Skip to content U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway AdministrationU.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration

Office of Planning, Environment, & Realty (HEP)
PlanningEnvironmentReal Estate

HEP Events Guidance Publications Awards Contacts

SAFETEA-LU Evaluation and Assessment Phase I

Appendix C. CMAQ Project Templates

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: New Bus Services

CMAQ Project ID: WI20000004
Project Year: 2001
Location: Racine, Wisconsin
MPO: Milwaukee-Racine
Description: City of Racine New Sunday Bus Service - This project will expand the current bus service in the City of Racine by instituting Sunday service hours. It is expected that service would run from 8 AM to 4 PM, and would be provided over eight routes within the City of Racine on an hourly basis, using nine buses. Morning trips would focus on church-related activities and afternoon trips on shopping and social activities.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 72/day (Sunday only) METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT NA

Assumes that 9 new bus trips per vehicle hour will be generated on the new service, and would replace drive alone trips.

Vehicle trip reduction = 9 new bus trips per vehicle hour x 8 hours of service = 72 trips reduced each Sunday.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit + 72/day
(Sunday)
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 2.9 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 3.2 kg/day

Emissions reductions were calculated by multiplying VMT reduction by per-mile emissions factors for a typical summer day, based on MOBILE.

Δ CO NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -6.1 kg/day
Costs
Project life: 1 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $0 $0 $0

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by sponsor. In order to calculate cost-effectiveness, assume the project has benefits 52 days per year, since emissions reductions were calculated for each Sunday.

Adm/oper $157,382 $39,345 $196,727
Total $157,382 $39,345 $196,727
Total annualized public cost $196,727
Annual revenues NA
Net public cost $196,727
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $196,727

NOTE: The project documentation could not provide the assumptions for average trip length and how they estimated 9 new bus trips per vehicle hour. The value seems low, given that the service will include 8 routes, implying only about one passenger per each bus. It should be noted that the daily emissions reduction is for each Sunday (emissions rates are based on summer weather conditions).

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVMENTS

Subcategory: New Bus Service

CMAQ Project ID: NY20050028
Project Year: 2005
Location: Long Island, New York
MPO: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council
Description: Expanded S 92 Bus Route - This project will fund upgrades to the current Monday Saturday Suffolk County Transit (SCT) bus route S 92, improving bus frequencies during AM and PM peak periods from 1 hour to 30 minutes. Prior to July 2004, this bus route operated approximately 1,505 miles of daily revenue service between Orient Point/Greenport and East Hampton via Riverhead, Southampton Village, and Sag Harbor. The 70 mile long bus line regularly reaches capacity halfway along the route, leaving riders behind to catch taxis and carpool rides from other drivers. In some instances, employers from Southampton would travel to Riverhead and the North Fork to collect workers due to the uncertainty of the transit service. This project would provide additional AM and PM peak period bus trips at 30 minute frequencies 4 AM trips and 4 PM trips in each direction. The added trips will increase passenger capacity and the 30 minute interval will offer more flexible travel times.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 358 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 6,640 /day
  • The additional ridership with this project is estimated at 200 passengers/day on weekdays and 160 on Saturdays. The estimated average passenger trip length is 19 miles. Travel speeds along the route are estimated as 40 mph.
    • Autos daily vehicle trip change = - 200 weekday passengers + 160 weekend passengers = 360 trips
    • Autos daily VMT change = 360 trips x 19 mile trip length = 6,840 VMT reduction.
  • There will be 2 new roundtrip bus trips each day with the new service. The bus travels 140 miles on each roundtrip and averages 40 mph.
    • Bus daily trip change = + 2 bus trips/day
    • Bus daily VMT change = + 280 miles/day
  • Total daily vehicle trip change = 360 auto trips reduced 2 new bus trips = 358 daily vehicle trip reduction.
  • Total daily VMT change = 6,849 auto VMT reduction 280 bus VMT increase = 6,640 daily VMT reduction.
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit + 2 bus trips/day
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 6.66 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx + 7.22 kg/day
  • The NYSDOT software package CMAQtraq was used; the "Vehicle Reduction due to Transit" module to estimate emissions reductions from passenger vehicles and the "New Transit Bus" module to estimate emissions increases from the new bus service. Effects were calculated for 260 days/year with the following emissions factors (g/mile):
    • CO: Autos = 16.07 Bus = 6.30
    • VOC: Autos = 0.72 Bus = 0.98
    • NOx: Autos = 0.71 Bus = 17.13
    • PM2.5: Autos = 0.0133 Bus = 1.4543
    • PM10: Autos = 0.0269 Bus = 1.5926
  • Total Emissions = (Autos emissions factor * 988,000 Autos miles) - (Bus emissions factor * 72,800 bus miles) / 1,000
Δ CO - 153.39 kg/day
Δ PM10 + 0.96 kg/day
Δ PM2.5 + 1.00 kg/day
Δ Total NA
Costs
Project life: 3 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $0 $0 $0

This project will have 260 days of operation. The project cost is for 3 years of operating subsidy. The non-CMAQ portion of the project cost will be funded by the local government with $90,000 in transit fares and county funding for $66,000.

Adm/oper $264,000 $156,000 $420,000
Total $264,000 $156,000 $420,000
Total annualized public cost $135,907
Annual revenues $90,000
Net public cost $330,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $330,000

NOTE: The $264,000 CMAQ funding amount provided by the project sponsor does not match the $336,000 listed in the CMAQ database. The emissions reductions estimates provided by the project sponsor also do not match those listed in the database (-2.5 kg/day VOC, +2.1 kg/day NOx, -59.3 kg/day CO, -0.3 kg/day PM10, and -0.4 kg/day PM2.5). The calculations in the document provided for this project did not account for the additional 160 weekend passengers; it only calculated Vehicle Trip Reduction (- 200/day) and VMT Reduction (-3,800/day) for 200 additional passengers. Within the project documentation, the project is described as providing an additional four AM trips and four PM trips; however, the project calculations only account for 2 additional trips per day.

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: New Bus Services

CMAQ Project ID: RI20050003
Project Year: 2005
Location: Rhode Island
MPO: Rhode Island State Planning Council
Description: Expanded Route 30 and New Route 12 - This program developed and implemented new transit operations expected to increase transit usage. A new express portion was added to Route 30, and a new Route 12 was created.
Travel Impacts (For New Express Portion of Route 30)
Δ Vehicle trips - 53/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 771/day
  • Calculate daily ridership increase due to new express portion of Route 30 service: 64 persons (1,049 with new service 985 with old service).
  • Daily vehicle reduction = 64 new 1.2 persons/vehicle = 53 daily vehicle reduction.
  • Assumes average Route 30 round trip = 14.42 mi (calculated based on half of non-express portion of route + express portion of route).
  • Daily VMT reduction = 53 vehicle trips reduced * 14.42 miles = 771 VMT reduction per day.
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV - 874 /day
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit + 64 person/day
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions (For New Express Portion of Route 30)
Δ VOC - 0.92 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 1.05 kg/day
  • Emissions reductions were calculated by multiplying VMT reduction by per-mile emissions factors.
  • Assumes speed = 35 mph.

CO emissions calculated for winter.

Δ CO - 17.89 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -2.0 kg/day
Travel Impacts (For New Route 12)
Δ Vehicle trips - 156 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 6,638 /day
  • CALCULATE TRAVEL ON OLD ROUTE: Utilization rates determined from existing ridership. (448 persons). Daily vehicle reduction = 448 persons/day 1.2 persons/vehicle = 373 daily vehicle reduction.
  • Roundtrip length of old Route 12 trip = 15.9 mi.
  • Daily VMT reduction = 373 daily vehicle reduction * 15.9 miles = 5,932 daily VMT reduction
  • Calculate Travel on New Route: Total daily ridership for Expanded Route 12 = 635 persons/day. Daily vehicle reduction = 635 persons/day 1.2 persons/vehicle = 529 daily vehicle reduction
  • NEW Route 12 Roundtrip length = 23.74 mi.
  • Daily VMT reduction = 529 vehicle reduction * 23.74 miles = 12,570 daily VMT reduction

Difference equals net change due to new route.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit + 187 /day
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions (For New Route 12)
Δ VOC - 5.78 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 10.00 kg/day

Emissions were calculated by multiplying VMT by per-mile emissions factors from MOBILE in the base case (with old route) and with the expanded route.

Assumes: Speed = 35 mph for roadways where miles reduced under old route; Speed = 55 mph for roadways where miles reduced with expanded route.

  • Emissions reductions with old route: 7.06 kg/day VOC, 137.69 kg/day CO (winter), 8.07 kg/day NOx.
  • Emissions reductions with expanded route: 12.84 kg/day VOC, 310.79 kg/day CO (winter), 18.07 kg/day NOx. CO emissions only for winter.
Δ CO - 173.11 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total NA
Emissions (for Route 30 + Route 12)
Δ HC NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VOC - 6.7 kg/day

Sum totals from both routes.

Δ NOx - 11.1 kg/day
Δ CO - 173.11 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -17.8 kg/day
Costs
Project life: 2 yrs Interest rate: 7 %
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $440,000 $110,000 $550,000

Annualized cost depends on whether costs include capital or only operating expenses.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $440,000 $110,000 $550,000
Total annualized public cost $328,780
Annual revenues NA
Net public cost $550,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $550,000

NOTE: Calculation methodology does not take into account changes in bus emissions associated with changes to the bus services.

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: New Rail Services

CMAQ Project ID: UT20020001
Project Year: 2002
Location: Utah
MPO: Wasatch Front Regional Council
Description: Purchase of 5 New Light Rail Vehicles - This project is the expansion of the current Light Rail service through the purchase of 5 new Light Rail Vehicles for its TRAX North/South line.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 2,046 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 24,552 /day

Assumes 1,023 daily new light rail round-trip riders x 2 trips per day = 2,046 vehicle trips reduced.

Daily VMT reduction = 1023 new riders * 24 average round trip = 24,552 VMT reduced.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 27.0 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 33.0 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated by applying passenger car CO, NOx, and VOC g/mile rates for freeways and arterials.

Congestion was measured by converting VMT reduction to Annual Vehicle Hours reduced: 75% on congested freeways @ 35 mph, 25% on congested arterials @ 17 mph.

Δ CO - 305.0 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -60.0 kg/day
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $4,000,000 $0 $4,000,000

Cost benefit was calculated using a weighted ranking system that considered the following:

  1. (10%) Project in a congested corridor
  2. (15%) Length (years) of project effectiveness
  3. (25%) Emissions reduction
  4. (25%) Congestion reduction (VHT)
  5. (25%) Cost

This objective ranking was then combined with subjective rankings by staff and 3 different committees consisting of city planners and elected officials.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $4,000,000 $0 $4,000,000
Total annualized public cost $443,012
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $4,000,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $4,000,000

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVMENTS

Subcategory: New Rail Services

CMAQ Project ID: TX20030147
Project Year: 2003
Location: Dallas, Texas
MPO: North Central Texas Council of Governments
Description: TRE Double Tracking of Segments - This project will fund the construction of double tracking segments of the Trinity Railway Express (TRE) route between Dallas and Fort Worth. This project was selected during the 1999 Call for Projects held by the Dallas-Ft. Worth MPO and selected based on the demonstrated costs per ton of NOx emissions reduced. The project is part of a long-range plan by TRE to continue adding capacity through new siding construction. The strategy reduces emissions by providing new rail system services and/or expanding existing services to increase overall system ridership. The reduction methodology is adapted from "The Texas Guide to Accepted Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Strategies" published by Texas Transportation Institute, 2003.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 5,400 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 108,000/day

Assume 80% of new transit riders were previously vehicle drivers. Estimate new transit ridership will be 6,750 people. (6,750 riders * 0.8 = 5,400 vehicle trips reduced)

Assume the average auto trip length is 20 miles (5,400 vehicle trips reduced x 20 miles = 108,000 vehicle miles reduced per day).

Assume each transit vehicle takes 5 trips per day and travels an average of 679 miles.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 67.18 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 110 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile6 emissions factors, assuming a 34 mph running speed on all roadway types. Speed-based running exhaust emissions factor for roadways before project = NOx: 1.00 and VOC 0.56 grams/mile. Auto trip-end emissions factors = NOx: 0.39 and VOC: 1.25 grams/trip. Transit trip-end emissions factors for NOx and VOC are 0.0 grams/mile because starting emissions factors are not associated with the diesel locomotives that will be used in the TRE system equipment.

Reduction in daily auto start emissions from trips reduced = 5,400 trips x auto trip-end emissions factor for NOx and VOC. Reduction in daily auto running emissions = 108,000 miles x speed based running exhaust emissions factor for roadways for NOx and VOC. Increase in daily emissions from additional train starts = 5 transit trips * transit trip-end emissions factor (zero).

Δ CO Kg
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total NA
Costs
Project life: 20 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $36,253,821 $34,218,521 $70,472,342
  • 11449 - TRE Quiet Zones and Quad Gates.
  • $4,174,000 total ($3,339,200 STP-MM, $834,800 local).

TRE Elevated Double Tracked Section from West of Irby to Gilbert Rd: $66,298,342 total ($36,253,821 CMAQ, $1,328,585 STP-MM, $2,519,859 TxDOT PASS Funds, $26,196,077 local).

A cost effectiveness calculation was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $36,253,821 $34,218,521 $70,472,342
Total annualized public cost $7,631,000
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $70,472,342
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $70,472,342

NOTE: Emissions reductions reported in the CMAQ database are different than those reported by the State because assumptions and emissions factors have been updated since the original calculations (-458 kg/day VOC, -78.1 kg/day NOx, -479.3 CO). The calculation does not account for any increase in emissions from the commuter rail.

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: New Rail Services

CMAQ Project ID: CT20050027
Project Year: 2005
Location: Fairfield, Connecticut
MPO: Greater Bridgeport Regional Planning Agency
Description: Construct Rail Station Platforms and Bridge - This project will fund the construction of a new commuter rail station, the Fairfield Metro-North Railroad station. The project will serve the residents of Fairfield, Connecticut, including students of Fairfield University as well as nearby areas such as Black Rock within the city of Bridgeport via the New Haven Line. The station will be a joint development, with a developer providing parking spaces and the State providing the railroad platform and an access roadway.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips 0 METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 15,792 /day
  • Assumes 1,200 new parking spaces for rail patrons.
  • Assumes 1/3 of the total ridership would be from new riders (based on rail ridership forecasts prepared by the Department for the new West Haven/Orange Rail Station Study).
  • Roundtrip distances based on data from the Department's 2000 AM Peak Rail Survey. Of the Fairfield resident users, 21% destined to points within Connecticut, 79% destined to New York.
  • Vehicle trip reduction =1,200 parking spaces x 1/3 new ridership utilization = 400 daily round trips reduced (no trip starts reduced).
  • VMT reduction = (400 vehicle trips reduced x 21% x 30 miles) + (400 vehicle trips reduced x 79% x 42 miles) = 2520 + 13,272 = 15,792 VMT reduced daily.
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 6.0 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 6.0 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile6.2 with an average speed of 50 mph.

  • Trips within Connecticut (30 miles roundtrip):
    Daily emissions reduction = VMT x emissions factor.
  • New York-destined trips (42 miles roundtrip):
    Daily emissions reduction = VMT x emissions factor.
Δ CO Kg
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 - 1.0 kg/day
Δ Total - 12.0 kg/day
(0.0132 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 30 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $2.4 M $600,000 $3.0 M

Assume benefits 260 days per year.

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor.

  • Annualized Cost = $3.0M x 0.081 CRF = $37,000 (assuming no private costs and no parking revenue).
  • C/E = $37,000 / (0.0132 x 260) = $10,781/ton.
Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $2.4 M $600,000 $3.0 M
Total annualized public cost $261,300
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $3.0 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $3.0 M

NOTE: Emissions reductions reported in CMAQ database differ from estimates provided or calculated from sponsor-provided documentation (-12 kg/day VOC and -12 kg/day NOx). This project description does not distinguish between public and private costs and revenues, although there will presumably be cost-sharing and/or revenues (i.e. Parking fee revenues) between the public and private sectors.

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Service Upgrades/Amenities

CMAQ Project ID: MA20020069
Project Year: 2002
Location: Fitchburg, Massachusetts
MPO: Montachusett Regional Planning Commission
Description: Fitchburg ITC Parking Garage - This project is the construction of a multi-level bus circulation/parking garage adjacent to the existing MART Intermodal Transportation Center on Main Street in Fitchburg. The project will provide parking spaces for about 387 cars, intra- and intercity bus circulation system, fare collection system, and interface with the regional bus service and commuter rail station. The project will also provide an additional 13,000 square feet of retail space in the new facility to be rented out to commercial establishments, including banking, restaurants, and dry cleaners.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips 0 METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 21,070 /day

387 total parking spaces 25 spaces for MART staff 35 spaces for commercial development = 327 new spaces for commuter rail passengers. Assume 100% utilization rate of all 327 new spaces, because demand at the Fitchburg Commuter Rail Station will increase 6% per year and eventually reach an estimated 410 one-way rail passengers.

Using a 1999 survey of rail riders in the Montachusett area, 89.5% of passengers travel to the Cambridge/Boston area, a one-way trip of 43 miles. Based on the survey, conservatively assume that 75% of the 327 new vehicles parked at the facility will have as their final destination Cambridge/Boston. 327 vehicles * 75% = 245 vehicle round trips removed = 490 vehicle trips removed (no trip starts reduced).

Daily VMT reduction = 245 vehicle round trips removed * 86 mile round trip = 21,070 VMT reduced.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 14.0 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 27.0 kg/day

Emissions reductions calculated using Mobile 5a emissions factors. Assumes average travel speed along the Route 2 corridor is 50 mph.

Note: The calculated CO emissions reduction is only for winter months.

Δ CO - 143.0 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -41 kg/day
(0.0451 tpd)
Costs
Project life: - yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $388,000 $237,000 $625,000

The following cost-effectiveness was provided by the project sponsor. First year cost per kg of emissions reduced = Project cost / Adjusted net change (kg/year).

  • VOC cost effectiveness = $625,000 / 3,483 kg/year = $179
  • NOx cost effectiveness = $625,000 / 6,805 kg/year = $91
  • Winter CO cost effectiveness = $625,000 / 35, 197 kg/year = $18
  • Annualized cost = $625,000 x 0.081 CRF = $50,625
  • C/E = $50,625 / (0.0451 x 250) = $4,490/ton
Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $388,000 $237,000 $625,000
Total annualized public cost $625,000
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $625,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $625,000

NOTE: The emissions reduction methodology for the Intermodal Transportation Center does not account for the additional revenues from renting commercial space on the facility or the additional operating cost of the new facility.

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Service Upgrades/Amenities

CMAQ Project ID: MO20040023
Project Year: 2004 - 2006
Location: Kansas City, Missouri
MPO: Mid-American Regional Council
Description: Operation Welcome Aboard Infrastructure - Operation Welcome Aboard is a program designed to increase transit ridership by improving the comfort, attractiveness & usefulness of bus shelters. The project will install 100 bus shelters and pads featuring the new paint scheme of Metro buses. Signage at stops will also be improved to tie in with color and provide valuable route and schedule information. By making bus stops more inviting and useful, new riders will be more likely to find out about transit services and use them.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 405/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 4,050/day

Assume New Bus Ridership will be 450 people/day and the average Bus Trip Length is 10 miles. Estimate that 90 percent of the new bus riders will be switching from autos. Estimates were derived from internal analysis.

  • Vehicle trips reduced = 450 people/day * 0.9 new ridership factor = 405 vehicle trips/day
  • VMT reduced = 405 vehicle trips x 10 miles = 4,050 VMT reduction

Methodology based on December 1995 guidance from CARB entitled "Emissions Reduction Calculation Methodologies."

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit + 450/day
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 2.49 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 3.38 kg/day

Emissions reductions were calculated by multiplying VMT reduction by per-mile emissions factors. Emissions factors developed for the Kansas City region based on MOBILE model; assumed running speed is 35 mph.

Δ CO NA
Δ HC NA
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total NA
Costs
Project life: 10 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $960,000 $240,000 $1.2 M

The multi-year project has joint sponsorship by Kansas and Missouri. Kansas will provide 10% of the CMAQ and local match, while Missouri assumes 90% of the CMAQ and local match funding.

2004 2005 2006
KS20040011 $60 KS20040011 $20 KS20040011 $16
MO20040023 $540 MO20050009 $180 MO2006006 $144

To calculate cost effectiveness, need to assume life of project (recommend 10 years).

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $960,000 $240,000 $1.2 M
Total annualized public cost $190,900
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $1.2 M
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $1.2 M

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Service Upgrades/Amenities

CMAQ Project ID: NY20040006
Project Year: 2004
Location: Suffolk County, New York
MPO: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council
Description: Suffolk County Transit Marketing Program - The project will fund a suite of service upgrades and transit marketing tasks to inform the public of available transit options. These tasks will entail (1) review current marketing materials (2) schedule ads in local radio and newspaper outlets (3) inform the public of the new SCT color scheme (4) develop additional paratransit marketing materials and (5) develop and administer a rider survey.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 176 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 2,499.20 /day

Through these efforts SCT estimates the system will attract 176 new riders each day. The average trip length per rider is 14.2 miles per day and the average travel speed on local network is 18 mph. The system operates 307 days per year.

Daily Trip Reduction = - 176 trips/day x 14.2 miles = 2,499.2 VMT reduced.

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 2.39 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 2.19 kg/day

The NYSDOT software package CMAQtraq was used to estimate emissions for the project, using the "Transit Vehicle Reduction" module at 18 mph running speeds. Effects were calculated for 307 days/year with the following emissions factors (g/mile):

  • CO: 16.29
  • VOC: 0.96
  • NOx: 0.87
  • PM2.5: 0.0133
  • PM10: 0.0269
Δ CO - 40.72 kg/day
Δ PM10 - 0.067 kg/day
Δ PM2.5 - 0.033 kg/day
Δ Total - 4.58 kg/day
(0.0050 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 2 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $0 $0 $0  
Adm/oper $160,000 $40,000 $200,000
Total $160,000 $40,000 $200,000
Total annualized public cost $123,600
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $200,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $200,000

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Service Upgrades/Amenities

CMAQ Project ID: OH20050008
Project Year: 2005
Location: Cuyahoga County, Ohio
MPO: Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency
Description: Laketran AVL-MDT System - Installation of automatic vehicle location (AVL) and mobile data terminal (MDT) systems on Laketran vehicles will improve transit vehicle operations as part of the system's paratransit program. These benefits may include improving schedule adherence, reducing operations cost, improving efficiency, increasing ridership, reducing the number of vehicles needed, and improving routes planning and scheduling.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips NA METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT -465,553 /year
  • Assumes a 7% reduction in the number of vehicles required to serve the same routes and passengers and a 15-18% decrease in travel time on transit.
  • Assume a 17.5% increase in Paratransit ridership (54,387 passengers) traveling an average of 8.56 miles per passenger. (465,553 VMT reduced)

Annual VMT reduction = 54,387 passengers * 8.56 miles of service provided = 465,553 VMT reduction

Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 4.0 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 13.0 kg/day

Emissions reductions were calculated using VMT reductions and EPA Standards in g/mile for HC, CO, NOx and PM in 2004.

Δ CO - 47.0 kg/day
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 NA
Δ Total -17.0 kg/day
(0.0187 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 10 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $2,800,000 $700,000 $3,500,000

The project is split between two years, $1.1 M in funding will be used in 2004 and $2.4 M in 2005. Cost-effectiveness was not provided by sponsor.

Assume technology lasts 10 years.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $2,800,000 $700,000 $3,500,000
Total annualized public cost $538,580
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $3,500,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $3,500,000

Category: TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS

Subcategory: Service Upgrades/Amenities

CMAQ Project ID: Not Yet Assigned
Project Year: 2007
Location: Connecticut
MPO: South Central Regional COG
Description: Commuter Rail Utility Construction - This project will fund the construction of an additional 199 parking spaces at the Guilford Station-Woodruff Farms station along the Shoreline East Line. An AM Peak Rail Origin/Destination Survey was conducted in 2000 to determine the destination towns for and percentage of trips made by patrons boarding at the Guilford rail station.
Travel Impacts
Δ Vehicle trips - 298 /day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ VMT - 10,702 /year

VMT reductions were calculated using the length of highways in each county for each trip destination. Fairfield County had 30% of the VMT reduction (3,172 miles) and New Haven County had 70% of the VMT reduction (7,530 miles).

  • Assume a 100% utilization of the proposed 199 parking spaces in Year 2007.
  • Vehicle trip reduction = 199 spaces x 100% utilization x 2 trips per day = 298 vehicle trips reduced daily.
Δ Speed NA
Δ Delay NA
Δ SOV NA
Δ CP/VP NA
Δ Transit NA
Δ Walk NA
Δ Bike NA
Emissions
Δ VOC - 6.0 kg/day METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Δ NOx - 6.0 kg/day

Emissions factors from MOBILE model with 50 mph traveling speed.

Fairfield County:
  • VOC emissions factor = 0.544 g/mile
  • NOx emissions factor = 0.508 g/mile
  • PM2.5 emissions factor = 0.011 g/mile
New Haven County:
  • VOC emissions factor = 0.546 g/mile
  • NOx emissions factor = 0.524 g/mile
  • PM2.5 emissions factor = 0.011 g/mile
Δ CO Kg
Δ PM10 NA
Δ PM2.5 - 1.0 kg/day
Δ Total -12.0 kg/day
(0.0132 tpd)
Costs
Project life: 12 yrs Interest rate: 7%
  CMAQ NON-CMAQ TOTAL METHODOLOGY/ASSUMPTIONS:
Capital $89,000 $22,000 $111,000

Assumes project benefits 260 days each year.

Cost-effectiveness was not provided by the project sponsor.

Adm/oper $0 $0 $0
Total $89,000 $22,000 $111,000
Total annualized public cost $14,227
Annual revenues None
Net public cost $111,000
Annual private cost NA
Total net cost $111,000

NOTE: Project cost information taken from 2007 STIP.

Updated: 07/06/2011
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000
Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center | 6300 Georgetown Pike | McLean, VA | 22101