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1 See later discussion on page 48 for assumptions. This total excludes trips for recreation or by children. The research team focused on utilitarian trips (trips to a destination) that replace automobile trips. Non-utilitarian trips (for recreation or exercise) were captured in a different part of the survey and are discussed in Chapter 5 of this report. Children were not surveyed because of privacy concerns. The research team assumed that adult responses provided useful information about travel by children.
2 These values reflect the average of the numbers in the columns above for the four pilot communities.
3 Note: Spokane, Washington, was chosen as a control community when assessing the community-wide impacts of the NTPP. The use of a control site allows researchers to monitor and account for the impact of extraneous factors during the "before and after" studies in the four pilot communities. Examples of extraneous factors are changes in gasoline prices, political or policy modifications, etc. Potential control communities included four candidate cities, evaluated on how similar or dissimilar they were to pilot community characteristics such as median household income, current commuting rates, and geographic area. After discussions between the Working Group and the research team, the city of Spokane, Washington, was selected as the control community.
4 The "Twin Cities" include the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul.
5 The Metropolitan Council is the area's regional planning agency, serving more than 180 communities in seven counties.
6 Direct Award projects are funded outside of the traditional competitive solicitation process, using a protocol established by the TLC board. Direct Award projects may be made for foundational plans (e.g., Minneapolis Pedestrian Plan, Metro Transit study of bicycle and pedestrian connections to transit), or where competitive solicitations are not practical.
7 Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publication "Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices"
8 The PBIC is part of the University of North Carolina's Highway Safety Research Center.
9 The NDP is an annual bicycle and pedestrian count and survey effort that is sponsored by the Institute of Transportation Engineers Pedestrian and Bicycle Council. Objectives of the NDP are to:
10 Potential control communities were evaluated largely on the basis of median household income, current commuting rates, and geographic area. Additional factors included similarity or dissimilarity with pilot communities, and the likelihood of nonmotorized investments during the program's period of performance.
12 See later discussion on assumptions related to how this number was calculated, weather, and survey timing.
13 Utilitarian trips includes trips to a destination, for example, work, school, shopping, visiting friends, etc.
14 One hundred reference trips for each mode in each community were desirable since those sample sizes would result in commonly used statistical confidences for conclusions drawn for each mode in each community.
15 These values reflect the average of the numbers in the columns above for the four pilot communities.
16 To calculate this number, the research team multiplied the average number of miles of auto travel reduced by walking and bicycling times the adult share of each community's population (from the 2000 census). The adult share for each community is as follows: Columbia, 80%; Marin, 80%; Minneapolis, 78%; and Sheboygan, 75%.
17 This figure was calculated by multiplying the adult share of Spokane's total 2000 population (74%) by average number of miles of walking and biking per day (0.31 miles) by 365 days.
18 These values reflect the average of the numbers in the columns above for the four pilot communities.
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