Use ride share and previously drove alone = 0.56
  • Calculate daily vehicle trip reduction = 10053.72 users * (0.14 * 0.56 + 0.83 * 0.56) * (1 1 / 2.14 persons/vehicle)
  • Calculate VMT reduction = 2,929 trips reduced * 20 mile average auto trip length.
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 68.78 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 135.32 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile6 running emissions factors, assuming a 43 mph running speed on freeways before the project = NOx: 1.22 and VOC 0.53 grams/mile. Speed-based running exhaust emissions factor for the HOV facility, assuming a 51 mph speed = NOx: 1.32 and VOC 0.51 grams/mile. Speed-based running exhaust emissions factor for general purpose lanes, assuming a 43 mph speed = NOx: 1.22 and VOC 0.53 grams/mile.

Calculate change in running exhaust emissions from vehicles shifting from general purpose lanes to HOV lanes. Assume Average Peak Traffic on HOV lanes after project is 783 vehicles/hour and 6 peak hours per day. The HOV length is 20.9 miles. Calculate change in running exhaust emissions from vehicles in general purpose lanes as a result of vehicles shifted away from general purpose lanes. Assume Average Peak Traffic on general purpose lane before project is 10,358 vehicles/hour and the Average Peak Traffic on general purpose lane after project is 10,797 vehicles/hour.

Calculate the reduction in auto start emissions from trip reductions using an auto trip end emissions factor for NOx: 0.39 grams/mile and VOC: 1.25 grams/mile and the trip reductions. Calculate the reduction in auto running exhaust emissions from trip reductions using the emissions factor before project implementation and the vehicle miles reduced.

Δ CO Kg
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total - 204.10 kg/day
(0.22 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7 %
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $17.152 M $237,418,093 $254,570,093

The funding details for this project are as follows: $254,570,093 total at letting ($229,853,137 Category 2 funds (NHS account in Texas), $17,152,000 CMAQ, $4,288,000 State funds, $122,856 TxDOT Green Ribbon Funds, and $3,154,100 local). A cost effectiveness calculation was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $17.152 M $237,418,093 $254,570,093
Total annualized public cost $28,194,000
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $254,570,093
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $254,570,093
Updated: 07/06/2011
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000