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Appendix C: Bibliography

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ADAAG Review Federal Advisory Committee. (1996). Final report: Recommendations for a new ADAAG. Washington: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This report provides the final recommendations of the ADAAG Review Advisory Committee to the U.S. Access Board for revisions to the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines in the form of a new set of guidelines.
  2. The Access Board, 1311 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434, TDD (202) 272-5449, Fax: (202) 272-5447.

Adaptive Environments Center, Inc. (1992). ADA Title II action guide for State and local governments. Horsham: LRP Publications.

  1. This book is a practical manual and workbook designed to guide State and local governments through the Title II compliance process. It features a planning process that will help ensure that State and local entities provide equal opportunity to people with disabilities.
  2. LRP Publications, 747 Dresher Road, P.O. Box 980, Horsham, PA 19044-0980, Telephone: (215) 784-0860.

Albright, D.P. (1995). Standing in the cold: Mobility and the mentally challenged. Washington: Surface Transportation Policy Project.

  1. This booklet depicts the access deficiencies of public transportation.
  2. Alliance for Transportation Research, 1001 University Blvd., S.E., Albuquerque, NM 87106, Telephone: (505) 246-6410.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (1983). Transportation glossary. Washington.

  1. This book contains definitions of 1,500 transportation terms.
  2. AASHTO, 444 North Capitol Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 624-5800.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (1995). A policy on geometric design of highways and streets: 1994. Washington.

  1. This book lists AASHTO-recommended policies for roadway design.
  2. AASHTO, 444 North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 624-5800.

American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials, Task Force on Geometric Design. (1991). Guide for the development of bicycle facilities. Washington.

  1. This guide provides information to help accommodate bicycle traffic in all riding environments. Topics covered include a list of definitions, planning considerations, design considerations, operation and maintenance, and a list of references.
  2. AASHTO, 444 North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 624-5800.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Task Force on Geometric Design. (Draft, 1997). Guide for the development of bicycle facilities: Pre-final draft. Washington.

  1. This document contains design guidelines for bicycle facilities. It addresses design concerns that are not discussed in A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 1994.
  2. AASHTO, 444 North Capitol Street N.W., Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 624-5800.

American College of Sports Medicine. (1986). Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.

  1. Standard reference document for the industry. Identifies standards of practice for fitness appraisal and exercise prescription. Includes information on health conditions that might influence exercise capacity or participation.
  2. Williams 'n Wilkins, Rosetree Corporate Center Building Two, Suite 5025, 1440 North Providence Road, Media, PA 19063-2043, Telephone: (610) 925-9055, Fax: (610) 892-6670.

American College of Sports Medicine. (1997). ACSM's exercise management for persons with chronic diseases and disabilities. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

  1. Summary of diseases and disabilities that influence the ability to exercise.
  2. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Fulfillment Department, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076, Telephone: (800) 747-4457, Fax: (217) 351-1549, Web site: www.humankinetics.com.

American National Standards Institute, Inc. (1980). Specifications for making buildings and facilities accessible to and usable by physically handicapped people. New York.

  1. This manual provides recommendations for designing buildings and facilities accessible to and usable by people with disabilities.
  2. American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.

American Society of Civil Engineers, National Association of Home Builders, The Urban Land Institute. (1990). Residential streets: Second edition. Washington: Bicycle Federation of America *.

  1. This book outlines current practices in residential street design that provide good examples of design criteria. Specifications related to drainage, intersection, and pavement options are also provided.
  2. * National Center for Biking & Walking, 8120 Woodmont Ave, Suite 650, Bethesda, MD 20814, Phone: (301) 656-4220, Fax: (301) 656-4225, Email: info@bikewalk.org, Web site: www.bikewalk.org/.

American Society for Testing Materials. (1997). Annual book of ASTM standards: Section 15: General products, chemical specialties, and end-use products. West Conshohocken.

  1. This book contains updated information standards for products, chemical specialties, and end-use products.
  2. ASTM, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, Telephone: (610) 832-9500, Fax: (610) 832-9555.

Americans with Disabilities Act. (1990). Public Law 226, 101st Congress. (July 26, 1990).

  1. Civil rights legislation prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities; written by the 101st Congress of the United States.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Arapahoe County Department of Development Services and Infrastructure Management. (1997). Arapahoe County 1997 handicap ramp installation program. Littleton.

  1. This book contains an outline of the steps that should be taken when designing or constructing public ramps.
  2. Arapahoe County Administration Building, 5334 South Prince Street, Littleton, CO 80166-0001, Telephone: (303) 795-4640.

Architecture and Engineering for Parks Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada. (1994). Design guidelines for accessible outdoor recreation facilities. Ottawa: Canada Paraplegic Association.

  1. Provides diagrams and design guidelines for developing accessible outdoor recreation facilities.
  2. Canadian Paraplegic Association, National Office, 1101 Prince of Wales Dr., Suite 320, Ottawa, Ontario K2C 3W7, Telephone: (613) 723-1033, Fax: (613) 723-1060.

Ashmead, D.H., Hill, E.W., Talor, C.R. (1989). Obstacle perception by congenitally blind children. Perception and Psychophysics, 46, pp. 425-433.

  1. This study determined whether or not congenitally blind children were able to use nonvisual information to perceive objects.
  2. Daniel H. Ashmead, Department of Psychology, Venderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-8700, Telephone: (615) 340-8280, Fax: (615) 343-7705, Email: ashmead@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu.

Ashmead, D.H., Wall, R.S., Eaton, S.B., Ebinger, K.A., Snook-Hill, M.M., Yang, X. (1998a). Echolocation reconsidered: Using spatial variations in the ambient sound field to guide locomotion. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness.

  1. This study determined the ability of people with visual disabilities to use ambient, low-frequency sound to guide their locomotion.
  2. Daniel H. Ashmead, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, Vanderbuilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-8700, Telephone: (615) 340-8280, Fax: (615) 343-7705, Email: ashmead@ctrvax.vanderbuilt.edu.

Ashmead, D.H., Wall, R.S., Ebinger, K.A., Eaton, S.B., Snook-Hill, M.M. (1998b). Spatial hearing in children with visual disabilities. Perception, 27, pp. 105-122.

  1. This study determined whether spatial hearing in children with visual disabilities was equivalent to that of sighted people.
  2. Daniel H. Ashmead, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-8700, Telephone: (615) 340-8280, Fax: (615) 343-7705, Email: ashmead@ctrvax.vanderbuilt.edu.

Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D.A., Faraone, M., Kirschbaum, J.B., Longmuir, P.E., Richter, W.M., Wong, K.M. (1997). Accessible exterior surfaces: A review of existing test methods for surface firmness and stability: Phase 1 report. Washington: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This research report evaluates existing test methods to determine the accessibility of surfaces.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc., 5858 Empire Grade, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, Telephone: (831) 429-8447, Fax: (831) 423-8450, Email: mail@beneficialdesigns.com.

Axelson, P., Chesney, D., Kelley, B., Longmuir, P., Pasternak, M., Wong, K., Wright, W. (1997). Universal trail assessment coordinator training guide. Santa Cruz: Pax Press.

  1. This book is a guide to the Universal Trail Assessment Process, which can be used to objectively assess outdoor recreation routes and recreation trails to collect access, mapping, usage, and maintenance information.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc., 5858 Empire Grade, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, Telephone: (831) 429-8447, Fax: (831) 423-8450, Email: mail@beneficialdesigns.com. Web site: www.beneficialdesigns.com

Axelson, P.W., Chesney, D.A., Longmuir, P. (1995). Outdoor recreation access route (ORAR) and recreation trail design specification research: Final report. Martinsville: National Center on Accessibility.

  1. This study measures the difficulty experienced by wheelchair users and pedestrians traveling over a variety of different surfaces with different grade and cross-slope characteristics.
  2. Beneficial Designs, Inc., 5858 Empire Grade, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, Telephone: (831) 429-8447, Fax: (831) 423-8450, Email: mail@beneficialdesigns.com. Web site: www.beneficialdesigns.com

Bach, B. Delft University of Technology, Traffic Consultants Diepens and Okkema. (1993). International handbook for cycle network design: Second edition. Delft: Diepens en Okkema Traffic Consultants.

  1. This handbook discusses the vulnerability of bicycle users in automobile traffic and provides illustrated solutions to various traffic and bicycle conflicts.
  2. Diepens and Okkema, P.O. Box 2873, 2601 CW DELFT, Telephone: 015 (2) 147899, Fax: 015 (2) 147902.

Barham, P., Oxley, P., Shaw, T. (1994). Accessible public transport infrastructure: Guidelines for the design of interchanges, terminals, and stops. Crowthorne: Mobility Unit of the Department of Transport and the Passenger Transport Executive Group.

  1. These design guidelines outline methods that can be used to develop public transport infrastructures that are more accessible for people with disabilities.
  2. Transport Research Laboratory, Old Wokingham Road, Crowthorne Berks RG11 6AV.

Bar-Or O. (1983). Pediatric sports medicine for the practitioner. New York: Springer Verlag.

  1. This book contains standards of practice relating to exercise and children, including detailed information on the effect of congenital disabilities (such as cerebral palsy and spina bifida), exercise, and physical activity.
  2. Springer Verlag, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, Telephone: (212) 460-1500, Fax: (212) 473-6272.

Barrier Free Environments, Inc. (1991). UFAS retrofit manual. Washington: United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This manual was designed to provide supplemental information regarding the application of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards in retrofit situations.
  2. United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434.

Barrier Free Environments, Inc. (1996). Accessibility in Georgia. Raleigh: Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities for Georgia.

  1. This is a technical and policy guide to access in Georgia.
  2. Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, ADA Program Consultant, 254 Washington St., S.W., Atlanta, GA 30334, Telephone: (404) 657-7313, TDD: (404) 657-9993.

Bearden, D.M. (1998). Federal highway funding for air quality projects and transportation enhancements: How much, to whom, and for what? Washington: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

  1. This report examines how Federal highway funding helps States address the environmental impacts of surface transportation. Funding structure, eligible project types, and other major funding situations are discussed.
  2. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540-7000.

Beers, D. (Draft, 1993). Klamath district's trail manual: Draft. Los Altos: California Trails Foundation.

  1. This manual contains equestrian and mountain bike trail information.
  2. Don Beers, North Coast Redwoods Headquarters, 600-A West Clark, Eureka, CA 95501, Telephone: (707) 445-6547 ext.18, Fax: (707) 441-5737.

Bentzen, B.L. (1995). Impact of curb ramps on the safety of persons who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 89, pp. 319-328.

  1. The research presented in this article found that curb ramps do, in fact, affect the safety of individuals with visual impairments.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind, 11 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10001.

Bentzen, B.L. (1997). Environmental Accessibility. In Blasch, W. Wiener, R. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility: second edition (pp. 317-356). New York, NY: AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind.

  1. This chapter of Foundations of Orientation and Mobility contains detailed information pertaining to environmental accessibility.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind, 11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300, New York, NY 10001. Web site: http://www.afb.org/.

Bentzen, B.L., Jackson, R.M., Peck, A.F. (1981). Information about visual impairment for architects and transit planners. Washington: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This document reports on improving communications with the visually impaired in rail rapid-transit systems.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Bentzen, B.L., Nolin, T.L., Easton, R.D. (1994). Detectable warning surfaces: Color, contrast, and reflectance. Washington: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This laboratory study was conducted to determine the optimal physical properties of a detectable warning system and to study properties such as contrast, hue, and reflectance.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Bentzen, B.L., Nolin, T.L., Easton, R.D., Desmarais, L., Mitchell, P.A. (1994). Detectable warnings: Detectability by individuals with visual impairments, and safety and negotiability on slopes for persons with physical impairments. Washington: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. The authors of this study tested the configurations of a variety of detectable warnings against a number of surrounding surfaces and determined how well people with visual impairments, as well as people with physical disabilities, were able to detect and negotiate the surfaces. They tested the stopping distance required for different surfaces and analyzed the causes of negotiation difficulties for people with physical disabilities who use mobility aids.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Bentzen, B.L., Tabor, L.S. (1998). Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Washington: U.S. Access Board.

  1. This report summarizes available types of accessible pedestrian signals. It analyzes when they are needed and what types of information they provide. Audible broadcast, tactile, vibrotactile, and receiver-based systems are discussed.
  2. U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, 1111 18th Street, N.W., Suite 501, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (800) 872-2253 or (202) 272-5434, TTY: (80) 993-2822 or (202) 272-5449, Fax: (202) 272-5447.

Bhambhani, Y., Clarkson, H. (1989). Acute physiologic and perceptual responses during three modes of ambulation: Walking, auxiliary crutch walking, and running. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 70, (June 1989). pp. 445-450.

  1. This research studies the energy cost of walking, running, and crutch use for able-bodied adults.
  2. University of Alberta, Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, Dr. Bhambhani, Room 308 Corbett Hall, Edmonton, AlbertaT6G2G4 Canada.

Bicycle Federation of America. (1992). Case study no. 21: Integrating bicycle and pedestrian considerations into State and local transportation planning, design, and operations. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-021.

  1. This report discusses methods to integrate bicycle and pedestrian considerations into State and local transportation planning, design, and operations.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Bicycle Federation of America. (1993a). Case study no. 5: An analysis of current funding mechanisms for bicycle and pedestrian programs at the Federal, State, and local levels. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-008.

  1. This document, published by the Federal Highway Administration, reviews funding sources for bicycle and pedestrian facilities available under ISTEA.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Bicycle Federation of America. (1993b). Case study no. 18: Final report, analyses of successful provincial, State, and local bicycle and pedestrian programs in Canada and the United States. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This document, published by the Federal Highway Administration, reviews several State and local bicycle and pedestrian programs that have been exceptionally effective.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Bicycle Federation of America, Pedestrian Federation of America. (1996). Probike/ pro walk '96, The ninth international conference on bicycle and pedestrian programs. Portland.

  1. This book contains the papers presented at the Ninth International Conference on Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs, 1996. A list of available references, publications, and reports is included.
  2. * National Center for Biking & Walking, 8120 Woodmont Ave, Suite 650, Bethesda, MD 20814, Phone: (301) 656-4220, Fax: (301) 656-4225, Email: info@bikewalk.org, Web site: www.bikewalk.org/.

Birchard, W., Jr., Proudman, R.D. (1981). Trail design, construction, and maintenance. Harpers Ferry: Appalachian Trail Conference.

  1. Written for trail workers who maintain the Appalachian Trail, this book provides information about designing, constructing, and maintaining outdoor recreation trails.
  2. Appalachian Trail Conference, P.O. Box 236, Harpers Ferry, WV 25425, Telephone: (304) 535-6331.

Birkby, R.C. (1996). Lightly on the land. Seattle: The Mountaineers.

  1. This book is a guide for building trails written for the Student Conservation Association. It explains techniques for using volunteers to design and maintain outdoor trails.
  2. The Mountaineers, 1001, S.W. Klickitat Way, Seattle, WA 98134.

Blomberg, R.D., Cleven, A.M. (1998). Development, implementation, and evaluation of a pedestrian safety zone for elderly pedestrians. Washington: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. The objectives of this study were to develop and apply procedures for defining pedestrian safety zones for older (age 65+) adults and to develop, implement, and evaluate a countermeasure program in the defined zones.
  2. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/Federal Highway Administration, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590, Telephone: (202) 366-4000.

Bowman, B.L., Fruin, J.J., Zegeer, C.V. (1989). Planning design and maintenance of pedestrian facilities. McLean: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This handbook's contents include pedestrian characteristics, results of pedestrian traffic and safety studies, pedestrian traffic control devices and procedures, pedestrian facilities in work zones, facility maintenance, and a summary of pedestrian facility problems.
  2. Research, Development and Technology, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101-2296. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Brambilla, R., Longo, G. (1976). A handbook for pedestrian action. Washington: U.S. Department of Commerce.

  1. This guidebook provides alternates in improving pedestrian accessibility and includes practical techniques a citizen can use to advocate improvement of pedestrian access.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Brock, W., Cunill, B., Dockter, S., Isom, J., King, G., Lindsey-Forester, J., Sparklin, D., Stevens, B. (1996). Community impact assessment: A quick reference for transportation. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This guide outlines the community impact assessment process, highlights areas that must be examined, and identifies basic tools and information sources planners can use to assess the impact of transportation projects.
  2. Office of Environment and Planning, Telephone: (202) 366-0106.

Brown, S.A., Stein, S.M., Warner, J.C. (1996). Urban drainage design manual: Hydraulic engineering circular 22. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This book is a practical guide to designing storm drain systems connected with transportation facilities.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

BT Countryside for All. (1997). A good practice guide to disabled people's access in the countryside: Standards and guidelines. Sheffield.

  1. This document is a collection of more than 20 different plans for countryside accessibility.
  2. BT Countryside For All, The Fairfield Trust, 67a The Wicker, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S3 8HT, Telephone: 0114-270-1668, Minicom: 0114-275-5380, Fax: 0114-276-7900.

Building Standards Branch, Ministry of Municipal Affairs. (1995). Building access handbook: Building requirements for persons with disabilities. Victoria: Queens Printer.

  1. This handbook provides guidelines for and the rationale behind building specifications designed to improve access for people with disabilities.
  2. Crown Publications, 521 Fort Street, Victoria, B.C. V8W 1E7, Telephone: (607) 386-4636, Fax: (604) 386-0221.

Burden, D. (1994). Bike lanes: Improving motorist/bicyclist behavior. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. This paper explores the history and benefits of providing bike lines and paved shoulders in urban settings.
  2. Theo Petritsch, State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator, Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee Street, MS-82, Tallahassee, FL 32399, Telephone: (850) 487-1200, Fax: (850) 922-2935, Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

Burden, D., Wallwork, M. (1996). Handbook for walkable communities. High Springs.

  1. This handbook discusses problems that pedestrians face because of increased auto congestion and introduces planning and engineering principles designed to improve pedestrian safety. Alternatives to private automobile transportation are discussed as well.
  2. Dan Burden, Telephone: (904) 454-3304, Email: dburden@aol.com.

California State Parks. (1997). Access to parks guidelines: California edition. Sacramento.

  1. This document contains the accessibility design guidelines for California State Parks.
  2. California State Parks Store, P.O. Box 942896, Sacramento, CA 94296-0001, Ray Ann Watson (ADA Coordinator), Telephone: (916) 653-8148.

Campaign To Make America Walkable. (1997). The pedestrian resource book. Washington.

  1. This document contains abstracts and meeting agendas from the National Pedestrian Conference held in Washington, DC, on September 6, 1997.
  2. * National Center for Biking & Walking, 8120 Woodmont Ave, Suite 650, Bethesda, MD 20814, Phone: (301) 656-4220, Fax: (301) 656-4225, Email: info@bikewalk.org, Web site: www.bikewalk.org/.

Chesney, D.A., Axelson, P.W. (1994). Assessment of outdoor environments for accessibility. Proceedings of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America: RESNA Press.

  1. The objectives of this research project were to develop a quantitive system for assessing outdoor environments for accessibility and to evaluate the reliability of the methodology.
  2. Beneficial Designs, 5858 Empire Grade, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, Telephone: (831) 429-8447, Fax: (831) 423-8450.

Chilman, K., Vogel, J., Conley, J. (1991). Turkey Bay off-road vehicle area at Land Between Lakes: Monitoring use and impacts since 1973. Carbondale: Department of Forestry, Southern Illinois University.

  1. This report describes 17 years of the changes and monitoring systems in Turkey Bay, an area in western Kentucky and Tennessee designated for off-road vehicle use.
  2. TVA's Land Between the Lakes, Golden Pond, KY 42211, Telephone: (502) 924-5602, Fax: (502) 924-2093.

Cimarron Design. (1994). Trails design and management handbook: Revision 1.1. Aspen: Pitkin County Open Space and Trails Program.

  1. This handbook contains the trail design standards for Pitkin County, Colorado. Separate standards are provided for hard surfaces and soft surfaces on multiple-use trails.
  2. Pitkin County Open Space and Trails, 530 East Main Street, Suite 301, Aspen, CO 81611, Telephone: (970) 920-5232, Fax: (970) 920-5198.

City of Boulder. (1995). Transportation master plan update for Boulder Valley. Boulder: Charlier Associates, Inc.

  1. This document contains transportation planning strategies for the city of Boulder, Colorado.
  2. Mr. Randall Rutsch, Project Manager, Transportation Engineering City of Boulder, Park Central Building, 1739 Broadway, Second Floor, Boulder, CO 80206, Telephone: (303) 441-4413.

City of Memphis. (1994). City of Memphis construction standards. Memphis: City of Memphis, Division of Public Works, Department of Engineering.

  1. This document contains design details for transportation facilities.
  2. City of Memphis, Division of Public Works, Department of Engineering, 125 North Main, Suite 677, Memphis, TN 38103, Telephone: (901) 576-6700, Fax: (901) 576-6960.

City of Portland, Oregon, Bureau of Maintenance, Sidewalk Repair. (1996). The sidewalk handbook. Portland.

  1. This brochure reviews property owners' responsibilities with regard to maintaining sidewalks and discusses available city support to repair sidewalks.
  2. Bureau of Maintenance, Sidewalk Repair, 2929 N. Kerby Avenue, Portland, OR 97227, Telephone: (503) 823-1711, Fax: (503) 823-4043.

City of Portland, Bureau of Transportation Engineering and Development, and the Pedestrian Transportation Program. (1998). Pedestrian master plan. Portland.

  1. This is the pedestrian Master Plan of Portland; it contains construction guidelines and layouts used by the City of Portland to design pedestrian facilities.
  2. Pedestrian Transportation Program, 1120, S.W. Fifth Avenue, Room 802, Portland, OR 97204-1971, Telephone: (503) 823-7211, Email: jean@sysgen.ci.portland.or.us.

City of Portland, Bureau of Transportation Engineering and Development, and the Pedestrian Transportation Program. (Draft, 1997). Pedestrian design guide. Portland.

  1. This is the curb ramp section of the draft design guidelines for pedestrian facilities in Portland.
  2. Pedestrian Transportation Program, 1120, S.W. Fifth Avenue, Room 802, Portland, OR 97204-1971, Telephone: (503) 823-7211.

City of Seattle. (1996). Making streets that work: Neighborhood planning tool. Seattle.

  1. This workbook is designed to help planners improve the attractiveness and safety of urban neighborhoods.
  2. Office of the Mayor, City of Seattle, 600 Fourth Avenue, 12th Floor, Seattle, WA 98104-1873.

Clark-Carter, D.D., Heyes, A.D., Howarth, I. (1987). The gait of visually impaired pedestrians. Human Movement Science 6 (pp. 277-282). North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

  1. This research study documents the gait characteristics (speed, stride length, etc.) of adults with visual impairments.
  2. Elsevier Science, Regional Sales Office, Customer Support Department, P.O. Box 945, New York, NY 10159-0945, Telephone: (212) 633-3680 or (800) 4ES-INFO, Fax: (212) 633-3680, Email: usinfo-f@elsevier.com.

Conley, J., Vogel, J., Chilman, K. (1990). Open-area management and monitoring programs. Proceedings of the cooperative off-highway vehicle workshop. (pp. 10-12) Waterville: Motorcycle Industry Council.

  1. This article discusses the open-area management of an outdoor recreation and environmental education demonstration area administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in western Kentucky and Tennessee designated for off-road vehicle (ORV) riding and contrasts that to designating individual trails for ORV use.
  2. TVA's Land Between the Lakes, Golden Pond, KY 42211, Telephone: (502) 924-5602, Fax: (502) 924-2093.

Council of American Building Officials. (1992). American national standard: Accessible and usable buildings and facilities (CABO/ANSI A117.1-1992). Falls Church.

  1. This manual provides recommendations for designing buildings and facilities that are accessible to and usable by people with disabilities.
  2. Council of American Building Officials, 5203 Leesburg Pike, #708, Falls Church, VA 22041, Telephone: (703) 931-4533.

Covington, G.A., Hannah, B. (1997). Access by design. New York: International Thomson Publishing Inc.

  1. This book promotes the application of universal design principles in the creation of products, spaces, and services.
  2. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003.

Davies, S.C. (1993). Designing effective pedestrian improvements in business districts. New York: Project for Public Spaces.

  1. This report discusses how pedestrian improvements can be designed and managed to meet peoples' needs more effectively.
  2. Project for Public Spaces, Inc., 875 Avenue of the Americas, Room 201, New York, NY 10001.

De Leuw, C., Jr., Danielson, F., Kudlick, W., Swan, S. (1981). Effective treatments of over- and undercrossings for use by bicyclists, pedestrians, and the handicapped. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This study provides information about improving access to under- and overcrossings for bicyclists, pedestrians, and the handicapped.
  2. National Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Department of Rehabilitation. (1995). Access guide: Survey checklist. Sacramento.

  1. This booklet contains a checklist that can be used to determine whether buildings meet accessible accommodation requirements applicable within the State of California.
  2. Department of Rehabilitation, ADA Implementation Section, P.O. Box 944222, Sacramento, CA 94244-2220, Telephone: (916) 322-0251, TTY (916) 322-1096, CALNET 492-0251 (Voice or TTY).

DiStefano, J., Raimi, M. (1996). Five years of progress: 110 communities making a difference. Washington: Surface Transportation Policy Project.

  1. This series of case studies highlights successful community ISTEA projects.
  2. Surface Transportation Policy Project, 1100 Seventeenth Street, N.W., Tenth Floor, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 466-2636, Fax: (202) 466-2247, Email: stpp@transact.org.

Division of Engineering, Lexington-Fayette County Urban Government. (1993). Sidewalks: A home owner's guide. Lexington.

  1. This booklet provides an outline of the Urban County Government sidewalk inspection program. It is intended to aid property owners in the regular maintenance of right-of-ways adjoining their private property.
  2. Division of Engineering, Lexington-Fayette County Urban Government, Lexington-Fayette Government Building, 200 East Main Street, Lexington, KY 40507, Telephone: (606) 258-3410.

Earnhart, G., Simon, L. (1987). Accessibility for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: A manual for cities. McLean: Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center.

  1. This handbook provides an overview of existing accessibility planning and programming. Each chapter provides definitions, illustrations, and Federal standards, if they exist, and includes a section on problems and recommended solutions.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Ellis-Cauthron, S.L., Cauthron, H.E. (1995). Accessibility survey for identification of structural barriers to programs and services at visitor centers, developed campgrounds, and day-use/picnic areas. Phoenix.

  1. This is a collection of survey forms that land managers can use to identify structural barriers to programs and services at visitor centers and outdoor facilities.
  2. Sandra LeAnn Ellis-Cauthron, 6702 West Merrell Street, Phoenix, AZ 85033.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, U.S. Department of Justice. (1991). Americans with Disabilities Act handbook. Washington.

  1. This handbook was written to provide information and assistance on the ADA to people with disabilities, businesses, and the public. This handbook is a particularly valuable tool that contains EEOC Title I regulations and DOJ Title II and III regulations, together with a section-by-section analysis of each regulatory provision.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice, Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301, TTY: (800) 514-0383.

Farbman, A., Park, D.C. (1989d). Philosophical foundations in providing accessible recreation facilities. Design: Access 4: Philosophical Concepts: Accessible Picnic Areas and Campgrounds. pp. 3-16. (Fall 1989). Washington: Park Practice Program.

  1. This article is the last in a series of four outlining accessibility design requirements as they relate to standards development, access to buildings and structures, and access to outdoor recreation and trails.
  2. National Recreation and Park Association, 22377 Delmont Ridge Road, Ashburn, VA 20148, Telephone: (703) 858-0784, Fax: (703) 858-0794.

Federal Highway Administration. (1994). Final report: The national bicycling and walking study: Transportation choices for a changing America. Washington.

  1. This study analyzes the current state of bicycling and walking in the United States.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Federal Highway Administration. (1996a). Chapter 18 facilities for pedestrians and bicyclists. Washington.

  1. This book discusses taking bicyclists and pedestrians into consideration when proposed facilities are being designed.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Federal Highway Administration, Region 8 Office. (1996b). Commentary and text: Section 14: ADA accessibility guidelines. Lakewood.

  1. This booklet is designed to assist designers, builders, architects, and other planners in the interpretation of Section 14 of the ADA Accessibility Guidelines.
  2. Brenda Weltzer, Federal Highway Administration, Region 8 Office, 555 Zang Street, Suite 400, Lakewood, CO 80228, Telephone: (303) 969-6716.

Federal Highway Administration. (1997a). Flexibility in highway design. Washington. Report # FHWA-PD-97-062.

  1. This book identifies and explains the opportunities and constraints facing designers and design teams responsible for the development of transportation facilities. It includes many illustrations and examples of well-designed highways and roadways.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Telephone: (202) 366-0106.

Federal Highway Administration. (1997b). Urban drainage design programs: HY-22 version 2.0 [diskette]. Washington.

  1. This technical manual provides a comprehensive guide to designing storm drainage systems for transportation facilities.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

Federal Highway Administration, Associate Administrator for Program Development, Designation of Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinators within State Departments of Transportation, January 28, 1992.

  1. This letter outlines the responsibilities of bicycle and pedestrian coordinators within State departments of transportation.

Federal Highway Administration, Federal Transit Administration, Acting Associate Administrator for Program Development, Associate Administrator for Grants Management, Federal Transit Administration, November 28, 1994.

  1. This unpublished letter discusses the distribution of interim technical guidance for bicycle and pedestrian planning at State and local MPO levels.

Federal Highway Administration, Federal Transit Administration. (1995). A guide to metropolitan transportation planning under ISTEA: How the pieces fit together. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-95-031.

  1. This guidebook describes how Metropolitan Planning Organizations operate under ISTEA. Long- and short-range plans are discussed in detail.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Telephone: (202) 366-5003.

Federal Highway Administration, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (1996). Pedestrian and bicyclist safety and accommodation: Participant workbook. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-HI-96-028.

  1. Prepared by Dan Burden and Betty Drake, this book supplements a National Highway Institute course that focused on pedestrian and bicycle safety and design. It outlines how focus groups and charities can be incorporated into a public participation model.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Fischer, J.W. (1998a). ISTEA reauthorization: Highway and transit legislative proposals in the 105th Congress: Second session. Washington: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

  1. This report discusses the structure of the House and Senate proposals and provides an overview of the issues that might have come to the forefront during conference.
  2. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540-7000.

Fischer, J.W. (1998b). Transportation trust funds: Budgetary treatment. Washington: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

  1. This report addresses issues associated with the purpose and use of transportation trust funds.
  2. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540-7000.

Fisher, S.V., and Gullickson, G. (1978). Energy cost of ambulation in health and disability: A literature review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 59, pp. 124-133.

  1. A review of literature pertaining to the energy cost of ambulation with various types of disability. It summarizes previously published research on the energy cost of various physical disabilities.
  2. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, W.B. Saunders Company, Periodicals Department, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800, Telephone: (407) 345-2500 or (800) 654-2452, Outside USA or Canada: (407) 345-4000, Web site: www.archives-pmr.org/.

Fisher, S.V., and Patterson, R.P. (1981). Energy cost of ambulation with crutches. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 62, pp. 125-127.

  1. This study compares the energy cost of ambulation for walking with that of underarm crutches on level terrain, grade, and climbing stairs.
  2. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, W.B. Saunders Company, Periodicals Department, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800, Telephone: (407) 345-2500 or (800) 654-2452, Outside USA or Canada: (407) 345-4000, Web site: www.archives-pmr.org/.

Flascher, O.M., Kadar, E.E., Garrett, S.R., Meyer, J., Shaw, R.E. (1995). Perceptual scaling of doorways: An investigation of perception for design principles development. In J.L. Nasar, P. Grannis, K. Hanyu (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association (pp. 18-23). Boston, MA: Ohio State University.

  1. This study investigates the relationship between a passageway's size and a human's perception of its accessibility. The researchers propose that this measure of clearance can be applied to ensure the design of maximally efficient and safe throughways and access technologies.
  2. Environmental Design Research Association, P.O. Box 7146, Edmond, OK 73083-7146, Telephone: (405) 330-4863, Fax: (406) 330-4150, Email: edra@telepath.com.

Flasher, O.M., Kadar, E.E., Shaw, R.E. (1993). Dimensionless invariance for intentional systems: Measuring the fit of vehicular activities to environmental layout. In J.M. Flach, P.A. Hancock, J.K. Caird, K.J. Vicente (Eds.), An ecological approach to human-machine systems I: A global perspective. (Chapter 11). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  1. This article considers how wheelchair users are able to select and follow the best route through cluttered and obstacle-laden courses. It discusses using dimensionless invariance to measure the dynamic fit of active wheelchairs through their functional spaces if given a navigational goal.
  2. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262, Telephone: (201) 236-9500 or (800) 9-BOOKS-9, Fax: (201) 236-0072, Email: orders@erlbaum.com.

Florida Department of Transportation, State Safety Office, MS 82. (1997). Bicycle facilities planning and design handbook. Tallahassee: Bicycle and Pedestrian Program.

  1. This manual provides a practical overview of the concept and need for bicycle roadway planning. It includes defined terms, bicycle planning needs, principles, and issues. It also describes the bicycle planning process in terms of engineers and community collaboration.
  2. Florida Department of Transportation, Bicycle/Pedestrian Program, State Safety Office, 605 Suwannee Street, Mail Station 82, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0450.

Gallon, C. (1992). Contractor report 317: Tactile surfaces in the pedestrian environment: Experiments in Wolverhampton. Crowthorne: Transport and Road Research Laboratory.

  1. This report looks at how effective tactile markings would be in a real pedestrian environment and what form the layout of these surfaces should take.
  2. Vehicles and Environment Division, Vehicles Group, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Old Wokingham Road, Crowthorne, Berkshire RG11 6AU, Telephone: (STD 0344) 773131, Telex: 848272, Fax: 0344 770356.

Gallon, C., Oxley, P., Simms, B. (1991). Contractor report 257: Tactile footway surfaces for the blind. Crowthorne: Transport and Road Research Laboratory.

  1. This document summarizes research to determine how well different textured surfaces were distinguished by the visually disabled.
  2. Vehicles and Environment Division, Vehicles Group, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Old Wokingham Road, Crowthorne, Berkshire RG11 6AU, Telephone: (STD 0344) 773131, Telex: 848272, Fax: 0344 770356.

Geiger, R.A., Jr. (Summer 1989). National Wildlife Federation's Mountain Laurel Trail. Design access 3: Access to outdoor recreation: Trails, pp. 12-16.

  1. This document examines accessibility issues in the outdoor recreation environment using the Mountain Laurel Trail as an example.
  2. Park Practice Program, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127, Telephone: (202) 343-7067.

Georgia Institute of Technology. (1979). Provisions for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: Volume 1: Executive summary. Springfield: U.S. Department of Commerce.

  1. This document is an executive summary of research done regarding older pedestrians and pedestrians with disabilities. It outlines the research methodologies and summarizes the results of the study.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Gilbert, T.A., Goltsman, S.M., Wohlford, S.D. (1992). User's guide: The accessibility checklist: An evaluation system for buildings and outdoor settings. Berkeley: MIG Communications.

  1. A comprehensive checklist to determine whether buildings and outdoor settings comply with the ADA Guidelines, UFAS, and California's Title 24 building codes.
  2. MIG Communications, 1802 Fifth Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, Telephone: (510) 845-0953.

Gilleran, B.F., Pates, G. (1994). Bicycling and walking in the nineties and beyond: Applying Scandinavian experience to America's challenges. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PL-95-005.

  1. This report is a review of Scandinavian techniques, technologies, practices, and policies for promoting bicycling and pedestrian transportation. It includes an examination of their applicability in the United States.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Golden, M., Kilb, L., Mayerson, A. (1993). Americans with Disabilities Act: An implementation guide. Berkeley: Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund, Inc.

  1. This manual is designed to provide answers to questions businesses, organizations, and individuals might have about the ADA. The explanation of the law integrates the legislative history, the statute, the regulations and analyses, and Section 504 cases. A guide to legal documents, selected cases under Section 504, and a section on tax incentives are also included.
  2. DREDF, 2212 Sixth Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, Telephone: (510) 644-2555 or (800) 466-4232.

Goltsman, S.A., Gilbert, T.A., Wohlford, S.D. (1993a). Survey forms: The accessibility checklist: An evaluation system for buildings and outdoor settings: Second edition. Berkeley: MIG Communications.

  1. This book contains forms to use in conducting accessibility evaluations of buildings and outdoor facilities. Instructions for using the Survey Forms are contained in the User's Guide, the companion volume of The Accessibility Checklist.
  2. MIG Communications, 1802 Fifth Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, Telephone: (510) 845-8750, Fax: (510) 845-8750.

Goltsman, S.A., Gilbert, T.A., Wohlford, S.D. (1993b). User's guide: The accessibility checklist: An evaluation system for buildings and outdoor settings: Second edition. Berkeley: MIG Communications.

  1. Designed to accompany Survey Forms, this checklist translates the codes and standards of the ADA guidelines and the UFAS standards used on the forms.
  2. MIG Communications, 1802 Fifth Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, Telephone: (510) 845-8750, Fax: (510) 845-8750.

Governor's Committee on Concerns of the Handicapped. (1995). Sidewalk and curb ramp design. Santa Fe.

  1. This outline contains design regulations and requirements for all situations encountered with ramp design.
  2. Governor's Committee on Concerns of the Handicapped, Lamy Building Room 117, 491 Old Santa Fe Trail, Santa Fe, NM 87503, Telephone: (505) 827-6465, TDD: (505) 827-6329, Fax: (505) 827-6328.

Greenways Incorporated. (1992a). Case study no. 7: Transportation potential and other benefits of off-road bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-92-040.

  1. This report is a compendium of the benefits gained by having bicycle and pedestrian trails; it cites examples of highly successful community greenways.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Greenways Incorporated. (1992b). Case study no. 24: Current planning guidelines and design standards being used by State and local agencies for bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-006.

  1. This is a review of some State and local existing bicycle and pedestrian programs to determine the state-of-practice. The report summarizes the best guidelines and standards currently being used. It also names reference materials critical for leading-edge facility design.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Greenways Incorporated. (1996). Birmingham-area bicycle, pedestrian, and greenway plan: Final plan report. Birmingham: Birmingham Regional Planning Commission.

  1. This document contains the projected transportation needs of the Birmingham area to the year 2015. Detailed maps, charts, and requirements are also included.
  2. Birmingham Regional Planning Commission, Magnolia Office Park Suite 220, 2112 Eleventh Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35256-4799, Telephone: (205) 251-8139.

Gusey, D.L. (1991). Trail hardening test: Project # ORV-86-3P: Final report. Washington: State of Washington Interagency Committee for Outdoor Recreation.

  1. This report discusses study results after examining different methods to harden trails to inhibit erosion and better maintain trails.
  2. Daryl L. Gusey, Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison National Forests, 2250 Highway Fifty, Delta, CO 81416, Telephone: (303) 874-7691, DG: RO2FO4A.

Guth, D.A., Rieser, J.J. (1997). Perception and the control of locomotion by blind and visually impaired pedestrians. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility: Second edition. (pp. 9-37). New York: AFB Press.

  1. This chapter from Foundations of Orientation and Mobility discusses how pedestrians with visual impairments obtain information about and navigate through the pedestrian environment.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind, 11 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10001, Web site: http://www.afb.org/.

Hall, G., Rabelle, A., Zabihaylo, C. (1994). Audible traffic signals: A new definition. Montreal: Montreal Association for the Blind.

  1. This guidance document provides government agencies with information regarding audible traffic signals.
  2. Montreal Association for the Blind (MAB), 7000 Shebrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R3.

Harkey, D.L., Stewart, J.R., Rodgman, E.A. (1996). Evaluation of shared-use facilities for bicycles and motor vehicles: Final report. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. Sponsored by the Florida Department of Transportation, this study evaluates the safety and utility of shared-use facilities to provide engineers and planners comprehensive results.
  2. Theo Petritsch, State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator, Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee Street, MS-82, Tallahassee, FL 32399, Telephone: (850) 487-1200, Fax: (850) 922-2935, Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

Hauger, J.S., Rigby, J.C., Safewright, M., McAuley, W.J. (1996). Detectable warning surfaces at curb ramps. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 90, pp. 512-525.

  1. This article includes tests of blind pedestrians' need for detectable warning surfaces at curb ramps.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind, 11 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10001.

Hesselbarth, W., Vachowski, B. (1996). Trail construction and maintenance notebook. Missoula: USDA Forest Service.

  1. Written in a concise, pocket format that can be used on the trail, this guide summarizes basic trail construction and maintenance information relevant to field work.
  2. USDA-FS, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Building One, Fort Missoula, Missoula, MT 59804-7294, Telephone: (406) 329-3900, Fax: (406) 329-3719.

Hooper, L. (1994). NPS trails management handbook. Denver: Denver Service Center.

  1. This book contains easily reduced drainage and construction guidelines.
  2. Lennon Hooper Trails Coordinator, National Park Service, P.O. Box 25287, 655 Parfet Street, Denver, CO 80225.

Hopf, P.S., Raeber, J.A. (1984). Access for the handicapped. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc.

  1. This book provides information to make facilities suitable for use by the physically handicapped.
  2. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., 135 West Fiftieth Street, New York, NY 10020.

Hughes, R.G. (1995). An evaluation of detectable warnings in curb ramps: Mobility considerations for the blind and visually impaired. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. This study tested the optimal configuration for detectable warnings installed on curb ramps. It also analyzed any difficulties subjects had with negotiating the ramp and provided recommendations on ramp design and configuration regarding tactile warnings.
  2. Theo Petritsch, State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator, Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee Street, MS-82, Tallahassee, FL 32399, Telephone: (850) 487-1200, Fax: (850) 922-2935, Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

Hughes, R.G., and Harkey, D. (1996). Lane conditions, traffic speed, and traffic volume: Effects on cyclists' perception of risk in a virtual environment. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. This study addresses the extent to which bicyclists' use of roadway facilities is affected by the conditions of the curb lane, traffic speed, and traffic volume. Subjects viewed several virtual environment simulations of a road from different perspectives.
  2. Theo Petritsch, State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator, Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee Street MS-82, Tallahassee, FL 32399, Telephone: (850) 487-1200, Fax: (850) 922-2935, Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

Institute of Transportation Engineers, Technical Council Committee A-55. (1997a). Review of planning guidelines and design standards for bicycle facilities. Washington: Institute of Transportation Engineers.

  1. This report defines planning guidelines and design standards used by States and localities to develop bicycle facilities and identify practices that can be used as models by other communities.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 525 School Street, S.W., Suite 410, Washington, DC 20024-2797, Telephone: (202) 554-8050, Fax: (202) 863-5486.

Institute of Transportation Engineers, Technical Council Committee 5A-5. (1998). Design and safety of pedestrian facilities. Chapel Hill.

  1. Provides design recommendations for developing safer and more accessible pedestrian facilities.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 525 School Street, S.W., Suite 410, Washington, DC 20024-2797, Telephone: (202) 554-8050, Fax: (202) 863-5486.

Institute of Transportation Engineers, Transportation Planning Council Committee 5P-8. (1997b). Traditional neighborhood development: Street design guidelines. Washington.

  1. This report, a recommended practice published by ITE, discusses traditional neighborhood development, design parameters, and community planning.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 525 School Street, S.W., Suite 410, Washington, DC 20024-2797, Telephone: (202) 554-8050, Fax: (202) 863-5486, Web site: http://www.ite.org.

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. (1991). Public Law 240, 102nd Congress. (December 18, 1991).

  1. This law authorizes transportation funds to be spent on improving intermodal surface transportation alternatives for moving goods and people.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Jacobson, W.H. (1993). The art and science of teaching orientation and mobility to persons with visual impairments. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

  1. This textbook teaches orientation and mobility professionals to instruct people with visual impairments in wayfinding and navigation techniques.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY 10011.

Jansma, P., French, R. (1994). Special physical education: Physical activity, sports, and recreation. Des Moines: Prentice Hall.

  1. Identifies the impact of various disabilities on the participation in physical activity, sports, and recreation programs. Discusses effective strategies for including individuals with disabilities in physical activity.
  2. Prentice Hall, Order Processing Center, P.O. Box 11071, Des Moines, IA 50336, Telephone: (800) 947-7700, Fax: (515) 284-6709, Email: orders@prenhall.com.

Joffee, E. (1994). A detectable warnings implementation document. Washington: Federal Transit Administration.

  1. This report contains technical help and information on the ADA Rule of 1991.
  2. American Foundation for the Blind, Web site: http://www.afb.org/.

Kadar, E.E., Flascher, O.M., Shaw, R.E. (1995). A field theoretic description for navigation through cluttered environments: Consequences for environment design. In J.L. Nasar, P. Grannis, K. Hanyu (Eds.), Proceedings of the EDRA (pp. 13-17). Edmond: Environmental Design Research Association.

  1. This paper proposes the concept of isovists, or the points visible to a vantage point in space taken with respect to the environment, as useful tools in the objective assessment of environment functionality. It also describes a prototype device that can be used in evaluation.
  2. Environmental Design Research Association, P.O. Box 7146, Edmond, OK 73083-7146, Telephone: (405) 330-4863, Fax: (406) 330-4150, Email: edra@telepath.com.

Kell, J.H., Fullerton, I.J. (1982). Manual of traffic signal design. Washington: Institute of Transportation Engineers.

  1. This manual discusses how to design traffic signals that function well in the street environment.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 525 School Street, S.W., Suite 410, Washington, DC 20024-2797, Telephone: (202) 554-8050, Fax: (202) 863-5486, Web site: http://www.ite.org.

Kentucky Department of Parks. (1989). Trail construction and maintenance: Division of recreation and interpretation. Frankfort.

  1. This book contains guidelines for equestrian, hiking, OHV, and mountain bike trails.
  2. Kentucky Department of Parks, Telephone: (502) 564-2172.

Knoblauch, R.L., Crigler, K.L. (1987a). Model pedestrian safety program: User's guide. McLean: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This guide describes how localities can plan, implement, and evaluate a pedestrian safety program.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Knoblauch, R.L., Crigler, K.L. (1987b). Model pedestrian safety program: User's guide: Supplement. McLean: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This supplement provides detailed information on specific pedestrian encounters.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Knoblauch, R., Nitxburg, M., Dewar, R., Templer, J., Pietrucha, M. (1995). Older pedestrian characteristics for use in highway design. McLean: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This report conducts a field study on more than 7,000 pedestrians in four cities to determine older-pedestrian data. This was done to develop traffic planning and engineering guidelines with older-pedestrian capabilities in mind.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Knoblauch, R.L., Tustin, B.H., Smith, S.A., Pietrucha, M.T. (1988). Investigation of exposure-based pedestrian areas: Crosswalks, sidewalks, local streets, and major arterials. McLean: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This study determined how well drivers and pedestrians recognize marked crosswalk designs.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Lamont, B., et al. (1997). Encouraging local planning and regional cooperation. Colorado Commons, pp. 15-17. (Spring 1997).

  1. This article discusses techniques for encouraging local and regional coordination with regard to transportation issues.
  2. Colorado Commons, P.O. Box 417, Longmont, CO 80502-0417, Telephone: (303) 530-1925 ext. 114, Fax: (303) 530-2401, Web site: www.cityofdreams.com.

Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government. (1993). Sidewalks: A homeowner's guide. Lexington.

  1. This booklet contains procedures for evaluating sidewalks and an outline of the local sidewalk improvement maintenance program.
  2. Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government, Division of Engineering, Lexington-Fayette Government Building, 200 East Main Street, Lexington, KY 40507, Telephone: (606) 258-3410.

Long, R.G., Hill, E.W. (1997). Establishing and maintaining orientation for mobility. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, R.L.Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility: Second edition, (pp. 39-59). New York: AFB Press.

  1. This is a chapter from Foundations of Orientation and Mobility about spatial orientation of individuals who are blind or visually impaired. It focuses on spatial problems they must solve to move efficiently from place to place and the strategies or tools they use to solve them.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind, 11 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10001. Web site: http://www.afb.org/.

Macdonald, S.H. (1988). Colorado off-highway vehicle recreation plan. Denver: Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation.

  1. This document reviews current needs and problems of OHV use in Colorado. It also analyzes proposed actions and makes recommendations.
  2. Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, 1313 Sherman Street, Room 618, Denver, CO 80203, Telephone: (303) 866-3437.

Mace, R.L., Hardie, G.J., Place, J.P. (1991). Accessible environments: Toward universal design. Raleigh: The Center for Universal Design.

  1. This booklet discusses how universal design can benefit all segments of the population and suggests design principles that can be used to improve access to buildings, outdoor facilities, and other spaces. It also discusses the disabled population and provides an overview of the accommodations required by the Americans with Disabilities Act.
  2. The Center for Universal Design, North Carolina State University, P.O. Box 8613, Raleigh, NC 27695-8613, Telephone and TDD: (919) 515-3082, Info. Requests: (800) 647-6777.

Maine Bureau of Parks and Recreation Department of Conservation. (1995). 1994/1995 Bicycling survey of household residents. Augustus: Maine Department of Transportation.

  1. This report details the results of a statewide survey of Maine residents regarding bicycling habits, attitudes, complaints, and criticisms of existing bicycle transportation conditions.
  2. Maine Department of Transportation, Sixteen State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0016, Telephone: (207) 287-3318, Fax: (207) 287-8300, Web site: www.state.me.us/mdot/.

Maine Department of Transportation. (1995). You can get there from here: Volume two: The pedestrian plan. Augusta.

  1. This report provides an overview of State and local bodies involved with implementing the Multimodal Transportation Act of 1991. The report discusses current needs and conditions and proposes engineering and design principles to facilitate the execution of the plan.
  2. Maine Department of Transportation, Sixteen State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0016, Telephone: (207) 287-3318, Fax: (207) 287-8300, Web site: www.state.me.us/mdot/.

Marcil, F. (1995). Multi-use trails in Canada: An analysis of some successful cases. Montreal: Velo Quebec.

  1. This book discusses the importance of having multi-use trails in Canada. It pairs problems and situations with proposed ideas and solutions.
  2. Velo Quebec, 1251 Rue Rachel Est, Montreal (Quebec) H2J 2J9 Canada, Telephone: (514) 521-8356, Fax: (514) 521-5711.

Marshall, L. (1993). Responsible riding: Snowmobilers aim to freeze out unethical behavior. Outdoor Ethics, 12 (1), pp. 1-4.

  1. This article cites various problems associated with snowmobiling.
  2. Joshua Winchell, Outdoor Ethics Program, Izaak Walton League of America, 707 Conservation Lane, Gaithersburg, MD 20878-2983, Telephone: (301) 548-0150, Fax: (301) 548-0146.

Materials Division, Virginia Transportation Research Council. (1996). Pavement design guide for subdivision and secondary roads in Virginia. Richmond: Virginia Department of Transportation.

  1. This document is a companion reference to the Subdivision Street Requirements booklet. It also replaces three earlier documents designated VHRC 73-R18, VHRC 73-R21, and the 1993 revision for secondary and subdivision pavement design manuals.
  2. Virginia Department of Transportation, Secondary Roads Division, 1401 East Broad Street, Richmond, VA 23219, Telephone: (804) 786-2576, Fax: (804) 7786-2603.

McAuley, W.J., Hauger, J.S., Safewright, M.P., Rigby, J.C. (1995). The detectable warnings project. Washington: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This paper discusses the results of a study to determine the level of detectability of a variety of raised tactile warning surfaces.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/.

McCoy, M., Stoner, M. (1992). Mountain bike trails: Techniques for design, construction, and maintenance. Missoula: Bikecentennial.

  1. This publication contains illustrations and tables of mountain-bike-trail design techniques.
  2. Adventure Cycling Association, P.O. Box 8308, Missoula, MT 59807, Telephone: (406) 721-1776, Fax: (406) 721-8754.

McMillan, J. (1982). Crowded urban pathways create perils for exercisers. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 10, pp. 179-180. (October 1982).

  1. This article summarizes the types of injury and increased risks that have been observed with the growing use of shared-use paths and highlights injuries resulting from user conflicts, particularly related to differences in user speed (e.g., bike versus pedestrian).
  2. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 4530 West Seventy-Seventh Street, Minneapolis, MN 55435, Telephone: (612) 835-3222, Fax: (612) 835-3460, Web site: www.physsportsmed.com.

Metropolitan Center for Independent Living. (1993). How to build ramps for home accessibility. St. Paul.

  1. This manual offers ramp design standards and principles, ramp blueprints, hints for obtaining local building permits and building according to code, and suggestions for ramp maintenance.
  2. Metropolitan Center for Independent Living, 1600 University Avenue, West, Suite Sixteen, St. Paul, MN 55104, Telephone: (612) 646-8342, TDD: (612) 603-2001, Fax: (612) 603-2006.

Mickelson, L. (1985). Parkland access for the disabled. Vancouver: Greater Vancouver Regional District Parks Department and Advent Accounting Services Ltd.

  1. This publication is a design manual for planning and constructing accessible features in the outdoors. Text examples are heavily illustrated with diagrams of standard signage and facilities that include dimensions and useful accessories.
  2. Greater Vancouver Regional District Parks, 4330 Kingsway, Burnaby, B.C., Canada V5H 4G8.

Missouri Department of Natural Resources. (1975). Missouri State Parks: Trail construction guidelines. Jefferson City.

  1. This booklet contains the Missouri State Trails System guidelines for trail construction, as well as the procedure for signing trails.
  2. Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Telephone: (573) 751-5360.

Moore, R.L. (1994). Conflicts on multiple-use trails: Synthesis of the literature and state of the practice. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-94-031.

  1. This report provides a synthesis of existing research to explain the underlying causes of trail conflict, identify approaches for promoting trail sharing, and identify gaps in current knowledge. Principles for minimizing conflicts on multiple-use trails are also reviewed.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Moore, R., Dattilo, J., Devine, M.A. (1996). A comparison of rail-trail preferences between adults with and without disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 13, pp. 27-37.

  1. Survey research of users on three rail-trails to identify trail characteristics that significantly influence their use of the trail.
  2. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Fulfillment Department, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076, Telephone: (800) 747-4457, Fax: (217) 351-1549, Web site: www.humankinetics.com.

National Bicycle and Pedestrian Clearinghouse. (1996a). NBPC technical brief. Washington.

  1. This newsletter contains public statistics information on bicycle transportation.
  2. The National Bicycle and Pedestrian Clearinghouse, 1506 Twenty-First Street, N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (800) 760-6272 or (202) 463-8405, Fax: (202) 463-6625, Email: bikefed@aol.com.

National Bicycle and Pedestrian Clearinghouse. (Ninth edition). (1996b). NBPC technical brief. Washington.

  1. This newsletter contains design factors that are critical for nonmotorized trail users.
  2. The National Bicycle and Pedestrian Clearinghouse, 1506 Twenty-First Street, N.W., Suite 210, Washington, DC 200036, Telephone: (800) 760-6272 or (202) 463-8405, Fax: (202) 463-6625, Email: bikefed@aol.com.

National Council on Disability. (1996). Achieving independence: The challenge for the 21st century: A decade of progress in disability policy: Setting an agenda for the future. Washington.

  1. This book offers an assessment of the nation's progress in achieving equal opportunity and empowerment during the last decade.
  2. National Council on Disability, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1050, Washington, DC 20004-1107, Telephone: (202) 272-2004, Fax: (202)-272-2022, TDD: (202) 272-2074.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (1998). Zone guide for pedestrian safety. Washington: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This document details a method to identify target areas for pedestrian improvements that would make the most impact on safety.
  2. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/Federal Highway Administration, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

New Jersey Department of Transportation. (1995). Statewide bicycle and pedestrian master plan. Trenton.

  1. This is the Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan for New Jersey. It delineates the vision, strategic planning model, current conditions and needs, implementation strategies, and actions and responsibilities of the plan and includes a list of supporting documents.
  2. Bill Feldman, Pedestrian and Bicycle Advocate, New Jersey Department of Transportation, 1035 Parkway Avenue, P.O. Box 600, Trenton, NJ 08625-0600, Telephone: (609) 530-8062, Fax: (609) 530-3723, Email: billatng@aol.com.

New Jersey Department of Transportation. (1996). Pedestrian-compatible planning and design guidelines. Trenton: New Jersey Department of Transportation, Bureau of Suburban Mobility.

  1. These guidelines include an overview of pedestrian activities and problems in New Jersey. Guidelines for accommodating pedestrians on roadways and design techniques encouraging pedestrian travel.
  2. Bill Feldman, Pedestrian and Bicycle Advocate, New Jersey Department of Transportation, 1035 Parkway Avenue, P.O. Box 600, Trenton, NJ 08625-0600, Telephone: (609) 530-8062, Fax: (609) 530-3723, Email: billatng@aol.com.

New York State Department of Transportation. (1997). The next generation: Transportation choices for the 21st century: The New York State bicycle and pedestrian plan. Albany.

  1. This document consists of planning strategies and design guidelines for bicycle and pedestrian facilities in New York State.
  2. New York State Department of Transportation, Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Program, 1120 Washington Avenue, Building Four, Room 206, Albany, NY 12232-0424, Telephone: (518) 457-8307, Fax: (518) 457-1058, Email: mreilly@gw.dot.State.ny.us.

Nordhaus, R.S., Kantrowitz, M., Siembieda, W.J. (1984). Accessible fishing: A planning handbook. Santa Fe: New Mexico Natural Resources Department.

  1. This document presents accessibility design guidelines for most fishing situations.
  2. Resource Management and Development Division, New Mexico Natural Resources Department, Villagra Building, 408 Galisteo, Suite 129, Santa Fe, NM 87504-1147.

O'Leary, A.A., Lockwood, P.B., Taylor, R.V., Lavely, J.L. (1995). An evaluation of detectable warning surfaces for sidewalk curb ramps. Richmond: Virginia Department of Transportation.

  1. The authors of this report investigated the usage of raised detectable warnings, such as truncated domes on curb ramps and other sidewalk environments.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Office of Traffic Operations, Federal Highway Administration. (1982). Standard alphabets for highway signs and pavement markings. Washington: U.S. Department of Transportation

  1. This document contains the latest series of standard metric alphabets for highway signs and pavement markings created by the Federal Highway Administration at the request of the National Advisory Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Ontario Parks. (1996). Barrier-free guidelines design manual. Ottawa.

  1. This report presents guidelines for accessible design. Different needs and types of disabilities are also discussed.
  2. Ontario Parks, 300 Water Street, P.O. Box 700, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 8M5, Telephone: (705) 755-PARK, Fax: (705) 755-1701, Email: ontparks@www.mnr.gov.on.ca.

Oregon Department of Transportation. (1995). Oregon bicycle and pedestrian plan. Salem.

  1. This book is a guideline for State and local entities in Oregon involved in establishing bicycle and pedestrian facilities on local transportation systems.
  2. Bicycle and Pedestrian Program, Room 210 Transportation Building, Salem, OR 97310, Telephone: (503) 986-3555, Fax: (503) 986-3749, Email: michael.p.ronkin@odot.State.or.us.

Orwig, M. (1995). How to avoid trouble on the trail. IWLA Outdoor Ethics Newsletter, Winter/Spring, pp. 4-5.

  1. This article discusses human conflicts that occur on trails.
  2. Joshua Winchell, Outdoor Ethics Program, Izaak Walton League of America, 707 Conservation Lane, Gaithersburg, MD 20878-2983, Telephone: (301) 548-0150, Fax: (301) 548-0146.

Park, D.C. (1989a). Designing for everyone: Part of the public is disabled. Design: Access 1: Standards Development: Space Requirements, pp. 3-16. (Winter 1989). Washington: Park Practice Program.

  1. This document is the first in a series of four articles outlining accessibility design requirements as they relate to standards development, access to buildings and structures, and access to outdoor recreation and trails.
  2. National Recreation and Park Association, 22377 Delmont Ridge Road, Ashburn, VA 20148, Telephone: (703) 858-0784, Fax: (703) 858-0794.

Park, D.C. (1989b). What is accessibility? Design: Access 2: Access to Buildings and Structures, pp. 3-16. (Spring 1989). Washington: Park Practice Program.

  1. This document is the second in a series of four articles outlining accessibility design requirements as they relate to standards development, access to buildings and structures, and access to outdoor recreation and trails.
  2. National Recreation and Park Association, 22377 Delmont Ridge Road, Ashburn, VA 20148, Telephone: (703) 858-0784, Fax: (703) 858-0794.

Park, D.C., Farbman, A. (1989c). Accessible outdoor recreation facilities. Design Access 3: Access to Outdoor Recreation: Trails, pp. 3-11. (Summer 1989). Washington: Park Practice Program.

  1. This document is the third in a series of four articles outlining accessibility design requirements as they relate to standards development and access to buildings, structures, outdoor recreation, and trails.
  2. National Recreation and Park Association, 22377 Delmont Ridge Road, Ashburn, VA 20148, Telephone: (703) 858-0784, Fax: (703) 858-0794.

Pedestrian Federation of America. (1995). Walk tall: A citizens' guide to walkable communities. Emmaus: Rodale Press.

  1. This publication contains stories, ideas, suggestions, resources, and various charts for easy use by people of the community.
  2. Rodale Press, Inc., Thirty-Three East Minor Street, Emmaus, PA 18098.

Pein, W.E. (1996). Trail intersection design guidelines. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. This publication addresses the details associated with trail-roadway intersection design, with views toward minimizing accidents and problems at crossing points.
  2. Theo Petritsch, State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator, Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee Street MS-82, Tallahassee, FL 32399, Telephone: (850) 487-1200, Fax: (850) 922-2935, Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering. (1996). Statewide bicycle and pedestrian master plan: Bicycling and walking in Pennsylvania: A contract for the 21st century. Pittsburgh.

  1. This five-part document contains the planning strategies and design guidelines for bicycle and pedestrian facilities in Pennsylvania State.
  2. Appalachian Trail Conference, P.O. Box 326, Harpers Ferry, WV 25425, Telephone: (304) 535-6331.

Pennsylvania Trails Program. (1980a). Motorized trails: An introduction to planning and development. Harrisburg: The Pennsylvania Trails Program, Division of Outdoor Recreation, Bureau of State Parks.

  1. This is a guide to designing trails to be used by motorized vehicles.
  2. Pennsylvania State Parks, Telephone: (717) 787-6674.

Pennsylvania Trails Program. (1980b). Nonmotorized trails: An introduction to planning and development. Harrisburg: The Pennsylvania Trails Program, Division of Outdoor Recreation, Bureau of State Parks.

  1. This is a guide for developing nonmotorized trails and discusses maximizing public use of existing trails. It also includes a section on improving access for people with disabilities.
  2. Pennsylvania State Parks, Telephone: (717) 787-6674.

Perry, J., Garrett, M., Gronley, J.K., Mulroy, S.J. (June 1995). Classification of walking handicap in the stroke population. Stroke 26, pp. 982-989.

  1. This research identifies and evaluates the walking efficiency of individuals who have had a stroke.
  2. American Heart Association, Western States Affiliate, 1710 Gilbreth Road, Burlingame, CA 94010-13317, Telephone: (650) 259-6700 or (800) AHA-USA1, Fax: (650) 259-6891.

Petzall, J. (1993). Design for accessibility: The development of public transport vehicles with regard to mobility-impaired passengers. Goteborg: Department of Transportation and Logistics, Chalmers University of Technology.

  1. This is a description and analysis of the process of developing accessible public transportation. It also contains a case study showing how to define specifications for buses, based on results of anthropometric studies.
  2. Department of Transportation and Logistics Chalmers University of Technology, S412 96 Goteborg, Sweden, ISBN 91-7032-847-1, ISSN 0283-3611, Bibliotekets Reproservice CTHB Goteborg.

PLAE, Inc. (1993). A design guide: Universal access to outdoor recreation. Berkeley.

  1. This book provides a framework for determining the appropriate level of accessibility in a range of outdoor recreational settings and contains detailed guidelines for designing the elements and spaces necessary for ensuring accessible paths, signage, restrooms, and other outdoor facilities.
  2. MIG Communications, 1802 Fifth Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, Telephone: (510) 845-0953, Fax: (510) 845-8750.

Prestipino, S., Keller, S. (Producers). (1996). ADA training at the National Civil Rights Conference [Slide set]. Helena: Montana Department of Transportation.

  1. This is a four-box set of slides portraying problems detected by people with disabilities when encountering curb ramps and other such barriers in public rights-of-way. These slides are available for use in training or promotion of Section 14 standards.
  2. Montana Department of Transportation, P.O. Box 201001, Helena, MT 59620-1001, Telephone: (406) 444-6200, Fax: (406) 444-7643.

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. (1993). Case study no. 20: The effects of environmental design on the amount and type of bicycling and walking. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-93-037.

  1. This study summarizes knowledge on the impact of environmental design on walking and bicycling. It also identifies successes and failures in the downtown design environment and the factors that promote effective bicycle and walking use.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Project for Public Spaces, Inc., Konhiem, Ketcham, and Whyte, W.H. (1986). Improving how a street works for all users: A design and planning manual. New York: Project for Public Spaces, Inc.

  1. This book provides planning guidelines designed to improve the accessibility of streets for all users; diagrams are included.
  2. Project for Public Spaces, 153 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10014, Telephone: (212) 206-0254.

Peck, A.F., Bentzen, B.L. (1987). Tactile warnings to promote safety in the vicinity of transit platform edges. Washington: U.S. Department of Transportation.

  1. This study discusses the effectiveness of tactile warning materials to assist visually disabled travelers in hands-on station environments. It includes a laboratory evaluation of transit service and additional evaluation of two particular warning systems.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000.

Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education. (1990). The universal playground: A planning guide. Victoria.

  1. This planning guide was written to assist schools in planning playgrounds for children of all abilities, with limited resources, while achieving educational objectives.
  2. Ministry of Education, Special Programs Branch, P.O. Box 9165, Stn Provgovt, Victoria BC Z8W9H4, Telephone: (250) 356-2333, Fax: (250) 356-7631, TTY: (250) 356-7632.

Province of British Columbia Ministry of Education, Ministry Responsible for Multiculturalism and Human Rights. (1992). Access to conferences, institutes, and meetings: A planning guide. Victoria: Student Support Services.

  1. These design guidelines discuss what spaces and objects need to be made accessible and show how to identify facilities and programs that need to be modified.
  2. Student Support Services, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, British Columbia V8V 1X4.

Province of Ontario, Ministry of Housing. (1989). Main street: Planning and design guidelines. Ottawa.

  1. This guidebook looks at existing sidewalks and roads that require repair or readaptation. Suggestions for making safer walkways are included.
  2. Housing Development and Buildings Branch, Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, 777 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario M6R1L1, Telephone: (416) 585-6515, Fax: (416) 585-7531.

Pugh, B. (1989a). A bikeway design cookbook. Roseville: BP Engineering.

  1. This manual contains excerpts from the 2010 Sacramento City/County Bikeway Master Plan. It discusses design standards, figures, uniform traffic control devices, and includes a chapter on signage and roadway traffic diagram figures.
  2. BP Engineering, P.O. Box 1385, Roseville, CA 95678-8385, Telephone: (916) 771-4563, Fax: (916) 771-4569, Email: BIKEFED@aol.com.

Pugh, B. (1989b). A bikeway master plan cookbook. Roseville: BP Engineering.

  1. This manual contains excerpts from the 2010 Sacramento City/County Bikeway Master Plan. It includes chapters on formulating a bikeway master plan, describes general and specific planning criteria, and introduces the concept of a bicycle advisory committee.
  2. BP Engineering, P.O. Box 1385, Roseville, CA 95678-8385, Telephone: (916) 771-4563, Fax: (916) 771-4569, Email: BIKEFED@aol.com.

Pugh, B. (1989c). A bicycle parking cookbook. Roseville: BP Engineering.

  1. This manual contains excerpts from the 2010 Sacramento City/County Bikeway Master Plan. It contains chapters on bicycle parking and amenities, Classes I-III bicycle parking, Sacramento City and County bicycle parking-zoning ordinance, and the Sacramento County parking reduction ordinance.
  2. BP Engineering, P.O. Box 1385, Roseville, CA 95678-8385, Telephone: (916) 771-4563, Fax: (916) 771-4569, Email: BIKEFED@aol.com.

Rails to Trails Conservancy, Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals. (1998). Improving conditions for bicycling and walking: A best practice report. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This is a compilation of walking and biking plans from many different cities and states. An abbreviated list of their restrictions and requirements is included.
  2. Rails to Trails Conservancy, 1100 Seventeenth Street, Tenth Floor, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 331-9696, Web site: www.railtrails.org.

Rabelle, A., Zabihaylo, C., Gresset, J. (1998). Detectability of warning tiles by functionally blind persons: Effects of warning tiles' width and adjoining surfaces texture. In E. Siffermann, M. Williams, B.B. Blasch (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Mobility Conference (pp. 38-41). Decatur, GA: Rehabilitation Research and Development Center.

  1. This study determines the width needed for pedestrians to detect the presence of truncated domes and other detectable warning systems.

Rathke, D.M., Baughman, M.J. (1994). Recreational trail design and construction. St. Paul: Educational Development System, Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota.

  1. This publication was designed to be used by small organizations or private individuals to design and construct trails. It contains step-by-step construction methods.
  2. University of Minnesota, Minnesota Extension Service, Distribution Center, 20 Coffey Hall, 1420 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108-6069, Fax: (612) 625-6281.

Recreation Access Advisory Committee. (1994). Recommendation for accessibility guidelines: Recreational facilities and outdoor developed areas. Washington: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This report contains the scooping technical requirements and rationale of the Recreation Access Advisory Committee for accessible outdoor recreational facility. It contains both final guidelines and proposed work perimeters.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/.

Rehabilitation Engineering and Assertive Technology Society of North America. (1998). American national standard for wheelchairs: Volume 1: Requirements and test methods for wheelchairs (including scooters). Arlington.

  1. This document contains wheelchair testing specifications.
  2. RESNA, 1700 North Moore Street, Suite 1540, Arlington, VA 22209, Telephone: (703) 524-6686, Fax: (703) 524-6630.

Ryan, K. (1993). Trails for the twenty-first century. Covelo: Island Press.

  1. This book introduces the concept of the multi-use trail and promotes bicycle and pedestrian travel.
  2. Island Press, 24850 East Lane, P.O. Box 7, Covello, CA 95428, Telephone: (707) 983-6432, Fax: (707) 983-6414, Web site: www.islandpress.org, Email: ipwest@igc.apc.org.

Sanford, J.A. (1985). Designing for orientation and safety. Proceedings of the International Conference on Building Use and Safety Technology. (pp. 54-59). Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology.

  1. This study determines whether different surfaces are detectable by people with visual impairments, and how the properties of different surfaces affect their detectability. It also presents results of tests of the ability of people with visual impairments to stop after detecting a warning.

Sanford, J.A., Steinfeld, E. (1985). Designing for orientation and safety. Proceedings of the International Conference on Building Use and Safety Technology (pp. 54-59). Washington: National Institute of Building Sciences.

  1. This study discusses the properties of different detectable warnings and how well people with visual disabilities are able to detect them. It also discusses the navigational techniques of people with visual impairments and how they interacted with the detectable warning, and the usage and interpretation of architectural space by visually impaired people versus sighted people.

San Francisco Bureau of Engineering. (1996). Warning strips for the visually disabled and blind pedestrian. San Francisco Bureau of Engineering internal report, San Francisco.

  1. This study was conducted by the San Francisco Department of Public Works to determine whether guide strips used in crosswalks are durable enough to withstand the impact of heavy traffic use. This study tested a variety of different types of guide strips.
  2. Joe Ovadia, Project Manager, San Francisco Bureau of Engineering, Telephone: (415) 558-4004. Richard Skaff, Disability Access Coordinator, San Francisco Department of Public Works, 30 Van Ness Avenue, 5th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94102, Email: richardskaff@amer.net.

Sawai, H., Takato, J., Tauchi, M. (1998). Quantitative measurements of tactile contrast between dot and bar tiles used to constitute tactile pathway for the blind and visually impaired independent travelers. In E. Sifferman, M. Williams, B.B. Blasch (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Mobility Conference (pp. 178-181). Decatur, GA: Rehabilitation Research and Development Center.

  1. This study discusses the ability of people with visual impairments to detect the difference between the two types of detectable warnings - a dot tile served to alert pedestrians, and a bar tile served to guide pedestrians along a given path.

Schmid, J. (1997). American trails: 1997 trails resource bibliography. Prescott: American Trails.

  1. A bibliography of 941 publications and videos containing information about trails.
  2. American Trails, P.O. Box 491797, Redding, CA 96049-1797, Telephone: (530) 547-2060, Fax: (530) 547-2035, E-mail: trailhead@americantrails.org, Web site: http://www.americantrails.org/.

Seeing Eye, The (Producer). (1996). Partners in travel [Videotape]. Morristown, NJ: Independence and Dignity.

  1. This video provides an overview of dog guides and how they can aid people with visual impairments.
  2. Independence and Dignity, P.O. Box 375, Morristown, NJ 07963-0375.

Seiderman, C.B., Russell, R.A. (1997). How better bicycle facilities can enhance local economies. In O. Hatch (Ed.), Velo-City Falco Lecture Prize Winning Papers. (pp. 3-12). Vriezenveen: Falco bv.

  1. This study examines the connection between the condition of bicycle facilities and local economies by analyzing existing data.
  2. Oliver Hatch, Velo-City Conference Director, Thirty-One Arodene Road, London SW2 2BQ, England, UK, Telephone: +44 (181) 674-5916, Fax: +44 (181) 671-3386, Email: oh@velo-city.org.

Shephard, R.J. (1990). Fitness in special populations. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

  1. This document examines fitness status, training programs, personality, behavior, and biomechanical factors that influence fitness assessment and development.
  2. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Fulfillment Department, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076, Telephone: (800) 747-4457, Fax: (217) 351-1549, Web site: www.humankinetics.com.

Sherrill, C. (Fourth edition). (1993). Adapted physical activity, recreation, and sport: Cross-disciplinary and lifespan. Madison: WCB Brown and Benchmark.

  1. Discusses the impact of disability on physical activity participation. Addresses behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and learning disabilities, as well as effective methods for including individuals with these conditions.
  2. McGraw-Hill Companies, P.O. Box 182604, Columbus, OH 43272-3031, Telephone: (800) 262-4729, Fax: (614) 759-3644, Email: customer.service@mcgraw-hill.com, Web site: mhhe.com.

Siwek, S.J., Associates. (1996). Statewide transportation planning under ISTEA: A new framework for decision making. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-96-026A.

  1. This guidebook describes how the Intermodal Surface Transportation Equity Act affects State departments of transportation. Long- and short-range plans are discussed in detail.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

Staplin, L., Lococo, K., Byington, S. (1998). Older driver highway design handbook. McLean: Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D.

  1. This project included literature reviews and meta-analytic techniques in the areas of age-related functional capabilities, human factors, and highway safety. A User-Requirements Analysis to gauge the needs of highway design is also used in this study.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Steinfeld, E., Schroeder, S., Bishop, M. (1979). Accessible buildings for people with walking and reaching limitations. Washington: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

  1. This document presents research regarding the special needs of people with walking and reaching limitations in relation to building design and spatial layout.
  2. HUD User, P.O. Box 6091, Rockville, MD 20849, Telephone: (301) 251-5154 or (800) 245-2691.

Templer, J.A. (1980a). An implementation manual: Provisions for the elderly and handicapped pedestrians. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This book identifies, defines, and gives solutions for the shortcomings of the pedestrian environment.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Templer, J.A. (1980b). Provisions for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: Volume 3: The development and evaluation of countermeasures. Springfield: U.S. Department of Commerce.

  1. This report presents the findings of several countermeasures designed to improve access for older pedestrians and people with disabilities in sidewalk environments.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Templer, J.A. (1980c). Provisions for elderly and handicapped pedestrians: Volume 2: Hazards, barriers, problems, and the law. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This survey was conducted to determine problems experienced by the elderly and pedestrians with disabilities.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Templer, J.A. (1980d). The feasibility of accommodating physically handicapped individuals on pedestrian over- and undercrossing structures. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. The objective of this study was to determine the problems faced by people with disabilities when they encounter over- and undercrossing structures.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Templer, J.A., Wineman, J., Zimring, C.M. (1982). Design guidelines to make crossing structures accessible to the physically handicapped. Washington: Offices of Research and Development, Federal Highway Administration.

  1. Based on various studies, this book contains recommendations for ramp gradients, detectable materials, and techniques for providing nonvisual information.
  2. National Technical Information Service, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161, Telephone: (703) 605-6000, Fax: (703) 321-8547.

Templer, J.A. (1994a). The staircase: History and times. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

  1. This book discusses the history of stairs, design ideas that have been used, and their ergonomic ability.
  2. The MIT Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, Telephone: (617) 625-8569.

Templer, J.A. (1994b). The staircase: Studies of hazards, falls, and safer design. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

  1. This book discusses the need for safer stair designs and focuses on the relationship between the physiological and behavioral usage of stairs by people.
  2. The MIT Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, Telephone: (617) 625-8569.

Texas Department of Licensing and Regulation. (1997). Architectural Barriers Act. Austin.

  1. The accessibility design guidelines for the State of Texas; covers the construction and reconstruction of public buildings, public accommodations, and commercial facilities.
  2. Department of Licensing and Regulation, P.O. Box 12157, Austin, TX 78711, Telephone: 1-800-252-8026.

The Resources Agency, Department of Parks and Recreation. (1998). Trails handbook. Sacramento: California State Parks.

  1. This handbook, which has not been published, provides guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining outdoor trails.
  2. Don Beers, North Coast Redwoods Headquarters, 600-A West Clark, Eureka, CA 95501, Telephone: (707) 445-6547 ext. 18, Fax: (707) 441-5737.

Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century. (1998). Public Law 178, 105th Congress. (June 6, 1998).

  1. This law authorizes transportation funds to be spent on improving intermodal surface transportation alternatives for moving goods and people.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

Tranter, R.T., Slater, R., Vaughan, N. (1991). Barriers to Mobility: Physically disabled and frail elderly people in their local outdoor environment. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 14, pp. 303-312.

  1. This paper reports the results of a 2-year project that investigated problems with the mobility of physically handicapped people in their external physical environment.
  2. Welsh School of Architecture, University of Wales, P.O. Box 25, Cardiff CF1 3XE, Wales.

United Kingdom Department of the Environment, Transport, and the Regions, The Scottish Office. (Notified Draft, 1997). Guidance on the use of tactile paving surfaces. London, England.

  1. These design guidelines discuss mobility for people with visual impairments and provide specifications for tactile delineator strips on segregated, shared cycle track/footways.
  2. Sue Sharp, Mobility Policy Branch, Great Minister House Room 1/11, 76 Marsham House, London SW1P 4DR, Telephone: 0171-271-5256, Divisional inquiries: 0171-271-5252, Fax: 0171-271-5253, Email: mu.dot@gtnet.gov.uk.

University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center. (1996). Florida pedestrian planning and design guidelines. Tallahassee: State of Florida Department of Transportation.

  1. This manual provides guidelines, standards, and criteria for the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of pedestrian facilities.
  2. Theo Petritsch, State Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator, Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee Street MS-82, Tallahassee, FL 32399, Telephone: (850) 487-1200, Fax: (850) 922-2935, Email: theopetritsch@dot.State.fl.us.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. (1985). Detectable tactile surface treatments: Phase 1: Introduction and laboratory testing: Final report. Washington: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This is a study of the detectability of different types of surface warning systems, and it investigates how the different properties of these surface systems affect perceptions of people with visual disabilities.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board gov/rules/child.htm.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. (1991). 36 CFR part 1191: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities: State and local government facilities. (July 26, 1991). Washington, DC.

  1. This document contains accessibility guidelines that should be used by Federal agencies seeking to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. (1994a). Bulletin #4: Surfaces. Washington.

  1. This bulletin clarifies the requirements for accessible surfaces. It defines what is considered firm, stable, and slip-resistant; provides methods to assess firmness and slip resistance; and discusses what materials are considered to comply with ADAAG.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. (1994b). 36 CFR Part 1191: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities; State and local government facilities: Interim final rule. Federal Register, vol. 59, no. 117. (June 24, 1994). Washington, DC.

  1. This document is the set of interim final guidelines published by the U.S. Access Board. It provides additional guidance to the existing ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). Section 14, which covers accessibility for public rights-of-way, is included in this interim final rule.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. (1996). Bulletin 1: Detectable Warnings. Washington.

  1. This bulletin was written to alert the public to the requirements of installing detectable warnings.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. (1997a). ADAAG manual: A guide to the Americans with Disabilities Act accessibility guidelines. Washington.

  1. This interpretive manual of the ADA accessibility guidelines (ADAAG) is intended to provide clarification and technical assistance for developing buildings and facilities.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Producer). (1997c). Accessible sidewalks: Design issues for pedestrians with disabilities [Videotape]. Washington: U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

  1. This video presents design recommendations for making sidewalks accessible to pedestrians who use wheelchairs.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. (1998a). 36 CFR part 1191: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities: Building elements designed for children's use; Final rule. Federal Register vol. 63, no. 8. (January 13, 1998). Washington, DC.

  1. The U.S. Access Board's final guidelines providing additional guidance in establishing alternate specifications for building elements designed for use by children.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (1998b). 36 CFR part 1191: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities: State and local government facilities: Final rule. Federal Register, vol. 63, no. 8. (January 13, 1998). Washington, DC.

  1. The U.S. Access Board is issuing final guidelines to provide additional guidance with the new construction and alternations of State and local government facilities. This is to help ensure that government facilities are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/.

U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. (1998c). Transit facility design for persons with visual impairments. Gopher://trace.wisc.edu/oo/ftp/pub/text/ ATBCB/BLINDTRN.TXT (June 23, 1998).

  1. This informational sheet provides an overview of the recommendations for making transit facilities more accessible for people with visual impairments.
  2. U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, 1111 18th Street, N.W., Suite 501, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone or TDD: (202) 653-7848.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Alaska Region Forest Service. (1991). Alaska region trails construction and maintenance guide. Anchorage.

  1. This document contains trail design and maintenance guidelines for the Forest Service in the Alaskan region.
  2. Alaska Federal Office Building, 709 West Ninth Street, P.O. Box 21628, Juneau, AK 99802-1628, DG: Mailroom: R10A.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. (1984). Standard specifications for construction of trails. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

  1. These U.S. Forest Service design guidelines provide specifications for trail construction.
  2. USDA Forest Service, Engineering Staff, Attn: Publications Specialist, P.O. Box 2417, Washington, DC 20013, Telephone: (202) 205-0957.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. (1985). Trails management handbook. Washington.

  1. This handbook consists of guidelines used by the U.S. Forest Service to manage trails. Includes sections on trail planning, development, reconstruction and construction, trail operation and maintenance, and construction and maintenance exhibits.
  2. Forest Service USDA, Engineering Staff, Attn: Publications Specialist, P.O. Box 2417, Washington, DC 20013, Telephone: (202) 205-0957.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. (1994). Special use permits: The ADA and section 504. Washington.

  1. This document outlines how the ADA and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act apply to special use permits for the USDA Forest Service and its contractors.
  2. USDA Forest Service, Engineering Staff, Attn: Publications Specialist, P.O. Box 2417, Washington, DC 20013, Telephone: (202) 205-0957.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. (1994). Americans with disabilities. http://www.census.gov/apsd/www/statbrief/sb94-1.pdf. (July 9, 1998).

  1. This is a summary of the 1990 U.S Census data on people with disabilities.
  2. Customer Services: (301) 763-4100, Persons with Disabilities Contact: John McNeil, (301) 763-8300, Statistical Briefs Contact: Robert Bernstein, (301) 763-1584.

U.S. Department of Defense, General Services Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, U.S. Postal Service. (1984). Uniform Federal accessibility standards. Washington.

  1. This document contains accessibility guidelines that should be used by Federal agencies to comply with the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
  2. U.S. Access Board, Recreation Report, 1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111, Telephone: (202) 272-5434 or (800) 872-2253, TTY (202) 272-5449 or (800) 993-2822, Web site: http://www.access-board.gov/.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1991). 36 CFR part 1191: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities: State and local government facilities. (July 26, 1991). Washington, DC.

  1. This document contains implementation regulations for Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act. The ADA Standards for Accessible Design are contained within these regulations.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1993a). The Americans with Disabilities Act, Title III: Readily achievable: Background paper on accessibility of existing ski facilities. Washington: Department of Justice.

  1. This document outlines how the "readily achievable" standard set forth in Title III of the ADA applies to accessibility at existing ski facilities.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice, Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301, TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1993b). The Americans with Disabilities Act, Title II: Technical assistance manual: Covering State and local government programs and services: 1993. Washington.

  1. This manual presents the ADA's requirements for State and local governments in a focused, systematic description. Questions, answers, and illustrations are used throughout to convey points.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice, Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301, TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1993c). The Americans with Disabilities Act, Title III: Technical assistance manual: Covering public accommodations and commercial facilities. Washington: Author.

  1. This manual presents the ADA's requirements for public accommodations, commercial facilities, and private entities offering certain examinations and courses in a focused, systematic description. Questions, answers, and illustrations are used throughout to convey points.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice, Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301, TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1994a). The Americans with Disabilities Act, Title II: Technical assistance manual: 1994 supplement. Washington.

  1. This document contains material to be added to the Americans with Disabilities Act, Title II: Technical Assistance Manual. These supplements are to be inserted, as appropriate, at the end of each chapter of the manual.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice, Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301, TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1994b). 28 CFR parts 35, 36, 37: Nondiscrimination on the basis of disability in State and local government services: Public accommodations and commercial facilities: Accessibility standards. Federal Register, vol. 59, no. 117. (June 20, 1994). Washington, DC.

  1. This document contains implementation regulations for Title II, Subpart A and Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1996a). A guide to disability rights laws. Washington.

  1. This bulletin lists settlements, agreements, and cases of ADA litigation; provides resources for entities seeking ADA technical assistance; lists other sources for ADA information; and provides an address to file complaints.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice, Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301, TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1996b). Enforcing the ADA: A status report from the Department of Justice: Issue three. Washington.

  1. This booklet provides a short overview of Federal civil rights laws that ensure equal opportunity for people with disabilities and lists contact agencies and organizations.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice, Telephone: (202) 514-0301 or (800) 514-0301, TTY: (800) 514-0383.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1998a). Proposed Rule, 28 CFR Part 35 - Requirement for Curb Ramps. www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/newregs/curbrule.txt (March 27, 1998).

  1. This Web site posts the proposed rule to extend curb ramp requirements and provides background information regarding this issue.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1998b). Final Rule for Extension of Detectable Warning Temporary Suspension until July 26, 1998. http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/detwarns.htm (March 27, 1998).

  1. This Web site posts the final rule to extend the detectable warning suspension and provides background information regarding this issue.

U.S. Department of Justice, Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, U.S. Department of Transportation. (1994). 28 CFR part 36, 36 CFR part 1191, 49 CFR part 37: Americans with Disabilities Act accessibility guidelines: Detectable warnings: Joint final rule. Federal Register, vol. 59, no. 70. (April 12, 1994). Washington, DC.

  1. This document sets forth the Department of Justice implementing regulations for ADAAG regarding detectable warnings.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Justice, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (1994). 28 CFR part 37, 29 CFR part 1640: Procedures for coordinating the investigation of complaints or charges of employment discrimination based on disability subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973: Final rule. Federal Register, vol. 59, no. 149. (August 4, 1994). Washington, DC.

  1. These regulations coordinate the processing of complaints that fall within the overlapping jurisdiction of the ADA and Section 504 and ensure that they are dealt with in a manner that avoids duplication of effort and prevents inconsistent or conflicting standards.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1988). Manual on uniform traffic control devices. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This text, including traffic lights and signage, lists National standards for traffic control devices, their colors, markings, dimensions, and placement. These guidelines must be followed by all public authorities having jurisdiction over traffic control. Numerous diagrams and signage examples are included.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1991). 49 CFR parts 27, 37, 38: Transportation for individuals with disabilities: Final rule. Federal Register, vol. 56, no. 173. (September 6, 1991). Washington, DC.

  1. This is the final rule implementing the transportation provisions of the ADA. The rule contains provisions on the acquisition of accessible vehicles by private and public entities and contains the amendment to the implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1994a). 49 CFR parts 27, 37: Transportation for individuals with disabilities: Proposed rule. Federal Register, vol. 59, no. 117. (June 20, 1994). Washington, DC.

  1. Regulations regarding transportation and transportation facilities imposed by the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1994b). Glossary of transportation terms. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This English/Spanish version is a translation of the Urban Public Transportation Glossary that was published by the Transportation Research Board (TRB).
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1994c). Innovations in public involvement for transportation planning. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This report provides synopses of different methods for involving the public in transportation planning. A description of each technique, the intended audience, the method of participation, how the output might be used, the costs, advantages, drawbacks, references, contacts to obtain more information, and issues of special concern are discussed for each technique.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1995a). 49 CFR part 27: Nondiscrimination on the basis of handicap in programs and activities receiving or benefiting from Federal financial assistance. Federal Register. (October 1, 1995). Washington, DC.

  1. This is an excerpt of the Federal law prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities involved in Federal assistance programs.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1995b). 49 CFR part 28: Enforcement of nondiscrimination on the basis of handicap in programs or activities conducted by the Department of Transportation. Federal Register. (October 1, 1995). Washington, DC.

  1. This is an excerpt of Federal law regarding the enforcement of nondiscrimination against people with disabilities in programs or activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Transportation.
  2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, Telephone: (202) 512-1800, Fax: (202) 512-2233.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1995c). Working together on transportation planning: An approach to collaborative decision making. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This report provides guidelines for planning transportation projects within a coalition of government agencies, community groups, special-interest groups, elected officials, minorities, and private-sector interests.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1996a). Public involvement techniques for transportation decision making. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

  1. This reference lists techniques to involve the public in transportation planning, enumerating the pros and cons. One chapter is devoted to the Americans with Disabilities Act.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

U.S. Department of Transportation. (Draft, 1996b). Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): A draft primer for bicycle and pedestrian professionals adapted from the U.S. Department of Justice, Title II: Technical assistance manual. Washington.

  1. This document provides an explanation of the portions of Title II of the ADA that pertain to bicycle and pedestrian coordinators and planners.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania. (1993). Civil Action 92-9101 Elizabeth Kinney vs. Howard Yerusalim.

  1. This is a Federal district appeals court case that determined that resurfacing affects the usability of the street. The court further ruled that because a street and its curbs are interdependent facilities, alteration of a street triggers the installation of a curb ramp.

Vic Roads Principal Traffic Engineer's Department Quality and Technical Resources Division. (1995). Vic Roads: Providing for people with disabilities: Traffic engineering guidelines. Kew: Vic Roads.

  1. These guidelines can be used to improve existing road accessibility conditions.
  2. Vic Roads Bookshop, Sixty Denmark Street, KEW Vic 3101, Telephone: (03) 854-2782, Fax: (03) 853-0084.

Viola, R. (1997). Arlington County pedestrian transportation plan. Arlington: Arlington County Department of Public Works.

  1. This document revises the Arlington County Virginia Pedestrian Transportation Plan. It contains census materials and street diagrams.
  2. Ritch Viola, 2100 Clarendon Boulevard, Suite 717, Arlington, VA 22201, Telephone: (703) 228-3699, Fax: (703) 228-3594, Email: rviola@co.arlington.va.us.

Virginia Department of Transportation. (1996). Subdivision street requirements. Richmond: Commonwealth of Virginia.

  1. This reference establishes the minimum State requirements accepted by the Department of Transportation for all genres of subdivision development.
  2. Virginia Department of Transportation, Secondary Roads Division, 1401 East Broad Street, Richmond, VA 23219, Telephone: (804) 786-2576, Fax: (804) 7786-2603.

Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado. (Fourth edition). (1992). Crew leader manual. Denver.

  1. This is a training manual for the Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado. It provides design guidelines and maintenance techniques for recreational trails.
  2. Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado, 1410 Grant Street B105, Denver, CO 80203, Telephone: (303) 830-7792.

Walkable Communities, Inc. (1996). Creating a more walkable Las Vegas. High Springs.

  1. This report documents a planning charrette that focuses on the pedestrian environment in Las Vegas, Nevada.
  2. Walkable Communities, Inc., 320 South Main Street, High Springs, FL 32643, Telephone: (904) 454-3304, Fax: (904) 454-3306, Email: DBurden@aol.com.

Ward, K.H., Meyers, M.C. (April 1995). Exercise performance of lower-extremity amputees. Sports Medicine, 20, pp. 207-214.

  1. This is a review of published literature relating to walking speed and energy cost during ambulation for individuals with lower-extremity amputation and able-bodied individuals.
  2. Adis International Inc., 860 Town Center Drive, Langhorne, PA 19047, Telephone: (215) 741-5200, Fax: (215) 741-5251, Web site: www.adis.com.

Washington State Department of Transportation. (1989). Design manual: M22-01. Olympia.

  1. This manual provides planning and design guidelines for bicycle facilities.
  2. Washington Department of Transportation, Bike and Pedestrian Program, P.O. Box 47393, Olympia, WA 98504, Telephone: (360) 705-7505.

Washington State Department of Transportation, Puget Sound Regional Council, OTAK. (1997). Pedestrian facilities guidebook: Incorporating pedestrians into Washington's transportation system. Olympia: Washington State Department of Transportation.

  1. This guidebook provides planning and design guidelines for pedestrian facilities used by the Washington State Department of Transportation.
  2. Washington Department of Transportation, Bike and Pedestrian Program, P.O. Box 47393, Olympia, WA 98504, Telephone: (360) 705-7505.

Wernex, J. (1994). Off-highway motorcycle and ATV trails: Guidelines for design, construction, maintenance, and user satisfaction: Second edition. Westerville: American Motorcyclist Association.

  1. This document outlines design guidelines for off-highway vehicle trails.
  2. American Motorcyclist Association, P.O. Box 6114, Westerville, OH 43081-6114.

Whitstock, R.H., Franck, L., Haneline, R. (1997). Dog Guides. In B. Blasch, W. Wiener, R. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility: Second edition (pp. 260-283). New York, NY: AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind.

  1. This chapter from Foundations of Orientation and Mobility contains information pertaining to dog guides. It includes information on training and responsibilities, and a section on the growth of the dog-guide movement.
  2. AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind, 11 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10001. Web site: http://www.afb.org/.

Wilderness Inquiry, Inc. (1992). Wilderness accessibility for people with disabilities. Washington: National Council on Disability.

  1. This report contains the findings of a study that examined the policies used by land management agencies to improve accessibility for people with disabilities. The National Council on Disability's recommendations for improving access to wilderness areas is also included in this report.
  2. National Council on Disability, 800 Independence Avenue, S.W., Suite 814, Washington, DC 20591.

Wilderness Inquiry, Inc. (1995). Wilderness access decision tool. Washington: USDA Forest Service.

  1. This document was designed to help all managers of Federal wilderness areas improve access to their trails.
  2. Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center, 20325 Remount Road, Huson, MT 59846, Telephone: (406) 626-5208, Fax: (406) 626-5395.

Wilkinson, W.C., III. (1993). Case study no. 10: Trading off among the needs of motor vehicle users, pedestrians, and bicyclists. Washington: Federal Highway Administration. Report # FHWA-PD-94-012.

  1. This document is tenth in a series of case study reports published by the Federal Highway Administration reviewing the needs and conflicts of various roadway and sidewalk users.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. Fax requests to FHWA R & T Report Center: (301) 577-1421.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. (1994). Department design standards handbook. Madison.

  1. This document outlines design standards for new outdoor recreation facilities.
  2. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Telephone: (608) 266-7356.

Woo, J., Ho, S.C., Lau, J., Chan, S.G., & Yuen, Y.K. (1995).Age-associated gait changes in the elderly: Pathological or physiological? Neuroepidemiology, 14, pp. 65-71.

  1. In this study, the walking speed and stride length of men and women 70 years of age were evaluated to determine changes in gait associated with aging.
  2. Publisher S. Karger AG, P.O. Box CH-4009, Basel, Switzerland, Web site: www.karger.com.

World Health Organization. (1980). International classification of impairment, disability, and handicap.

  1. This document provides internationally accepted standard definitions to identify and distinguish among impairment, disability, and handicap.
  2. The World Health Organization Headquarters, Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, Telephone: (+41 22) 791-21-11, Fax: (+41 22) 791-0746, Telex: 415-416, Telegraph: UNISANTE GENEVA, Email: publications@who.ch.

Zimmerman, B. (Producer). (1994). Home access solutions: Ramps and stairs [videotape]. St. Paul: Metropolitan Center for Independent Living.

  1. This video explains how to design ramps that meet the needs of people with disabilities.
  2. St. Paul Metropolitan Center for Independent Living, 1600 University Ave., W., Suite 16, St. Paul, MN 55104-3825, Telephone: (612) 646-8342, TTY: (612) 603-2001, Fax: (612) 603-2006, Web site: www.macil.org.

Updates:

  1. The Bicycle Federation of America is now called the National Center for Biking & Walking.
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Updated: 02/10/2014
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