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Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access

Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide

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Bibliography

Albright, D.P. (1995). Standing in the cold: Mobility and the mentally challenged. Washington: Surface Transportation Policy Project.

  1. This booklet depicts the access deficiencies of public transportation.
  2. Alliance for Transportation Research,
    1001 University Boulevard, S.E.,
    Albuquerque, NM 87106,
    Telephone: (505) 246-6410.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (1983). Transportation glossary. Washington, DC.

  1. This book contains definitions of 1,500 transportation terms.
  2. AASHTO,
    444 North Capitol Street, N.W.,
    Washington, DC 20001,
    Telephone: (202) 624-5800.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (1995). A policy on geometric design of highways and streets: 1994. Washington, DC.

  1. This book lists AASHTO recommended policies for roadway design.
  2. AASHTO,
    444 North Capitol Street, N.W.,
    Suite 249,
    Washington, DC 20001,
    Telephone: (202) 624-5800.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Inc. (1996). Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Inc.

  1. This document was developed by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials to provide recommended policies for bridge design.
  2. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials,
    440 North Capitol Street, N.W.,
    Washington DC 20001,
    Telephone: (202) 624-5800,
    Fax: (202) 624-5806,
    Website: <http://www.aashto.org>.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Task Force on Geometric Design (1999). Guide for the development of bicycle facilities. Washington, DC.

  1. This guide is designed to provide information on the development of facilities to enhance and encourage safe bicycle travel. The guide addresses planning and design issues that local, State, and Federal agencies face when implementing bicycle-related programs and facilities.
  2. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials,
    440 North Capitol Street, N.W.,
    Washington DC 20001,
    Telephone: (202) 624-5800,
    Fax: (202) 624-5806,
    Website: <http://www.aashto.org>.

American Society of Civil Engineers, National Association of Home Builders, The Urban Land Institute (1990). Residential streets: Second edition. Washington, DC: Bicycle Federation of America.

  1. This book outlines current practices in residential street design that provide good examples of design criteria. Specifications related to drainage, intersection, and pavement options are also provided.
  2. Bicycle Federation of America,
    1506 21st Street,
    N.W., Suite 200,
    Washington, DC 20036,
    Telephone: (202) 463-6622,
    Fax: (202) 463-6625.

    Bicycle Federation of America is now the National Center for Biking & Walking:

    National Center for Biking & Walking
    8120 Woodmont Ave, Suite 650
    Bethesda, MD 20814
    Phone: (301) 656-4220
    Fax: (301) 656-4225
    Email: info@bikewalk.org
    Web site: www.bikewalk.org/.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990). Public Law 226, 101st Congress. (July 26, 1990).

  1. Civil rights legislation prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities. Written by the 101st Congress of the United States.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O. Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Architecture and Engineering for Parks Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada (1994). Design guidelines for accessible outdoor recreation facilities. Ottawa: Canada Paraplegic Association.

  1. Provides diagrams and design guidelines for developing accessible outdoor recreation facilities.
  2. Canadian Paraplegic Association,
    National Office,
    1101 Prince of Wales Drive, Suite 320,
    Ottawa, Ontario K2C 3W7,
    Telephone: (613) 723-1033,
    Fax: (613) 723-1060.

Ashmead, D.H., Hill, E.W., Talor, C.R. (1989). Obstacle perception by congenitally blind children. Perception and Psychophysics, 46, pp.425-433.

  1. This study determined whether or not congenitally blind children were able to use nonvisual information to perceive objects.
  2. Daniel H. Ashmead,
    Department of Psychology,
    Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences,
    Vanderbilt University,
    Nashville, TN 37232-8700,
    Telephone: (615) 340-8280,
    Fax: (615) 343-7705,
    Email: ashmead@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu.

Ashmead, D.H., Wall, R.S., Eaton, S.B., Ebinger, K.A., Snook-Hill, M.M., Yang, X. (1998a). Echolocation reconsidered: Using spatial variations in the ambient sound field to guide locomotion. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness.

  1. This study determined the ability of people with visual disabilities to use ambient, low-frequency sound to guide their locomotion.
  2. Daniel H. Ashmead,
    Department of Psychology,
    Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences,
    Vanderbilt University,
    Nashville, TN 37232-8700,
    Telephone: (615) 340-8280,
    Fax: (615) 343-7705,
    Email: ashmead@ctrvax.vanderbuilt.edu.

Ashmead, D.H., Wall, R.S., Ebinger, K.A., Eaton, S.B., Snook-Hill, M.M. (1998b). Spatial hearing in children with visual disabilities. Perception, 27, pp.105-122.

  1. This study determined whether spatial hearing in children with visual disabilities was equivalent to that of sighted people.
  2. Daniel H. Ashmead,
    Department of Psychology,
    Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences,
    Vanderbilt University,
    Nashville, TN 37232-8700,
    Telephone: (615) 340-8280,
    Fax: (615) 343-7705,
    Email: ashmead@ctrvax.vanderbuilt.edu.

Axelson, P. (1988). Technology as a Continuum for Recreation. Santa Cruz: PAX Press.

  1. This article analyzes recreational activities with respect to the user, commercial recreational equipment, and the environment and discusses where technology should and should not be applied in each of these areas.
  2. PAX Press (a division of Beneficial Designs, Inc.),
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Axelson, P., Chesney, D., Kelley, B., Longmuir, P., Pasternak, M., Wong, K., Wright, W. (1997). Universal trail assessment coordinator training guide. Santa Cruz: PAX Press.

  1. This book is a guide to the Universal Trail Assessment Process, which can be used to objectively assess outdoor recreation routes and recreation trails to collect access, mapping, usage, and maintenance information.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc.,
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D. (1999). Accessible exterior surfaces technical report. Submitted to U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, DC.

  1. This report provides a detailed summary of research that analyzed the firmness and stability of trail surfaces.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc.,
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D.A., Faraone, M., Kirschbaum, J.B., Longmuir, P.E., Richter, W.M., Wong, K.M. (1997). Accessible exterior surfaces: A review of existing test methods for surface firmness and stability: Phase 1 report. Washington, DC: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This research report evaluates existing test methods to determine the accessibility of surfaces.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc.,
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D.A., Longmuir, P. (1995). Outdoor recreation access route (ORAR) and recreation trail design specification research: Final report. Martinsville: National Center on Accessibility.

  1. This study measures the difficulty experienced by wheelchair users and pedestrians traveling over a variety of surfaces with different grade and cross slope characteristics.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc.,
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D.A., Minkel, J., & Perr, A. (1998). The manual wheelchair training guide. Santa Cruz: PAX Press.

  1. This book was written to teach wheelchair users and their helpers how to access the world with a full range of manual wheelchair skills.
  2. PAX Press (a division of Beneficial Designs, Inc.)
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D., Longmuir, P., Coutts, K., Rose, S., Smith, J., & Ysselstein, J. (1999). Accessible exterior surfaces technical article. Submitted to U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, DC.

  1. An executive summary of the "Accessible Exterior Surfaces Technical Report" dated April 24, 1999. This report is available through the Access Board or Beneficial Designs.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc.,
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D., Longmuir, P., & Wright, W. (1998). Computerized mapping of outdoor trails for accessibility. Submitted to National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

  1. Final report for the Computerized Mapping of Outdoor Trails for Accessibility project and the development of the Universal Trail Assessment Process.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc.,
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Axelson, PW., Chesney, D.Y., Galvan, D.V., Kirshbaum, J.B., Longmuir, P.E., Lyons, C., and Wong, K.M. (1999). Designing sidewalks and trails for access: Part I of II, Review of existing guidelines and practices. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Association.

  1. This report is Part I of a two phase project focused on designing sidewalks and trails that meet the needs of all users, including people with disabilities. This report contains an analysis of existing sidewalk and trail conditions, as well as an extensive literature review and a compilation of existing standards.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Barrier Free Environments, Inc. (1991). Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) retrofit manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This manual was designed to provide supplemental information regarding the application of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards in retrofit situations.
  2. U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434.

Barrier Free Environments, Inc. (1996). Accessibility in Georgia: Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities for Georgia.

  1. This is a technical and policy guide to access in Georgia.
  2. Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Program Consultant,
    254 Washington Street, S.W.,
    Atlanta, GA 30334,
    Telephone: (404) 657-7313,
    TDD: (404) 657-9993.

Bearden, D.M. (1998). Federal highway funding for air quality projects and transportation enhancements: How much, to whom, and for what? Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

  1. This report examines how Federal highway funding helps States address the environmental impacts of surface transportation. Funding structure, eligible project types, and other major funding situations are discussed.
  2. Congressional Research Service,
    Library of Congress,
    Washington, DC 20540-7000.

Beers, D. (1993 Draft). Klamath district's trail manual: Draft. Los Altos: California Trails Foundation.

  1. This manual contains equestrian and mountain bike trail information.
  2. Don Beers,
    North Coast Redwoods Headquarters,
    600-A West Clark,
    Eureka, CA 95501,
    Telephone: (707) 445-6547 ext.18,
    Fax: (707) 441-5737.

Bentzen, B.L. (1997). Environmental Accessibility. In B. Blasch, W. Wiener, R. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility: Second edition (pp. 317-356). New York: AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind.

  1. This chapter of Foundations of Orientation and Mobility contains information pertaining to environmental accessibility.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind,
    11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300,
    New York, NY 10001

Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M. (1995). Impact of curb ramps on the safety of persons who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 89, pp.319-328.

  1. The research presented in this article found that curb ramps do, in fact, affect the safety of individuals with visual impairments.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind,
    11 Penn Plaza,
    New York, NY 10001.
    Website: <http://www.afb.org>.

Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M., and Tabor, L.S. (2000). Detectable warnings: Synthesis of U.S. and international practice. Washington, DC: U.S. Access Board.

  1. An extensive, well-illustrated review of the state-of-the art use of under-foot warning surfaces in the U.S. and abroad. Includes a summary of and rationale for ADA provisions and a summary of ISO draft standards, standards and guidelines of numerous jurisdictions and publications, descriptions of existing U.S. products, and U.S. and international case studies. Emphasis is on truncated dome detectable warnings as specified in ADAAG 4.29.2.
  2. The Access Board,
    1311 F Street, N.W.,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434,
    TDD: (202) 272-5449,
    Fax: (202) 272-5447.

Bentzen, B.L., Jackson, R.M., Peck, A.F. (1981). Information about visual impairment for architects and transit planners. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This document reports on improving communications with the visually impaired in rail rapid-transit systems.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Bentzen, B.L., Nolin, T.L., Easton, R.D. (1994). Detectable warning surfaces: Color, contrast, and reflectance. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This laboratory study was conducted to determine the optimal physical properties of a detectable warning system, and to study properties such as contrast, hue, and reflectance.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Bentzen, B.L., Nolin, T.L., Easton, R.D., Desmarais, L., Mitchell, P.A. (1994). Detectable warnings: Detectability by individuals with visual impairments, and safety and negotiability on slopes for persons with physical impairments. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This study tested the configurations of a variety of detectable warnings against a number of surrounding surfaces and determined how well people with visual impairments, as well as people with physical disabilities, were able to detect and negotiate the surfaces.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Bentzen, B.L., Tabor, L.S. (1998). Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Washington, DC: U.S. Access Board.

  1. This report summarizes available types of accessible pedestrian signals. It analyzes when they are needed and what types of information they provide. Audible broadcast, tactile, vibrotactile, and receiver-based systems are discussed.
  2. U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board,
    1111 18th Street, N.W., Suite 501,
    Washington, DC 20036,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434,
    TDD: (202) 653-7848.

Bhambhani, Y., Clarkson, H. (1989). Acute physiologic and perceptual responses during three modes of ambulation: Walking, auxiliary crutch walking, and running. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 70, pp.445-450 (1989, June).

  1. This research studies the energy cost of walking, running, and crutch use for able-bodied adults.
  2. University of Alberta,
    Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine,
    Dr. Bhambhani,
    Room 308 Corbett Hall,
    Edmonton, Alberta T6G2G4 Canada.

Bicycle Federation of America (1992). Case study no. 21: Integrating bicycle and pedestrian considerations into State and local transportation planning, design, and operations. Report # FHWA-PD-93-021. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-021.

  1. This report discusses methods to integrate bicycle and pedestrian considerations into State and local transportation planning, design, and operations.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Bicycle Federation of America (1993a). Case study no. 5: An analysis of current funding mechanisms for bicycle and pedestrian programs at the federal, State, and local levels. Report # FHWA-PD-93-008. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-008.

  1. This document reviews funding sources for bicycle and pedestrian facilities available under ISTEA.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Bicycle Federation of America (1993b). Case study no. 18: Final report, analyses of successful provincial, State, and local bicycle and pedestrian programs in Canada and the United States. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-010.

  1. This document reviews several State and local bicycle and pedestrian programs that have been exceptionally effective.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Birchard, W. Jr., Proudman, R.D. (1981). Trail design, construction, and maintenance. Harpers Ferry: Appalachian Trail Conference.

  1. Written for trail workers who maintain the Appalachian Trail, this book provides information about designing, constructing, and maintaining outdoor recreation trails.
  2. Appalachian Trail Conference,
    P.O. Box 236,
    Harpers Ferry, WV 25425,
    Telephone: (304) 535-6331.

Birkby, R.C. (1996). Lightly on the land. Seattle: The Mountaineers.

  1. This book is a guide for building trails written for the Student Conservation Association. It explains techniques for using volunteers to design and maintain outdoor trails.
  2. The Mountaineers,
    1001 S.W. Klickitat Way,
    Seattle, WA 98134.

Bowman, B.L., Fruin, J.J., Zegeer, C.V. (1989). Planning, design, and maintenance of pedestrian facilities. McLean: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This handbook's contents include pedestrian characteristics; results of pedestrian traffic and safety studies; pedestrian traffic control devices and procedures; pedestrian facilities in work zones; facility maintenance; and a summary of pedestrian facility problems.
  2. Research, Development and Technology,
    Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center,
    6300 Georgetown Pike,
    McLean, VA 22101-2296.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Brock, W., Cunill, B., Dockter, S., Isom, J., King, G., Lindsey-Forester, J., Sparklin, D., Stevens, B. (1996). Community impact assessment: A quick reference for transportation. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This guide outlines the community impact assessment process, highlights areas that must be examined, and identifies basic tools and information sources planners can use to assess the impact of transportation projects.
  2. Office of Environment and Planning,
    Telephone: (202) 366-0106,
    Fax: (202) 366-3409.

Brown, S.A., Stein, S.M., Warner, J.C. (1996). Urban drainage design manual: Hydraulic engineering circular 22. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This book is a practical guide to designing storm drain systems connected with transportation facilities.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Burden, D., Wallwork, M. (1996). Handbook for walkable communities. High Springs.

  1. This handbook discusses problems that pedestrians face because of increased auto congestion and introduces planning and engineering principles designed to improve pedestrian safety. Alternatives to private automobile transportation are discussed as well.
  2. Dan Burden,
    Telephone: (904) 454-3304,
    Email: dburden@aol.com.

California State Parks (1997). Access to parks guidelines: California edition. Sacramento.

  1. This document contains the accessibility design guidelines for California State Parks.
  2. California State Parks Store,
    P.O. Box 942896,
    Sacramento, CA 94296-0001,
    Ray Ann Watson (ADA Coordinator),
    Telephone: (916) 653-8148 or (916) 653-6995,
    To Order: (800) 888-0369,
    Fax: (916) 654-8928.

Centers for Disease Control (1997). National health interview survey. Washington, DC: Author.

  1. This survey includes a variety of statistics including the percent of adults who are considered overweight.
  2. Center for Disease Control,
    Website: <www.cdc.gov/>.

Chesney, D.A., Axelson, P.W. (1994). Assessment of outdoor environments for accessibility. Proceedings of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America. Arlington: RESNA Press.

  1. The objectives of this research project were to develop a quantitative system for assessing outdoor environments for accessibility and to evaluate the reliability of the methodology.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc.,
    PO Box 69,
    Minden, NV 89423-0069
    Telephone: (775) 783-8822,
    Fax: (775) 783-8823,
    Email: paxpress@beneficialdesigns.com,
    Website: <www.beneficialdesigns.com>.

Cimarron Design (1994). Trails design and management handbook: Revision 1.1. Aspen: Pitkin County Open Space and Trails Program.

  1. This handbook contains the trail design standards for Pitkin County, Colorado. Separate standards are provided for hard surfaces and soft surfaces on multiple-use trails.
  2. Pitkin County Open Space and Trails,
    530 East Main Street, Suite 301,
    Aspen, CO 81611,
    Telephone: (970) 920-5232,
    Fax: (970) 920-5198.

City of Madison Department of Transportation (1997). Pedestrian transportation plan for Madison, Wisconsin. Madison: Author.

  1. This plan makes recommendations that are intended to enhance the pedestrian environment and increase opportunities to choose walking as a viable mode of transportation in Madison, Wisconsin.
  2. City of Madison Department of Transportation,
    P.O. Box 2986,
    Madison, WI 53701-2986,
    Telephone: (608) 266-6225,
    Fax: (608) 267-1158,
    Email: aross@ci.madison.wi.us.

City of Portland, Bureau of Transportation Engineering and Development and the Pedestrian Transportation Program (1998). Pedestrian Master Plan. Portland.

  1. This is the Pedestrian Master Plan of Portland, Oregon. It contains construction guidelines and layouts used by the City of Portland to design pedestrian facilities.
  2. Pedestrian Transportation Program,
    1120 S.W. Fifth Avenue, Room 802,
    Portland, OR 97204-1971,
    Telephone: (503) 823-7211,
    Email: jean@sysgen.ci.portland.or.us.

City of Portland, Bureau of Maintenance. (1996). The sidewalk handbook. Portland.

  1. This brochure reviews property owners' responsibilities with regard to maintaining sidewalks and discusses available city support to repair sidewalks.
  2. Bureau of Maintenance,
    Sidewalk Repair,
    2929 N. Kerby Avenue,
    Portland, OR 97227,
    Telephone: (503) 823-1711,
    Fax: (503) 823-4043.

Clark-Carter, D.D., Heyes, A.D., Howarth, I. (1987). The gait of visually impaired pedestrians. Human Movement Science 6 (pp. 277-282). North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

  1. This research study documents the gait characteristics (speed, stride length, etc.) of adults with visual impairments.
  2. Elsevier Science,
    Regional Sales Office, Customer Support Department,
    P.O. Box 945,
    New York, NY 10159-0945,
    Telephone: (212) 633-3680 or (800) 4ES-INFO,
    Fax: (212) 633-3680,
    Email: usinfo-f@elsevier.com.

Council of American Building Officials (1992). American national standard: Accessible and usable buildings and facilities (CABO/ANSI A117.1-1992). Falls Church.

  1. This manual provides recommendations for designing buildings and facilities that are accessible to and usable by people with disabilities.
  2. Council of American Building Officials,
    5203 Leesburg Pike, #708,
    Falls Church, VA 22041,
    Telephone: (703) 931-4533.

Craul, Philip J., "Urban Soils: Applications and Practices," 1999. Formerly at Syracuse University, now at Harvard University.

De Leuw, C. Jr., Danielson, F., Kudlick, W., Swan, S. (1981). Effective treatments of over- and under-crossings for use by bicyclists, pedestrians, and the handicapped. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This study provides information about improving access to under- and over-crossings for bicyclists, pedestrians, and the handicapped.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Department of Rehabilitation (1995). Access guide: Survey checklist. Sacramento.

  1. This booklet contains a checklist that can be used to determine whether buildings meet accessible accommodation requirements applicable within the State of California.
  2. Department of Rehabilitation,
    ADA Implementation Section,
    P.O. Box 944222,
    Sacramento, CA 94244-2220,
    Telephone: (916) 322-0251,
    TTY: (916) 322-1096,
    CALNET 492-0251 (Voice or TTY).

Designing for the 21st century: An international conference on universal design of information, products, and environnments (1998). Proceedings. Raleigh: Barefoot Press.

  1. This document contains abstracts and meeting agendas from Designing for the 21st Century: An International Conference on Universal Design of Information, Products, and Environments held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, NY, June 17-21, 1998.
  2. The Center for Universal Design,
    School of Design, North Carolina State University, Box 8613,
    Raleigh, NC 27695-8613,
    Telephone: (800) 647-6777 or (919) 515-3082,
    Fax: (919) 515-3023,
    Email: cud@ncsu.edu.

DiStefano, J., Raimi, M. (1996). Five years of progress: 110 communities making a difference. Washington, DC: Surface Transportation Policy Project.

  1. This series of case studies highlights successful community projects using Federal transportation funds.
  2. Surface Transportation Policy Project,
    1100 Seventeenth Street, N.W., Tenth Floor,
    Washington, DC 20036,
    Telephone: (202) 466-2636,
    Fax: (202) 466-2247,
    Email: stpp@transact.org.

Division of Engineering, Lexington-Fayette County Urban Government (1993). Sidewalks: A homeowner's guide. Lexington.

  1. This booklet provides homeowners with an outline of the Urban County Government sidewalk inspection program. It is intended to aid property owners in the maintenance of any right-of-way adjoining their private property.
  2. Division of Engineering,
    Lexington-Fayette County Urban Government,
    Lexington-Fayette Government Building,
    200 East Main Street,
    Lexington, KY 40507,
    Telephone: (606) 258-3410.

Earnhart, G., Simon, L. (1987). Accessibility for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: A manual for cities. McLean: Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center.

  1. This handbook provides an overview of existing accessibility planning and programming. Each chapter provides definitions, illustrations, and Federal standards, if they exist, and includes a section on problems and recommended solutions.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Earnhart, G., & Simon, L. (1987). Accessibility for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: A manual for cities. McLean: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This document contains revisions and interpretations of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Environmental Design Research Association Annual Conference (1998). People, places, and public policy. Edmond: Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA).

  1. This document contains abstracts and meeting agendas from EDRA 29 held in St. Louis, Missouri, March 4-8, 1998.
  2. Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA),
    P.O. Box 7146,
    Edmond, OK 73083-7146,
    Telephone: (405) 330-4863,
    Fax: (406) 330-4150,
    Email: edra@telepath.com.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, U.S. Department of Justice (1991). Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Handbook. Washington, DC.

  1. This handbook was written to provide information and assistance on the ADA to people with disabilities, businesses, and the public. It is a particularly valuable tool that contains EEOC Title I regulations and Department of Justice Title II and Title III regulations, together with a section-by-section analysis of each regulatory provision.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice,
    Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301,
    TTY: (800) 514-0383.

Farbman, A., Park, D.C. (1989d). Philosophical foundations in providing accessible recreation facilities. Design: Access 4: Philosophical Concepts: Accessible Picnic Areas and Campgrounds. pp.3-16. (Fall 1989).
Washington, DC: Park Practice Program.

  1. This article is the last in a series of four outlining accessibility design requirements as they relate to standards development, access to buildings and structures, and access to outdoor recreation and trails.
  2. National Recreation and Park Association,
    22377 Belmont Ridge Road,
    Ashburn, VA 20148,
    Telephone: (703) 858-0784,
    Fax: (703) 858-0794.

Federal Highway Administration (1994). Final report: The national bicycling and walking study: Transportation choices for a changing America. Washington, DC. Report # FHWA-PD-94-023.

  1. This study analyzes the current (1994) state of bicycling and walking in the United States.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    Bicycle & Pedestrian Program Office,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Federal Highway Administration (1996a). Chapter 18 facilities for pedestrians and bicyclists. Washington, DC.

  1. This book discusses taking bicyclists and pedestrians into consideration when proposed facilities are being designed.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O. Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Federal Highway Administration (1997a). Flexibility in highway design. Washington, DC. Report # FHWA-PD-97-062.

  1. This book identifies and explains the opportunities and constraints facing designers and design teams responsible for the development of transportation facilities. It includes many illustrations and examples of well-designed highways and roadways.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590,
    Telephone: (202) 366-0106,
    Fax: (202) 366-3409.

Federal Highway Administration, Federal Transit Administration (1995). A guide to metropolitan transportation planning under ISTEA: How the pieces fit together. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-95-031.

  1. This guidebook describes how Metropolitan Planning Organizations operated under ISTEA. Long- and short-range plans are discussed in detail.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590,
    Telephone: (202) 366-5003.

Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) (2001) defines the standards used by road managers nationwide to install and maintain traffic control devices on all streets and highways.

  1. <http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/>.

Federal Highway Administration, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1996). Pedestrian and bicyclist safety and accommodation: Participant workbook. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-96-028.

  1. Prepared by Dan Burden and Betty Drake, this book supplements a National Highway Institute course that focused on pedestrian and bicycle safety and design. It outlines how focus groups and charities can be incorporated into a public participation model.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Federal Highway Transportation (1980). The feasibility of accommodating physically handicapped individuals on pedestrian over and under crossing structures: Final report.

  1. This report describes evaluations to determine major and minor access barriers for the physically handicapped.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Fischer, J.W. (1998a). ISTEA reauthorization: Highway and transit legislative proposals in the 105th Congress: Second session. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

  1. This report discusses the structure of the House and Senate proposals and provides an overview of the issues that might have come to the forefront during conference.
  2. Congressional Research Service,
    Library of Congress,
    Washington, DC 20540-7000.

Fischer, J.W. (1998b). Transportation trust funds: Budgetary treatment. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

  1. This report addresses issues associated with the purpose and use of transportation trust funds.
  2. Congressional Research Service,
    Library of Congress,
    Washington, DC 20540-7000.

Flasher, O.M., Kadar, E.E., Shaw, R.E. (1993). Dimensionless invariance for intentional systems: Measuring the fit of vehicular activities to environmental layout. In J.M. Flach, P.A. Hancock, J.K. Caird, K.J. Vicente. (Eds.), An ecological approach to human-machine systems I: A global perspective. (pp. Chapter 11). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  1. This article considers how wheelchair users are able to select and follow the best route through cluttered and obstacle-laden courses. It discusses using dimensionless invariance to measure the dynamic fit of active wheelchairs through their functional spaces if given a navigational goal.
  2. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
    10 Industrial Avenue,
    Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262,
    Telephone: (201) 236-9500 or (800) 9-BOOKS-9,
    Fax: (201) 236-0072,
    Email: orders@erlbaum.com.

Florida Department of Transportation, State Safety Office, MS 82 (1997). Bicycle facilities planning and design handbook. Tallahassee: Bicycle and Pedestrian Program.

  1. This manual provides a practical overview of the concept and need for bicycle roadway planning. It includes defined terms, bicycle planning needs, principles, and issues. It also describes the bicycle planning process in terms of engineers and community collaboration.
  2. Florida Department of Transportation, Bicycle/Pedestrian Program,
    State Safety Office,
    605 Suwannee Street, Mail Station 82,
    Tallahassee, FL 32399-0450.

Gallon, C. (1992). Contractor report 317: Tactile surfaces in the pedestrian environment: Experiments in Wolverhampton. Crowthorne: Transport and Road Research Laboratory.

  1. This report looks at how effective tactile markings would be in a real pedestrian environment and what form the layout of these surfaces should take.
  2. Vehicles and Environment Division,
    Vehicles Group,
    Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Old Wokingham Road,
    Crowthorne, Berkshire RG11 6AU,
    Telephone: (STD 0344) 773131,
    Telex: 848272,
    Fax: 0344 770356.

Georgia Institute of Technology (1979). Provisions for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: Volume 1: Executive summary. Springfield: U.S. Department of Commerce.

  1. This document is an executive summary of research done regarding older pedestrians and pedestrians with disabilities. It outlines the research methodologies and summarizes the results of the study.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Gilbert, T.A., Goltsman, S.M., Wohlford, S.D. (1992). User's guide: The accessibility checklist: An evaluation system for buildings and outdoor settings. Berkeley: MIG Communications.

  1. A comprehensive checklist to determine whether buildings and outdoor settings comply with the ADA Guidelines, UFAS, and California's Title 24 building codes.
  2. MIG Communications,
    1802 Fifth Street,
    Berkeley, CA 94710,
    Telephone: (510) 845-0953.

Golden, M., Kilb, L., Mayerson, A. (1993). Americans with Disabilities Act: An implementation guide. Berkeley: Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund, Inc.

  1. This manual is designed to provide answers to questions businesses, organizations, and individuals might have about the ADA. The explanation of the law integrates the legislative history, the statute, the regulations and analyses, and Section 504 cases. A guide to legal documents, selected cases under Section 504, and a section on tax incentives is also included.
  2. DREDF,
    2212 Sixth Street,
    Berkeley, CA 94710,
    Telephone: (510) 644-2555 or (800) 466-4232.

Gray, D.B., & Hendershot, G.E. (2000). The ICIDH2: Developments for a new era of outcomes research. Manuscript in preparation.

  1. This article will review the important concepts that led to the development of the ICIDH, describe conceptual problems with the ICIDH that led to its revision, outline the revision process, explicate the ICIDH-2 and discuss implications of the ICIHD2 as a conceptual framework for outcome measures.

Greenways Incorporated (1992a). Case study no. 7: Transportation potential and other benefits of off-road bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-92-040.

  1. This report is a compendium of the benefits gained by having bicycle and pedestrian trails. It also cites examples of highly successful community greenways.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Greenways Incorporated (1992b). Case study no. 24: Current planning guidelines and design standards being used by State and local agencies for bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-006.

  1. This is a review of some State and local existing bicycle and pedestrian programs to determine the state-of-practice. The report summarizes the best guidelines and standards currently being used. It also names reference materials critical for leading-edge facility design.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Guth, D.A., Rieser, J.J. (1997). Perception and the control of locomotion by blind and visually impaired pedestrians. In B. B. Blasch, W. R. Wiener, R. L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility: Second edition (pp.9 - 37). New York: AFB Press.

  1. This chapter from Foundations of Orientation and Mobility discusses how pedestrians with visual impairments obtain information about and navigate through the pedestrian environment.
  2. AFB Press,
    American Foundation for the Blind,
    11 Penn Plaza,
    New York, NY 10001,
    Website: <http://www.afb.org>.

Hall, G., Rabelle, A., Zabihaylo, C. (1994). Audible traffic signals: A new definition. Montreal: Montreal Association for the Blind.

  1. This guidance document provides government agencies with information regarding audible traffic signals.
  2. Montreal Association for the Blind,
    7000 Shebrooke Street West,
    Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R3.

Hamilton, E.J., Burgess, F.M., Hepfer, P.C. (1998). Beach access: Assistive devices and surfaces research report. Martinsville: National Center on Accessibility.

  1. This study addresses the need for objective comparisons of the advantages and disadvantages of the available assistive devices developed for beach access.
  2. National Center on Accessibility,
    Indiana University
    2805 East 10th St, Suite 190,
    Bloomington, IN 47408-2698
    Telephone: (812) 856-4422 (Voice)
    TTY: (812) 856-4421
    Fax: (812) 856-4480
    E-mail: nca@indiana.edu.
    Website: www.ncaonline.org

Hauger, J.S., Rigby, J.C., Safewright, W.J., McAuley, W.J. (1996). Detectable warning surfaces at curb ramps. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 90, pp.512-525.

  1. This article includes tests of blind pedestrians' need for detectable warning surfaces at curb ramps.
  2. AFB Press,
    American Foundation for the Blind,
    11 Penn Plaza,
    New York, NY 10001.
    Website: <http://www.afb.org>.

Hesselbarth, W., Vachowski, B. (1996). Trail construction and maintenance notebook. Missoula: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

  1. Written in a concise pocket format that can be used while on the trail, this guide summarizes basic trail construction and maintenance information relevant to field work.
  2. USDA Forest Service,
    Missoula Technology and Development Center,
    Building One,
    Fort Missoula, Missoula, MT 59804-7294,
    Telephone: (406) 329-3900,
    Fax: (406) 329-3719.

Hooper, L. (1994). NPS trails management handbook. Denver: Denver Service Center.

  1. This book contains easily reduced drainage and construction guidelines.
  2. Lennon Hooper Trails Coordinator,
    National Park Service,
    P.O. Box 25287,
    655 Parfet Street,
    Denver, CO 80225.

Hopf, P.S., Raeber, J.A. (1984). Access for the handicapped. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc.

  1. This book provides information to make facilities suitable for use by the physically handicapped.
  2. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc.,
    135 West Fiftieth Street,
    New York, NY 10020.

Hughes, R.G. (1995). An evaluation of detectable warnings in curb ramps: Mobility considerations for the blind and visually impaired. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. This study tested the optimal configuration for detectable warnings installed on curb ramps. It also analyzed any difficulties subjects had with negotiating the ramp and provided recommendations on ramp design and configuration regarding tactile warnings.
  2. Theo Petritsch,
    State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator,
    Florida Department of Transportation,
    605 Suwannee Street, MS-82,
    Tallahassee, FL 32399,
    Telephone: (850) 487-1200,
    Fax: (850) 922-2935,
    Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), Technical Council Committee A-55 (1997a). Review of planning guidelines and design standards for bicycle facilities. Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers.

  1. This report defines planning guidelines and design standards used by States and localities to develop bicycle facilities and identify practices that can be used as models by other communities.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers,
    1099 14th St NW, Suite 300 West
    Washington, DC 20005-3438
    Telephone (202) 289-0222
    Fax (202) 289-7722
    Email: ite_staff@ite.org
    Website: www.ite.org.

Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), Technical Council Committee 5A-5 (1998). Design and safety of pedestrian facilities. Chapel Hill.

  1. Provides design recommendations for developing safer and more accessible pedestrian friendly designs.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers,
    1099 14th St NW, Suite 300 West
    Washington, DC 20005-3438
    Telephone (202) 289-0222
    Fax (202) 289-7722
    Email: ite_staff@ite.org
    Website: www.ite.org.

Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), Transportation Planning Council Committee 5P-8 (1997). Traditional neighborhood development: Street design guidelines. Washington, DC.

  1. This report, a recommended practice published by ITE, discusses traditional neighborhood development, design parameters, and community planning.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers,
    1099 14th St NW, Suite 300 West
    Washington, DC 20005-3438
    Telephone (202) 289-0222
    Fax (202) 289-7722
    Email: ite_staff@ite.org
    Website: www.ite.org.

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (1991). Public Law 240, 102nd Congress (December 18th, 1991).

  1. This law authorized transportation funds to be spent on improving intermodal surface transportation alternatives for moving goods and people from 1991-1997.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O. Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Jacobson, W.H. (1993). The art and science of teaching orientation and mobility to persons with visual impairments. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

  1. This textbook teaches orientation and mobility professionals to instruct people with visual impairments in wayfinding and navigation techniques.
  2. American Foundation for the Blind Press,
    11 Penn Plaza,
    New York, NY 10001,
    Website: <http://www.afb.org>.

Joffee, E. (Draft, 1994). Interim draft: A detectable warnings implementation document. Washington, DC: Federal Transit Administration.

  1. This report contains technical help and information on the ADA Rule of 1991.
  2. American Foundation for the Blind Press,
    11 Penn Plaza,
    New York, NY 10001,
    Website: <http://www.afb.org>.

Kell, J.H., Fullerton, I.J. (1982). Manual of traffic signal design. Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers.

  1. This manual discusses how to design traffic signals that function well in the street environment.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers,
    1099 14th St NW, Suite 300 West
    Washington, DC 20005-3438
    Telephone (202) 289-0222
    Fax (202) 289-7722
    Email: ite_staff@ite.org
    Website: www.ite.org.

Kentucky Department of Parks (1989). Trail construction and maintenance: Division of recreation and interpretation. Frankfort.

  1. This book contains guidelines for equestrian, hiking, OHV, and mountain bike trails.
  2. Kentucky Department of Parks,
    Telephone: (502) 564-2172.

Knoblauch, R.L., Crigler, K.L. (1987a). Model pedestrian safety program: User's guide. McLean: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This guide describes how localities can plan, implement, and evaluate a pedestrian safety program.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration,
    U.S. Department of Commerce,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000,
    Fax: (703) 321-8547.

LaPlante, J., Toole, J. (2000). Planning, design, and operation of pedestrian facilities: Preliminary draft interim report. Prepared for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, the Transportation Research Board, and the National Research Council.

  1. This draft report is Part I of a two phase project sponsored by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, the Transportation Research Board, and the National Research Council to develop design guidelines for pedestrian facilities.

Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government (1993). Sidewalks: A homeowner's guide. Lexington.

  1. This booklet contains procedures for evaluating sidewalks and an outline of the local sidewalk improvement maintenance program.
  2. Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government,
    Division of Engineering, Lexington-Fayette Government Building,
    200 East Main Street,
    Lexington, KY 40507,
    Telephone: (606) 258-3410.

Long, R.G., Hill, E.W. (1997). Establishing and maintaining orientation for mobility. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility: Second edition (pp. 39 - 59). New York: AFB Press.

  1. This is a chapter from Foundations of Orientation and Mobility about spatial orientation of individuals who are blind or visually impaired. It focuses on spatial problems they must solve to move efficiently from place to place and the strategies or tools they use to solve them.
  2. AFB Press,
    American Foundation for the Blind,
    11 Penn Plaza,
    New York, NY 10001,
    Website: <http://www.afb.org>.

Mace, R.L., Hardie, G.J., Place, J.P. (1991). Accessible environments: Toward universal design. Raleigh: The Center for Universal Design.

  1. This booklet discusses how universal design can benefit all segments of the population and suggests design principles that can be used to improve access to buildings, outdoor facilities, and other spaces. It also discusses the disabled population and provides an overview of the accommodations required by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
  2. The Center for Universal Design,
    North Carolina State University,
    P.O. Box 8613,
    Raleigh, NC 27695-8613,
    Telephone and TDD: (919) 515-3082,
    Information Requests: (800) 647-6777.

Marcil, F. (1995). Multi-use trails in Canada: An analysis of some successful cases. Montreal: Velo Quebec.

  1. This book discusses the importance of having multi-use trails in Canada. It pairs problems and situations with proposed ideas and solutions.
  2. Velo Quebec,
    1251 Rue Rachel Est,
    Montreal, Quebec H2J 2J9,
    Telephone: (514) 521-8356,
    Fax: (514) 521-5711.

McAuley, W.J., Hauger, J.S., Safewright, M.P., Rigby, J.C. (1995). The detectable warnings project. Washington, DC: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This paper discusses the results of a study to determine the level of detectability of a variety of raised, tactile warning surfaces.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov>.

Mickelson, L. (1985). Parkland access for the disabled. Vancouver: Greater Vancouver Regional District Parks Department and Advent Accounting Services Ltd.

  1. This publication is a design manual for planning and constructing accessible features outdoors. Text examples are heavily illustrated with diagrams of standard signage and facilities that include dimensions and useful accessories.
  2. Greater Vancouver Regional District Parks,
    4330 Kingsway,
    Burnaby, British Columbia V5H 4G8.

Missouri Department of Natural Resources (1975). Missouri State Parks: Trail construction guidelines. Jefferson City.

  1. This booklet contains the Missouri State Trails System guidelines for trail construction, as well as the procedure for signing trails.
  2. Missouri Department of Natural Resources,
    Telephone: (573) 751-5360.

Moore, R.L. (1994). Conflicts on multiple-use trails: Synthesis of the literature and state of the practice. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-94-031.

  1. This report provides a synthesis of existing research to explain the underlying causes of trail conflict, identifies approaches for promoting trail sharing, and identifies gaps in current knowledge. Principles for minimizing conflicts on multiple-use trails are also reviewed.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

National Council on Disability (1996). Achieving independence: The challenge for the 21st century: A decade of progress in disability policy: Setting an agenda for the future. Washington, DC.

  1. This book offers an assessment of the nation's progress in achieving equal opportunity and empowerment during the last decade.
  2. National Council on Disability,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1050,
    Washington, DC 20004-1107,
    Telephone: (202) 272-2004,
    Fax: (202) 272-2022,
    TDD: (202) 272-2074.

New Jersey Department of Transportation (1996). Pedestrian-compatible planning and design guidelines. Trenton: New Jersey Department of Transportation, Bureau of Suburban Mobility.

  1. These guidelines include an overview of pedestrian activities and problems in New Jersey. Guidelines for accommodating pedestrians on roadways and design techniques encouraging pedestrian travel are also included.

  2. Pedestrian and Bicycle Advocate,
    New Jersey Department of Transportation,
    1035 Parkway Avenue,
    P.O. Box 600,
    Trenton, NJ 08625-0600,
    Telephone: (609) 530-8062,
    Fax: (609) 530-3723,
    Email: sheree.davis@dot.state.nj.us.

Nordhaus, R.S., Kantrowitz, M., Siembieda, W.J. (1984). Accessible fishing: A planning handbook. Santa Fe: New Mexico Natural Resources Department.

  1. This document presents accessibility design guidelines for most fishing situations.
  2. Resource Management and
    Development Division,
    New Mexico Natural Resources Department, Villagra Building,
    408 Galisteo, Suite 129,
    Santa Fe, NM 87504-1147.

O'Leary, A.A., Lockwood, P.B., Taylor, R.V., Lavely, J.L. (1995). An evaluation of detectable warning surfaces for sidewalk curb ramps. Richmond: Virginia Department of Transportation.

  1. The authors of this report that investigates the usage of raised detectable warnings, such as truncated domes on curb ramps and other sidewalk environments.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration,
    U.S. Department of Commerce,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000,
    Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Office of Traffic Operations, Federal Highway Administration (1982). Standard alphabets for highway signs and pavement markings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This is the latest series of Standard Metric Alphabets for Highway Signs and Pavement Markings created by the Federal Highway Administration at the request of the National Advisory Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O. Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Ontario Parks (1996). Barrier-free guidelines design manual. Ottawa.

  1. This report presents guidelines for accessible design. Different needs and types of disabilities are also discussed.
  2. Ontario Parks,
    300 Water Street,
    P.O. Box 700,
    Peterborough, Ontario K9J 8M5,
    Telephone: (705) 755-PARK,
    Fax: (705) 755-1701,
    Email: ontparks@www.mnr.gov.on.ca.

Oregon Department of Transportation (1995). Oregon bicycle and pedestrian plan. Salem.

  1. This book is a guideline for State and local entities in Oregon involved in establishing bicycle and pedestrian facilities on local transportation systems.
  2. Bicycle and Pedestrian Program,
    Room 210, Transportation Building,
    Salem, OR 97310,
    Telephone: (503) 986-3555,
    Fax: (503) 986-3749,
    Email: michael.p.ronkin@odot.State.or.us.

Park, D.C. (1989a). Designing for everyone: Part of the public is disabled. Design: Access 1: Standards Development: Space Requirements, pp.3-16 (Winter 1989). Washington, DC: Park Practice Program.

  1. This document is the first in a series of four articles outlining accessibility design requirements as they relate to standards development, access to buildings and structures, and access to outdoor recreation and trails.
  2. National Recreation and Park Association,
    22377 Belmont Ridge Road,
    Ashburn, VA 20148,
    Telephone: (703) 858-0784,
    Fax: (703) 858-0794.

Park, D.C. (1989b). What is accessibility? Design: Access 2: Access to Buildings and Structures. pp.3-16 (Spring 1989).

  1. This document is the second in a series of four articles outlining accessibility design requirements as they relate to standards development, access to buildings and structures, and access to outdoor recreation and trails.
  2. National Recreation and Park Association,
    22377 Belmont Ridge Road,
    Ashburn, VA 20148,
    Telephone: (703) 858-0784,
    Fax: (703) 858-0794.

Park, D.C., Farbman, A. (1989c). Accessible outdoor recreation facilities. Design Access 3: Access to Outdoor Recreation: Trails. pp.3-11 (Summer 1989). Washington, DC: Park Practice Program.

  1. This document is the third in a series of four articles outlining accessibility design requirements as they relate to standards development, access to buildings and structures, and access to outdoor recreation and trails.
  2. National Recreation and Park Association,
    22377 Belmont Ridge Road,
    Ashburn, VA 20148,
    Telephone: (703) 858-0784,
    Fax: (703) 858-0794.

Peck, A.F., Bentzen, B.L. (1987). Tactile warnings to promote safety in the vicinity of transit platform edges. Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation.

  1. This study discusses the effectiveness of tactile warning materials to assist visually-impaired travelers in hands-on station environments. It includes a laboratory evaluation of transit service and additional evaluation of two particular warning systems.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Pedestrian Federation of America (1995). Walk tall: A citizens' guide to walkable communities. Emmaus: Rodale Press.

  1. This publication contains stories, ideas, suggestions, resources, and various charts for easy use by people of the community.
  2. Rodale Press, Inc.,
    33 East Minor Street,
    Emmaus, PA 18098.

Pein, W.E. (1996). Trail intersection design guidelines. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. This publication addresses the details associated with trail-roadway intersection design, with views toward minimizing accidents and problems at crossing points.
  2. Theo Petritsch,
    State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator, Florida Department of Transportation,
    605 Suwannee Street, MS-82,
    Tallahassee, FL 32399,
    Telephone: (850) 487-1200,
    Fax: (850) 922-2935,
    Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

Pennsylvania Trails Program (1980a). Motorized trails: An introduction to planning and development. Harrisburg: The Pennsylvania Trails Program, Division of Outdoor Recreation, Bureau of State Parks.

  1. This is a guide to designing trails to be used by motorized vehicles.
  2. Pennsylvania State Parks,
    Telephone: (717) 787-6674.

Pennsylvania Trails Program (1980b). Nonmotorized trails: An introduction to planning and development. Harrisburg: The Pennsylvania Trails Program, Division of Outdoor Recreation, Bureau of State Parks.

  1. This is a guide for developing nonmotorized trails and maximizing public use of existing trails. It also includes a section on improving access for people with disabilities.
  2. Pennsylvania State Parks,
    Telephone: (717) 787-6674.

Perry, J., Garrett, M., Gronley, J.K., Mulroy, S.J. (June 1995). Classification of walking handicap in the stroke population. Stroke 26, pp. 982-989.

  1. This research identifies and evaluates the walking efficiency of individuals who have had a stroke.
  2. American Heart Association, Western States Affiliate,
    1710 Gilbreth Road,
    Burlingame, CA 94010-13317,
    Telephone: (650) 259-6700 or (800) AHA-USA1,
    Fax: (650) 259-6891.

PLAE, Inc. (1993). A design guide: Universal access to outdoor recreation. Berkeley.

  1. This book provides a framework for determining the appropriate level of accessibility in a range of outdoor recreational settings and contains detailed guidelines for designing the elements and spaces necessary for ensuring accessible paths, signage, restrooms, and other outdoor facilities.
  2. MIG Communications,
    1802 Fifth Street,
    Berkeley, CA 94710,
    Telephone: (510) 845-0953,
    Fax: (510) 845-8750.

Pollak, P.B. (1999). Livable communities: An evaluation guide. Washington, DC: American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), Public Policy Institute.

  1. This guide was produced in order to develop a means whereby community residents could determine the extent to which communities encouraged or impeded independence as residents aged.
  2. AARP,
    Public Policy Institute,
    601 E Street, N.W.,
    Washington, DC 20049.

City of Portland (1998). Portland pedestrian design guide. Portland.

  1. This is the curb ramp section of the design guidelines for pedestrian facilities in Portland.
  2. Pedestrian Transportation Program,
    1120 S.W. Fifth Avenue, Room 802,
    Portland, OR 97204-1971,
    Telephone: (503) 823-7004,
    Email: pedprogram@syseng.ci.portland.or.us.

Pro Bike/Pro Walk 98 (1998). Creating bicycle-friendly and walkable communities: Building for the next generation. Washington, DC: Bicycle Federation of America, Inc.

  1. This document contains abstracts and meeting agendas from Pro Bike/Pro Walk 98 held in Santa Barbara, CA, September 8-11, 1998.
  2. National Center for Biking & Walking
    8120 Woodmont Ave, Suite 650
    Bethesda, MD 20814
    Phone: (301) 656-4220
    Fax: (301) 656-4225
    Email: info@bikewalk.org
    Web site: www.bikewalk.org/.

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. (1993). Case study no. 20: The effects of environmental design on the amount and type of bicycling and walking. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-037.

  1. This study summarizes knowledge on the impact of environmental design on walking and bicycling. It also identifies successes and failures in the downtown design environment and the factors that promote effective bicycle and walking use.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Pugh, B. (1989). A bikeway design cookbook. Roseville: BP Engineering.

  1. This manual contains excerpts from the 2010 Sacramento City/County Bikeway Master Plan. It discusses design standards, figures, uniform traffic control devices, and includes a chapter on signage and roadway traffic diagram figures.
  2. BP Engineering,
    P.O. Box 1385,
    Roseville, CA 95678-8385,
    Telephone: (916) 771-4563,
    Fax: (916) 771-4569,
    Email: BIKEFED@aol.com.

Rabelle, A., Zabihaylo, C., Gresset, J. (1998). Detectability of warning tiles by functionally blind persons: Effects of warning tiles, width and adjoining surfaces texture. In E. Siffermann, M. Williams, B.B. Blasch (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Mobility Conference (pp. 38-41). Decatur: Rehabilitation Research and Development Center.

  1. This study determines the width needed for pedestrians to detect the presence of truncated domes and other detectable warning systems.

Rails to Trails Conservancy, Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals (1998). Improving conditions for bicycling and walking: A best practice report. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This is a compilation of walking and biking plans from many different cities and states. An abbreviated list of their restrictions and requirements is included.
  2. Rails to Trails Conservancy,
    1100 Seventeenth Street, N.W., Tenth Floor,
    Washington, DC 20036,
    Telephone: (202) 331-9696,
    Website: <www.railtrails.org>.

Rathke, D.M., Baughman, M.J. (1994). Recreational trail design and construction. St. Paul: Educational Development System, Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota.

  1. This publication was designed to be used by small organizations or private individuals to design and construct trails. It contains step-by-step construction methods.
  2. University of Minnesota,
    Minnesota Extension Service,
    Distribution Center, 20 Coffey Hall,
    1420 Eckles Avenue,
    St. Paul, MN 55108-6069,
    Fax: (612) 625-6281.

Recreation Access Advisory Committee (1994). Recommendation for accessibility guidelines: Recreational facilities and outdoor developed areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This report contains the scoping technical requirements and rationale of the Recreation Access Advisory Committee for accessible outdoor recreational facility. It contains both final guidelines and proposed work perimeters.
  2. Access Board,
    Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov>.

Rickert, T. (1998). Mobility for all: Accessible transportation around the world. Redwood City: Health and Welfare Ministries, General Board of Global Ministries, The United Methodist Church.

  1. This is a guide to making transportation accessible for persons with disabilities and elders in countries around the world. This document is available in Spanish as well.
  2. Health and Welfare Ministries,
    General Board of Global Ministries,
    The United Methodist Church,
    475 Riverside Drive, Room 330,
    New York, NY 10115,
    Telephone: (212) 870-3870,
    Fax: (212) 870-3624,
    Email: kreeves@gbgm-umc.org.

Ryan, K. (1993). Trails for the twenty-first century. Covelo: Island Press.

  1. This book introduces the concept of the multi-use trail and promotes bicycle and pedestrian travel.
  2. Island Press,
    24850 East Lane,
    P.O. Box 7,
    Covello, CA 95428,
    Telephone: (707) 983-6432,
    Fax: (707) 983-6414,
    Email: ipwest@igc.apc.org,
    Website: <www.islandpress.org>.

San Francisco Bureau of Engineering (1996). Warning strips for the visually disabled and blind pedestrian. San Francisco Bureau of Engineering internal report, San Francisco.

  1. This study was conducted by the San Francisco Department of Public Works to determine whether guide strips used in crosswalks are durable enough to withstand the impact of heavy traffic use. This study tested a variety of different types of guide strips.
  2. Joe Ovadia, Project Manager,
    San Francisco Bureau of Engineering,
    Telephone: (415) 558-4004.
    Richard Skaff, Disability Access Coordinator, San Francisco Department of Public Works,
    30 Van Ness Avenue, 5th Floor,
    San Francisco, CA 94102,
    Email: richardskaff@amer.net.

Sanford, J.A. (1985). Designing for orientation and safety. Proceedings of the International Conference on Building Use and Safety Technology (pp. 54-59). Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology.

  1. This study determines whether different surfaces are detectable by people with visual impairments and how the properties of different surfaces affect their detectability. It also presents results of tests of the ability of people with visual disabilities to stop after detecting a warning.

Sanford, J.A., Steinfeld, E. (1985). Designing for orientation and safety. Proceedings of the International Conference on Building Use and Safety Technology (pp. 54-59). Washington, DC: National Institute of Building Sciences.

  1. This study discussed the properties of different detectable warnings and how well people with visual disabilities were able to detect them. It also discussed the navigational techniques of people with visual impairments and how they interacted with the detectable warning, as well as the usage and interpretation of architectural space by visually impaired people versus sighted people.

Sawai, H., Takato, J., Tauchi, M. (1998). Quantitative measurements of tactile contrast between dot and bar tiles used to constitute tactile pathway for the blind and visually impaired independent travelers. In E. Sifferman, M. Williams, B.B. Blasch (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Mobility Conference (pp. 178-181). Decatur: Rehabilitation Research and Development Center.

  1. This study discusses the ability of people with visual disabilities to detect the difference between the two types of detectable warnings, a dot tile served to alert pedestrians, and a bar tile served to guide pedestrians along a given path.

Schmid, J. (1997). American trails: 1997 trails resource bibliography. Prescott: American Trails.

  1. A bibliography of publications and videos containing information about trails.
  2. American Trails,
    PO Box 491797
    Redding CA 96049-1797
    Telephone: (530) 547-2060
    Fax: (530) 547-2035
    Email: info@americantrails.org,
    Website: <http://www.americantrails.org>.

Seeing Eye, The (Producer) (1996). Partners in travel [Videotape]. Morristown: Independence and Dignity.

  1. This video provides an overview of guide dogs and how they can aid people with visual impairments.
  2. Independence and Dignity,
    P.O. Box 375,
    Morristown, NJ 07963-0375.

Siwek, S.J., Associates (1996). Statewide transportation planning under ISTEA: A new framework for decision making. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-96-026A.

  1. This guidebook describes how the Intermodal Surface Transportation Equity Act affected State departments of transportation. Long- and short-range plans are discussed in detail.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590,
    Telephone: (202) 366-4000.

Space Options®. Researched tolerances for flatness for ramps.

  1. Kapaau Kohala, HA 96755-0910.

Staplin, L., Lococo, K., Byington, S. (1998). Older driver highway design handbook. McLean: Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D.

  1. This project included literature reviews and meta-analytic techniques in the areas of age-related functional capabilities, human factors, and highway safety. A User-Requirements Analysis to gauge the needs of highway design is also used in this study.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration,
    U.S. Department of Commerce,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000,
    Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Steinfeld, E., Schroeder, S., Bishop, M. (1979). Accessible buildings for people with walking and reaching limitations. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

  1. This document presents research regarding the special needs of people with walking and reaching limitations in relation to building design and spatial layout.
  2. HUD User,
    P.O. Box 6091,
    Rockville, MD 20849,
    Telephone: (301) 251-5154 or (800) 245-2691.

Templer, J. (1980). An implementation manual: Provisions for the elderly and handicapped pedestrians. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This book identifies and defines the shortcomings of the pedestrian environment, then giving feasible solutions.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O. Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Templer, J.A. (1980a). Provisions for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: Volume 2: Hazards, barriers, problems, and the law. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This survey was conducted to determine problems experienced by elderly and disabled pedestrians.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Templer, J.A. (1980b). Provisions for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: Volume 3: The development and evaluation of countermeasures. Springfield: U.S. Department of Commerce.

  1. This report presents the findings of several counter-measures designed to improve access for older pedestrians and people with disabilities in sidewalk environments.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Templer, J.A. (1980c). The feasibility of accommodating physically handicapped individuals on pedestrian over- and under-crossing structures. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. The objective of this study was to determine the problems faced by people with disabilities when they encounter over- and under-crossing structures.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration,
    U.S. Department of Commerce,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000,
    Fax: (703) 321-8547.

The Resources Agency, Department of Parks and Recreation (1998). Trails handbook. Sacramento: California State Parks.

  1. This handbook, which has not been published, provides guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining outdoor trails.
  2. Don Beers,
    North Coast Redwoods Headquarters,
    600-A West Clark,
    Eureka, CA 95501,
    Telephone: (707) 445-6547 ext.18,
    Fax: (707) 441-5737.

Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century (1998). Public Law 178, 105th Congress (June 6th, 1998).

  1. This law authorizes transportation funds to be spent on improving intermodal surface transportation alternatives for moving goods and people for 1998-2003.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O. Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1985). Detectable tactile surface treatments: Phase 1: Introduction and laboratory testing: Final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This is a study of the detectability of different types of surface warning systems. It investigates how the different properties of these surface systems affect perceptions of people with visual disabilities.
  2. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov/index.htm>.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1991). 36 CFR part 1191: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities: State and local government facilities. (July 26, 1991). Washington, DC.

  1. This document contains Sections 1 through 12 of the ADA Accessibility Guidelines. Design guidance for built facilities are included in this document. Sections 1-10 in this document are equivalent to the ADA Standards for Accessible Design, which are enforcable standards under the U.S. Department of Justice.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O.Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1994a). Bulletin #4: Surfaces. Washington, DC.

  1. This bulletin clarifies the requirements for accessible surfaces. It defines what is considered firm, stable, and slip-resistant; provides methods to assess firmness and slip resistance; and discusses what materials are considered to comply with ADAAG.
  2. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov/index.htm>.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1994b). 36 CFR Part 1191: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities; State and local government facilities: Interim final rule. Federal Register, vol. 59, no. 117 (June 24th, 1994). Washington, DC.

  1. This document is the set of interim final guidelines published by the Access Board. It provides additional guidance to the existing ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). Section 14, which covers accessibility for public rights-of-way, is included in this interim final rule.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O.Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1996). Bulletin 1: Detectable Warnings. Washington, DC.

  1. This bulletin was written to alert the public to the requirements of installing detectable warnings.
  2. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov/index.htm>.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Producer) (1997). Accessible sidewalks: Design issues for pedestrians with disabilities [Videotape]. Washington, DC: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This video presents design recommendations for making sidewalks accessible to pedestrians who use wheelchairs.
  2. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov/index.htm>.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1998). 36 CFR part 1191: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities: State and local government facilities: Final rule. Federal Register, vol. 63, no. 8. (January 13th, 1998). Washington, DC. (Soon to become part of ADAAG).)

  1. The Access Board is issuing final guidelines to provide additional guidance with the new construction and alternations of State and local government facilities. This is to help ensure that government facilities are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.
  2. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov/index.htm>.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1999a). Accessible rights-of-way: A design guide. Washington, DC: Author.

  1. This document outlines the relationship between public rights-of-way and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Detailed design recommendations that meet the needs of people with disabilities are provided.
  2. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov/index.htm>.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1999b). Recommendations for accessibility guidelines: Outdoor developed areas final report. Washington, DC: Author.

  1. This document is the final report of the Regulatory Negotiation Committee on Accessibility Guidelines for Outdoor Developed Areas. The report contains accessibility recommendations for trails and other outdoor recommendation facilities, such as picnic areas.
  2. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov/index.htm>.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Alaska Region Forest Service (1991). Alaska region trails construction and maintenance guide. Anchorage.

  1. This document contains trail design and maintenance guidelines for the Forest Service in the Alaskan region.
  2. Alaska Federal Office Building,
    709 West Ninth Street,
    P.O.Box 21628,
    Juneau, AK 99802-1628
    DG: Mailroom: R10A.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (1984). Standard specifications for construction of trails. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

  1. These U.S. Forest Service design guidelines provide specifications for trail construction.
  2. USDA Forest Service,
    Engineering Staff,
    Attn: Publications Specialist,
    P.O.Box 2417,
    Washington, DC 20013,
    Telephone: (703) 235-8198.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (1985). Trails management handbook. Washington, DC.

  1. This handbook consists of guidelines used by the U.S. Forest Service to manage trails. Includes sections on trail planning, development, reconstruction and construction, trail operation and maintenance, and construction and maintenance exhibits.
  2. USDA Forest Service,
    Engineering Staff,
    Attn: Publications Specialist,
    P.O.Box 2417,
    Washington, DC 20013,
    Telephone: (703) 235-8198.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (1996). Outdoors for Everybody. Washington, DC: Author.

  1. This booklet contains accessible recreation opportunities in the Northern Region National Forest. The booklets are available free of cost from all of the forests listed in the booklet.
  2. Jane Ruchman,
    Gallatin National Forest, Box 130,
    Bozeman, MT 59771,
    Telephone: (406) 587-6966,
    TDD: (406) 587-6801.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census (1994). Americans with disabilities. http://www.census.gov/apsd/www/statbrief/sb94_1.pdf. (July 9, 1998).

  1. This is a summary of the 1990 U.S. Census data on people with disabilities.
  2. Customer Services: (301) 763-4100,
    Persons with Disabilities Contact:
    John McNeil, (301) 763-8300,
    Statistical Briefs Contact:
    Robert Bernstein, (301) 763-1584.

U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. General Services Administration, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, U.S. Postal Service (1984). Uniform Federal accessibility standards. Washington, DC.

  1. This document contains accessibility guidelines that should be used by Federal agencies to comply with the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
  2. Access Board, Recreation Report,
    1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000,
    Washington, DC 20004-1111,
    Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253,
    TTY: (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822,
    Website: <http://www.access-board.gov/index.htm>.

U.S. Department of Justice (1991a). 28 CFR part 35: Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government. Washington, DC.

  1. This rule implements subtitle A of title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Pub. L. 101-336, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability by public entities.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice,
    Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301,
    TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice (1991b). 28 CFR part 36: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Standards for Accessible Design. Washington, DC.

  1. The purpose of this part is to implement title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability by public accommodations. This document contains accessibility standards for the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which are based on the ADA Accessibility Guidelines published by the U.S. Access Board.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice,
    Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301,
    TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice (1993a). The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title II: Technical assistance manual: Covering State and local government programs and services: 1993. Washington, DC.

  1. This manual presents the ADA's requirements for State and local governments in a focused, systematic description. Questions, answers, and illustrations are used throughout to convey points.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice,
    Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301,
    TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice (1993b). The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title III: Technical assistance manual: Covering public accommodations and commercial facilities. Washington, DC.

  1. This manual presents the ADA's requirements for public accommodations, commercial facilities, and private entities offering certain examinations and courses in a focused, systematic description. Questions, answers, and illustrations are used throughout to convey points.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice,
    Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301,
    TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice (1994a). The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title II: Technical assistance manual: 1994 supplement. Washington, DC.

  1. This document contains material to be added to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title II Technical Assistance Manual. These supplements are to be inserted, as appropriated, at the end of each chapter of the manual.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice,
    Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301,
    TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice (1994b). 28 CFR part 36: Nondiscrimination on the basis of disability by public accommodations and in commercial facilities: Revised edition. Federal Register (July 1, 1994). Washington, DC.

  1. This is an updated document that contains the implementing regulations for Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability by public accommodations. ADA Title III Department of Justice implementation regulations, including Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines/ADA Standards for Accessible Design (ADAAG).
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O.Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Justice (1996a). A guide to disability rights laws. Washington, DC.

  1. This bulletin lists settlements, agreements, and cases of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) litigation; provides resources for entities seeking ADA technical assistance; lists other sources for ADA information; and provides an address to file complaints.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice,
    Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301,
    TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice (1996b). Enforcing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): A status report from the Department of Justice: Issue three. Washington, DC.

  1. This booklet provides a short overview of Federal civil rights laws that ensure equal opportunity for people with disabilities and lists contact agencies and organizations.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice,
    Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301,
    TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice, Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, U.S. Department of Transportation (1994). 28 CFR part 36, 36 CFR part 1191, 49 CFR part 37: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accessibility guidelines: Detectable warnings: Joint final rule. Federal Register, vol. 59, no. 70 (April 12, 1994). Washington, DC.

  1. This document sets forth the Department of Justice implementing regulations for Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines / ADA Standards for Accessible Design (ADAAG) regarding detectable warnings.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O.Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1988). Manual on uniform traffic control devices. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This text, including traffic lights and signs, lists National standards for traffic control devices and their colors, markings, dimensions, and placement. These guidelines must be followed by all public authorities having jurisdiction over traffic control. Numerous diagrams and examples of signs are included.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O.Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1991). 49 CFR parts 27, 37, 38: Transportation for individuals with disabilities: Final rule. Federal Register, vol. 56, no. 173. (September 6, 1991). Washington, DC.

  1. This is the final rule implementing the transportation provisions of the ADA. The rule contains provisions on the acquisition of accessible vehicles by private and public entities and contains the amendment to the implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents,
    P.O.Box 371954,
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954,
    Telephone: (202) 512-1800,
    Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1992). Assessment of Detectable Warning Devices for Specification Compliance or Equivalent Facilitation. Washington, DC: Federal Transit Administration.

  1. This report addresses issues associated with the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) specification for detectable warnings for the visually impaired.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1994a). Detectable Warnings: Testing and Performance Evaluation at Transit Systems. Washington, DC: Federal Transit Administration.

  1. This report presents the results of a comprehensive testing and performance evaluation program for detectable warning materials placed along the edges of a transit station platform.
  2. National Technical Information Service,
    Springfield, VA 22161,
    Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1994b). Glossary of transportation terms. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This English/Spanish version is a translation of the Urban Public Transportation Glossary that was published by the Transportation Research Board (TRB).
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590,
    Telephone: (202) 366-4000.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1994c). Innovations in public involvement for transportation planning. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This report provides synopses of different methods for involving the public in transportation planning. A description of each technique, the intended audience, the method of participation, how the output might be utilized, the costs, advantages, drawbacks, references, contacts to obtain more information, and issues of special concern are discussed for each technique.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590,
    Telephone: (202) 366-4000.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1995). Working together on transportation planning: An approach to collaborative decision making. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This report provides guidelines for planning transportation projects within a coalition of government agencies, community groups, special-interest groups, elected officials, minorities, and private-sector interests.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590,
    Telephone: (202) 366-4000.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1996). Public involvement techniques for transportation decision making. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This reference lists techniques to involve the public in transportation planning, enumerating the pros and cons. One chapter is devoted to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590,
    Telephone: (202) 366-4000.

U.S. Department of Transportation (1998). Bicycle and Pedestrian Provisions of the Federal Aid Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This pamphlet summarizes the bicycle and pedestrian provisions of Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Centry (TEA-21). It discusses its implications as well as funding sources for bicycle and pedestrian projects and new research areas, special studies, and reports created by the legislation.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    Bicycle & Pedestrian Program Office,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421, Publication # FHWA-PD-98-049 HEP-10/8-98 (20M)E.

Federal Highway Administration (2000). Bicycle and pedestrian design guidance. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This document was developed as a result of TEA-21 and contains a national policy statement regarding sidewalk installation. This document was created by the Federal Highway Administration in conjunction with several other agencies and organizations that address pedestrian issues.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    Bicycle & Pedestrian Program Office,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington DC 20590.
    Website: <www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/>.

United Kingdom Department of the Environment, Transport, and the Regions, The Scottish Office (notified draft) (1997). Guidance on the use of tactile paving surfaces. London.

  1. These design guidelines discuss mobility for people with visual impairments and provide specifications for tactile delineator strips on segregated, shared cycle track/footways.
  2. Sue Sharp,
    Mobility Policy Branch,
    Great Minister House, Room 1/11,
    76 Marsham House, London SW1P 4DR,
    Telephone: 0171-271-5256,
    Divisional inquiries: 0171-271-5252,
    Fax: 0171-271-5253,
    Email: mu.dot@gtnet.gov.uk.

University of North Carolina, Highway Safety Research Center (1996). Florida pedestrian planning and design guidelines. Tallahassee: State of Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. This manual provides guidelines, standards, and criteria for the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of pedestrian facilities.
  2. Theo Petritsch,
    State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator,
    Florida Department of Transportation,
    605 Suwannee Street, MS-82,
    Tallahassee, FL 32399,
    Telephone: (850) 487-1200,
    Fax: (850) 922-2935,
    Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

Vic Roads Principal Traffic Engineer's Department Quality and Technical Resources Division (1995). Vic Roads: Providing for people with disabilities: Traffic engineering guidelines. Kew: Vic Roads.

  1. These guidelines can be used to improve existing road accessibility conditions.
  2. Vic Roads Bookshop,
    Sixty Denmark Street,
    KEW Vic 3101,
    Melbourne, Australia,
    Telephone: (03) 854-2782,
    Fax: (03) 853-0084.

Ward, K.H., Meyers, M.C. (April 1995). Exercise performance of lower-extremity amputees. Sports Medicine, 20, pp.207-214.

  1. This is a review of published literature relating to walking speed and energy cost during ambulation for individuals with lower-extremity amputation as well as able-bodied individuals.
  2. Adis International Inc.,
    860 Town Center Drive,
    Langhorne, PA 19047,
    Telephone: (215) 741-5200,
    Fax: (215) 741-5251,
    Website: <www.adis.com>.

Washington State Department of Transportation (1997). Pedestrian facilities guidebook: Incorporating pedestrians into Washington's transportation system. Olympia: Author.

  1. This guidebook provides planning and design guidelines for pedestrian facilities used by the Washington State Department of Transportation.
  2. Washington Department of Transportation, Bike and Pedestrian Program,
    P.O.Box 47393,
    Olympia, WA 98504,
    Telephone: (360) 705-7505.

Wellar, B. (1996). Pedestrian perspectives on intersection performance: a case study report on channelization. Ottawa, Ontario: Mobility Services Division, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, and Department of Geography, University of Ottawa.

  1. This paper presents the methodology, findings, and recommendations of an in-depth investigation into problems at the "busiest" intersection in Ottawa-Carleton, Canada.
  2. Professor Barry Wellar,
    Department of Geography,
    University of Ottawa,
    Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5,
    Telephone: (613) 562-5725,
    Fax: (613) 562-5145,
    Email: wellar@uottawa.ca.

Wellar, B. (1997). Walking security index variables: Initial specification. Ottawa: Mobility Services Division, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, and Department of Geography, University of Ottawa.

  1. This is the interim report of an in-depth investigation into problems at the "busiest" intersection in Ottawa-Carleton.
  2. Professor Barry Wellar,
    Department of Geography,
    University of Ottawa,
    Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5,
    Telephone: (613) 562-5725,
    Fax: (613) 562-5145,
    Email: wellar@uottawa.ca.

Wellar, B. (1998a). Walking security index. Ottawa: Mobility Services Division, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, and Department of Geography, University of Ottawa.

  1. This is the final report of an in-depth investigation into problems at the "busiest" intersection in Ottawa-Carleton.
  2. Professor Barry Wellar,
    Department of Geography,
    University of Ottawa,
    Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5,
    Telephone: (613) 562-5725,
    Fax: (613) 562-5145,
    Email: wellar@uottawa.ca.

Wellar, B. (1998b). The walking security index (WSI) as a means of harmonizing transportation and community goals. Ottawa: Mobility Services Division, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, and Department of Geography, University of Ottawa.

  1. This paper was prepared for presentation at the "Cities, Towns and Traffic" session of the 1998 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada in Regina, Saskatchewan.
  2. Professor Barry Wellar,
    Department of Geography,
    University of Ottawa,
    Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5,
    Telephone: (613) 562-5725,
    Fax: (613) 562-5145,
    Email: wellar@uottawa.ca.

Wernex, J. (1994). Off-highway motorcycle and ATV trails: Guidelines for design, construction, maintenance, and user satisfaction: Second edition. Westerville: American Motorcyclist Association.

  1. This document outlines design guidelines for off-highway vehicle trails.
  2. American Motorcyclist Association,
    13515 Yarmouth Drive,
    Pickerington, OH 43147,
    Telephone: (614) 856-1900,
    Fax: (614) 856-1920,
    Email: ama@ama-cycle.org.

Whitstock, R.H., Franck, L., Haneline, R. (1997). Dog Guides. In B. Blasch, W. Wiener, R. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of Orientation and Mobility: Second edition (pp. 260-283). New York: AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind.

  1. This chapter of Foundations of Orientation and Mobility contains information pertaining to guide dogs. It includes information on training and responsibilities, and a section on the growth of the guide dog movement.
  2. AFB Press,
    American Foundation for the Blind,
    11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300,
    New York, NY 10001

Wilderness Act (1964). Public Law 88-577, 88th Congress (September 3, 1964).

  1. Established the National Wilderness Preservation System for the permanent good of the American people for present and future generations and for other purposes.
  2. Website: <www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode16/usc_sup_01_16_10_23.html>.

Wilderness Inquiry, Inc. (1992). Wilderness accessibility for people with disabilities. Washington, DC: National Council on Disability.

  1. This report contains the findings of a study that examined the policies used by land management agencies to improve accessibility for people with disabilities. The National Council on Disability's recommendations for improving access to wilderness areas are also included in this report.
  2. National Council on Disability,
    800 Independence Avenue, S.W.,
    Suite 814,
    Washington, DC 20591.

Wilderness Inquiry, Inc. (1995). Wilderness access decision tool. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

  1. This document was designed to help all managers of Federal wilderness areas improve access to their trails.
  2. Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center,
    20325 Remount Road,
    Huson, MT 59846,
    Telephone: (406) 626-5208,
    Fax: (406) 626-5395.

Wilkinson, W.C., III. (1993). Case study no. 10: Trading off among the needs of motor vehicle users, pedestrians, and bicyclists. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-94-012.

  1. This document reviews the needs and conflicts of various roadway and sidewalk users.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    U.S. Department of Transportation,
    400 Seventh Street, S.W.,
    Washington, DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (1994). Department design standards handbook. Madison.

  1. This document outlines design standards for new outdoor recreation facilities.
  2. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources,
    Telephone: (608) 266-7356.

Woo, J., Ho, S.C., Lau, J., Chan, S.G., & Yuen, Y.K. (1995). Age-associated gait changes in the elderly: Pathological or physiological? Neuroepidemiology, 14, pp.65-71.

  1. In this study, the walking speed and stride length of men and women 70 years of age were evaluated to determine changes in gait associated with aging.
  2. Publisher S. Karger, AG,
    P.O.Box CH-4009,
    Basel, Switzerland,
    Website: www.karger.com.

World Health Organization (1980). International classification of impairments, disabilities, and handicaps: A manual of classification relating to the consequences of disease. Geneva: WHO.

  1. This document provides internationally accepted standard definitions to identify and distinguish among impairment, disability, and handicap.
  2. World Health Organization,
    Headquarters,
    Avenue Appia 20,
    1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland,
    Telephone: (+00 41 22) 791 21 11,
    Facsimile (fax): (+00 41 22) 791 3111,
    Website: http://www.who.int/

World Health Organization (1999). ICIDH-2: International classification of functioning and disability. Geneva: WHO.

  1. A draft classification, issued for field trial purposes, which provides a unified and standard language and framework for the description of human functioning and disability as an important component of health. ICIDH-2 is part of the WHO family of international classifications for the standardized coding of health-related information.
  2. World Health Organization,
    Headquarters,
    Avenue Appia 20,
    1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland,
    Telephone: (+00 41 22) 791 21 11,
    Facsimile (fax): (+00 41 22) 791 3111,
    Website: http://www.who.int/

Zegeer, C.V., Stewart, J.R., and Huang, H. (1999). Safety Effects of Marked Vs Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations. Washington, D.C.: UNC Highway Safety Research Center.

  1. This document summarizes a study comparing pedestrian crash experience on marked versus unmarked crosswalks which have no traffic signals or stop signs.
  2. Federal Highway Administration,
    Bicycle & Pedestrian Program Office,
    400 Seventh Street S.W.,
    Washington DC 20590.
    Fax requests to FHWA R&T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.
Updated: 02/10/2014
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