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Report to the U.S. Congress on the Outcomes of the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program SAFETEA-LU Section 1807

Appendices

Appendix 1: Working Group Members

Columbia, Missouri: Ted Curtis and Sam Budzyna
Marin County, California: Craig Tackabery and Dan Dawson
Transit for Livable Communities (Minneapolis, Minnesota): Joan Pasiuk, Steve Clark, and Tony Hull
Sheboygan County, Wisconsin: Aaron Brault and Emily Vetting
Federal Highway Administration: Gabe Rousseau
U.S. DOT/Volpe National Transportation Systems Center: William Lyons, Ben Rasmussen, Anna Biton, and Jared Fijalkowski
Rails to Trails Conservancy: Marianne Fowler, David Levinger, and Stephanie Manning
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Arthur Wendel
Marin County Bicycle Coalition: Deb Hubsmith

Appendix 2: Demographic and Economic Characteristics and Travel Behavior among Communities

  City of Columbia Marin County City of Minneapolis Sheboygan County Average Among Pilots Spokane, WA (Control)
Geographic Area (sq mi) 53.0 121.41 55.0 514.0 185.9 58.0
Persons per sq mi 2,047.2 2,079.22 6,956.0 224.7 2,826.8 3,602.0
POPULATION (2010 Census)
Total 108,500 252,4093 382,578 115,507 214,748.5 208,916
Total population 16 and older 90,168 205,904 312,884 91,204 175,040.0 167,196
EDUCATION (2009 ACS 3-Year Average)
Percent of population enrolled in college or grad school 25.6 6.0 12.9 5.7 12.6 8.5
Total population 25 and older 54,023 180,467 256,267 77,019 141,944 133,233
Less than high school 7.1 7.8 12.3 10.3 9.4 8.7
High school or equivalence 20.0 13.1 19.5 38.4 22.8 25.9
Some college, no degree 17.6 19.0 18.4 20.9 19.0 26.8
Associate or bachelors degree 33.1 37.8 33.7 24.6 32.3 27.8
Grad or professional degree 22.3 22.3 16.1 5.9 16.7 10.8
MEDIAN AGE (2010 Census) 26.8 44.5 31.4 40.3 35.8 35
HOUSEHOLD INCOME (2009 ACS 3-Year Average)
Total # of households 43,206 101,042 167,542 43,595 88,846 84,878
Less than $ 25,000 31.4 12.4 28.8

20.8

23.4 30.4
$ 25,000-49,999 24.2 16.0 24.8 27.3 23.1 30.7
$ 50,000-74,999 19.6 14.2 17.3 22.5 18.4 17.8
$ 75,000-99,999 9.9 12.4 10.9 14.9 12.0 10.6
$ 100,000 or more 14.9 44.7 17.3 14.6 22.9 10.5
Median household income (2009 $) $41,698 $88,565 $46,087 $52,016 $57,092 $39,561
RACE (includes Hispanic and non-Hispanic) (2010 Census)
White (alone) 79.0% 80.0% 63.8% 89.9% 78.5% 86.7%
Black (alone) 11.3% 2.8% 18.6% 1.5% 8.5% 2.3%
American Indian and Alaska Native 0.3% 0.6% 2.0% 0.4% 0.8% 2.0%
Asian (alone) 5.2% 5.5% 5.6% 4.6% 5.2% 2.6%
Other race 1.1% 6.9% 5.6% 2.0% 3.9% 1.9%
Multi-racial 3.1% 4.2% 4.4% 1.6% 3.3% 4.6%
Hispanic (any race) 3.4% 15.5% 10.5% 5.5% 8.7% 5.0%
WORK COMMUTE (2009 ACS 3-Year Average)
Total # of workers 16 and over 54,203 122,438 207,588 59,135 110,841 91,145
Car, truck, or van - drive alone 74.1 67.9 61.6 81.6 71.3 74.5
Car, truck, or van - carpool 12.7 8.4 8.7 9.1 9.7 11.3
Public (excludes taxi) 0.9 8.5 13.8 0.5 5.9 4.4
Walk 6.0 2.9 6.4 3.5 4.7 3.2
Bicycle 1.7 1.3 4.1 1.0 2.0 1.2
Other means 1.4 1.4 0.8 1.1 1.2 1.1
Worked at home 3.3 9.6 4.7 3.2 5.2 4.3
Mean travel time (minutes) 16.3 28.5 22.0 18.3 21.3 20.0
HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS (2010 Census)
Total # occupied units 43,065 103,210 163,540 46,390 89,051.3 87,271
Owner occupied 47.4% 62.6% 49.2% 71.7% 55.8% 57.6%
Renter occupied 52.6% 37.4% 50.8% 28.3% 44.2% 42.4%
Average family size 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0
Percent of households with individuals under 18 26.1 29.0 23.5 30.3 26.3 28.9
Percent of households with zero vehicles available 7.3 5.0 18.4 7.1 9.5 9.4

OCTOBER CLIMATE (in Degrees Fahrenheit) Columbia San Rafael Minneapolis-Saint Paul City of Sheboygan Average Among Pilots Spokane
Average temp (max) 67.5 75.0 58.6 59.4 65.1 58.5
Average temp (min) 45.5 50.5 38.7 43.2 44.5 36.0
Inches of rain 3.1 1.7 1.9 2.5 2.3 1.2

Source for meteorological data: University of Minnesota research team.

1 The land area represents all of Marin County, not Marin's city-centered corridor.

2 Refers to the population density for all of Marin County.

3 Population in all of Marin County.

Appendix 3: Selected Project Maps

Marin County Bicycle Route 5 - refer to section 4.1.5

Graphic of the Marin County Bicycle Route 5 that encourages people to bicycle on Route 5 instead of driving. It includes a schematic map of the route, including highlighted destinations, and a list of Route 5 bike events.

Figure 50: BWTC Bicycle Routes (source: Bike Walk Twin Cities)

Bike Walk Twin Cities Bicycle Routes - refer to section 4.1.7

Schematic map of the BikeWalk Twin Cities bicycle route network. Light blue lines delineate the existing network, and orange lines delineate the new network in 2011/2012.

Appendix 4: Averted VMT Conversions

Pollutant Conversion Equation Amount
Hydrocarbons 1.36 Daily mileage reduction multiplied by
1.36 grams per reduced mile
155.52 pounds/day
PM10 0.0052 Daily mileage reduction multiplied by
0.0052 grams per reduced mile
0.59 pounds/day
PM2.5 0.0049 Daily mileage reduction multiplied by
0.0049 grams per reduced mile
0.56 pounds/day
NOX 0.95 Daily mileage reduction multiplied by
0.95 grams per reduced mile
108.63 pounds/day
CO 12.4 Daily mileage reduction multiplied by
12.4 grams per reduced mile
1417.94 pounds/day
C02 369 Daily mileage reduction multiplied by
369 grams per reduced mile
42195.16 pounds/day
Hydrocarbons 1.36 Yearly mileage reduction multiplied by
1.36 grams per reduced mile
28303.9 pounds/year
PM10 0.0052 Yearly mileage reduction multiplied by
0.0052 grams per reduced mile
108.2 pounds/year
PM2.5 0.0049 Yearly mileage reduction multiplied by
0.0049 grams per reduced mile
102.0 pounds/year
NOX 0.95 Yearly mileage reduction multiplied by
0.95 grams per reduced mile
19771.1 pounds/year
CO 12.4 Yearly mileage reduction multiplied by
12.4 grams per reduced mile
258065.2 pounds/year
C02 369 Yearly mileage reduction multiplied by
369 grams per reduced mile
7679519.8 pounds/year
       
  Inputs    
  453.59 Grams to pounds conversion  
  51,868 Daily mileage reduction  

Appendix 5: NTPP Websites

Columbia, Missouri

Marin County, California

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Sheboygan County, Wisconsin

Footnotes

[1] Since the expiration of SAFETEA-LU on September 30, 2009, the NTPP received additional funds through SAFETEA-LU extensions during Fiscal Year 2010.

[2] 2007 was used as the base year for analysis since that was the first year of consistent data collection among the pilot communities; very few projects were implemented before that time.

[3] Note that while Columbia, Marin County, and Sheboygan County administered their surveys on weekdays and a weekend day during various times in the afternoon, notably, Minneapolis only administered their survey on a weekday during the commute time period between 4:00 and 6:00 p.m.

[4] Since the expiration of SAFETEA-LU on September 30, 2009, the NTPP received additional funds through SAFETEA-LU extensions in Fiscal Year 2010.

[5] The Interim Report to Congress can be found at: www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/ntpp/.

[6] http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/PublicWorks/GetAboutColumbia/

[7] http://www.walkbikemarin.org/index.php.

[8] http://bikewalktwincities.org/

[9] http://www.sheboygancounty.com/government/departments-f-q/planning-and-conservation/programs-associations/nonmotorized-pilot-program-nomo-

[10] Way To Go! Marin Final Program Report and Evaluation 2008 - 2010: http://walkbikemarin.org/documents/WTG/Way_To_Go_Final_Report.pdf

[11] In most cases, survey sample rates were too small to be statistically significant for formal results, but remained a useful anecdotal understanding of user needs around given projects and facilities, and could therefore benefit planning and informal program evaluation.

[12] Source: Portland Bicycle Count Report 2009, http://bikeportland.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/bikecount2009reportfinal.pdf

[13] For more information on the count methodology, see: http://bikepeddocumentation.org/.

[14] At most of the locations, counts were conducted from 4:00 to 6:00 p.m. on weekdays (in Columbia, Marin County, Minneapolis, and parts of Sheboygan County); however, counts were conducted at a few locations in Sheboygan County from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. on weekdays. In addition to these weekday counts, weekend counts were conducted from 12:00 to 2:00 p.m. in Columbia and Marin County.

[15] For more information on the survey methodology, see: http://bikepeddocumentation.org/.

[16] Columbia had six locations, Marin County seven, Minneapolis nine, and Sheboygan County eight.

[17] Minneapolis surveys showed 76 percent of 2007 responses indicating work or school as trip purpose (walking 64 percent; bicycling 83 percent). In 2010 the number of survey responses indicating work or school as trip purpose increased to 78 percent (walking 65 percent; bicycling 84 percent).

[18] Minneapolis estimation may significantly under represent non-utilitarian trips due to its survey methodology as described above.

[19] http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/trends/tc-report/bike-ped.pdf

[20] http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/legislation/legtealu.cfm#sec1807

[21] http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/

[22] NTD data was used for each community except for Marin County; unlinked passenger trips for Marin County were supplied by Marin Transit since Marin County transit trips are not broken out separately in the NTD.

[23] Notes:

The NTPP and Intercept Survey models are limited since the data inputs for both models are not entirely local: the NTPP model uses NHTS MSA data and the Intercept Survey model uses national NHTS data. These national/average travel behavior data are likely more conservative than actual travel behavior data since, based on old (more than 10 years old) data and anecdotal information, the walking and bicycling mode share in each of the communities is probably greater than the national/average. The NTPP model, for example, estimates higher numbers of miles walked and bicycled if the initial/baseline mode share is higher for walking and bicycling.

[24] All four communities experienced population growth from 2007 to 2010.

[25] http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/legislation/legtealu.cfm#sec1807

[26] Mokdad A, Marks J, Stroup D, Gerberding J. Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 2004; 291:1238 - 1245 (original study). Mokdad A, Marks J, Stroup D, Gerberding J. Correction: Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000 (letter). JAMA 2005; 293(3):293-294 (correction of original study)

[27] http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/

[28] National Prevention Council's National Prevention Strategy: America's Plan for Better Health and Wellness, 2011. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/initiatives/prevention/strategy/report.pdf

[29] http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/

[30] World Health Organization, Health Economic Assessment Tool for Cycling, adapted for use in the U.S. by Dr. Candace Rutt, CDC, 2011.

[31] World Health Organization, Health Economic Assessment Tool for Cycling, adapted for use in the U.S. by Dr. Candace Rutt, CDC, 2011.

[32] Marshall, Wesley E. and Norman W. Garrick, "Evidence on Why Bike-Friendly Cities Are Safer for All Road

Users," Environmental Practice 13 (1) March 2011 http://files.meetup.com/1468133/Evidence%20on%20Why%20Bike-Friendly.pdf

[33] http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/

[34] 2009 National Household Travel Survey, League of American Bicyclists Fact Sheet, http://www.bikeleague.org/resources/reports/pdfs/nhts09.pdf

[35] http://www.epa.gov/oms/climate/

[36] http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100B3EQ.txt

[37] The results for 2007-2010 are twice the results of 2010 because the model calculates totals for 2010 compared to 2007, and not for 2008 or 2009. Due to the incremental nature in which projects were completed in the pilot communities between 2007 and 2010, it was assumed that results for 2008 were one-third of the results for 2010 and results for 2009 were two-thirds of the results for 2010. Accordingly, the total results for 2007-2010 are twice the result amounts for 2010.

[38] http://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/publications/national_transportation_statistics/html/table_04_23.html

Updated: 02/10/2014
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