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Integrating Climate Change into the Transportation Planning Process

Appendix B: Opportunities for Integrating Climate Change Considerations into Federal Transportation Planning Regulat

  1. Title 23 USC 134 - Metropolitan Transportation Planning (FHWA)
  2. Title 23 USC 135 - Statewide Planning (FHWA)
  3. 23 CFR Part 450 - Planning Assistance and Standards (FHWA)
  4. 23 CFR Part 500 - Management and Monitoring Systems (FHWA)
  5. 49 CFR Part 613 - Planning Assistance and Standards (FTA)
  6. Title 49 USC 5303 - Metropolitan Planning (FTA)
Title 23 USC 134 - Metropolitan Transportation Planning (FHWA)
Section Aspects Language Relation to Climate Change
§134(a) Policy

It is in the national interest to–

(1) encourage and promote the safe and efficient management, operation, and development of surface transportation systems that will serve the mobility needs of people and freight and foster economic growth and development within and between States and urbanized areas, while minimizing transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution through metropolitan and statewide transportation planning processes identified in this chapter;

Provides a link to GHG mitigation through emphasis on minimizing fuel consumption, since GHG emissions from transportation are largely correlated with fuel consumption, and air pollution.
§134(c) General Requirements (2) Contents.– The plans and TIPs for each metropolitan area shall provide for the development and integrated management and operation of transportation systems and facilities (including accessible pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities) that will function as an intermodal transportation system for the metropolitan planning area and as an integral part of an intermodal transportation system for the State and the United States. To ensure an integrated transportation system to serve the country, MPOs will need to consider the implications of climate change (such as sea level rise) on their infrastructure to ensure effective connectivity is preserved. Additionally, emphasis on non-motorized transportation and could also facilitate climate change mitigation strategies.
§134(g) MPO Consultation in Plan and TIP Coordination (3) Relationship with other planning officials– The Secretary shall encourage each metropolitan planning organization to consult with officials responsible for other types of planning activities that are affected by transportation in the area (including State and local planned growth, economic development, environmental protection, airport operations, and freight movements) or to coordinate its planning process, to the maximum extent practicable, with such planning activities. Under the metropolitan planning process, transportation plans and TIPs shall be developed with due consideration of other related planning activities within the metropolitan area... MPOs should consider, as part of the consultation requirement, climate action planning activities going on within their State or region, as well as local government plans or policies that may consider climate change.
§134(h) Scope of Planning Process

(1) In general.– The metropolitan planning process for a metropolitan planning area under this section shall provide for consideration of projects and strategies that will–

  1. (A) support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency;
  2. (B) increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;
  3. (C) increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;
  4. (D) increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight;
  5. (E) protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns;
  6. (F) enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight;
  7. (G) promote efficient system management and operation; and
  8. (H) emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system.

Requirements for strategies to address safety (B), security (C), accessibility (D), connectivity (F), and preservation (H) will require some MPOs to consider projected impacts of climate change, including sea level rise, on infrastructure. Adaptation strategies will need to be implemented to ensure continued connectivity and accessibility, as well as to promote security of the system, ensure the safety of the system for users, and to support global competitiveness and efficiency (A).

Requirement of strategies in (E) provides a link to GHG mitigation through emphasis on energy conservation (since GHG emissions from transportation are largely correlated with energy consumption) and consideration of environmental protection.

§134(i) Development of Transportation Plan
  1. (2) Transportation plan.– A transportation plan under this section shall be in a form that the Secretary determines to be appropriate and shall contain, at a minimum, the following:
    1. (A) Identification of transportation facilities.– An identification of transportation facilities (including major roadways, transit, multimodal and intermodal facilities, and intermodal connectors) that should function as an integrated metropolitan transportation system, giving emphasis to those facilities that serve important national and regional transportation functions. In formulating the transportation plan, the metropolitan planning organization shall consider factors described in subsection (h) as such factors relate to a 20-year forecast period.
    2. (B) Mitigation activities.–
      1. (i) In general.– A long-range transportation plan shall include a discussion of types of potential environmental mitigation activities and potential areas to carry out these activities, including activities that may have the greatest potential to restore and maintain the environmental functions affected by the plan.
      2. (ii) Consultation.– The discussion shall be developed in consultation with Federal, State, and tribal wildlife, land management, and regulatory agencies.
    3. (D) Operational and management strategies.– Operational and management strategies to improve the performance of existing transportation facilities to relieve vehicular congestion and maximize the safety and mobility of people and goods.
    4. (E) Capital investment and other strategies.– Capital investment and other strategies to preserve the existing and projected future metropolitan transportation infrastructure and provide for multimodal capacity increases based on regional priorities and needs.
    5. (F) Transportation and transit enhancement activities.– Proposed transportation and transit enhancement activities.
  2. (3) Coordination with clean air act agencies.– In metropolitan areas which are in nonattainment for ozone or carbon monoxide under the Clean Air Act, the metropolitan planning organization shall coordinate the development of a transportation plan with the process for development of the transportation control measures of the State implementation plan required by the Clean Air Act.
  3. (4) Consultation.–
    1. (A) In general.– In each metropolitan area, the metropolitan planning organization shall consult, as appropriate, with State and local agencies responsible for land use management, natural resources, environmental protection, conservation, and historic preservation concerning the development of a long-range transportation plan.
    2. (B) Issues.– The consultation shall involve, as appropriate–
      1. (i) comparison of transportation plans with State conservation plans or maps, if available; or
      2. (ii) comparison of transportation plans to inventories of natural or historic resources, if available.

In considering ensuring an integrated transportation system (2A) and preservation of the projected and existing system (E), adaptation strategies could be required or encouraged, since some MPOs will need to consider the implications of climate change (such as sea level rise) on their infrastructure to ensure effective connectivity is preserved. Temperature swings resulting from climate change are also expected to cause accelerated aging on infrastructure.

Mitigations activities are specifically required within the statewide plan (2B); climate change mitigation strategies could be directly linked to this requirement.

Management and operations strategies (2D) can often be considered climate change mitigation strategies, if they improve system performance and reduce emissions. Similarly, transit enhancements (2F) can potentially serve as climate change mitigation strategies.

Additionally, direct linkages are possible in consultation with agencies responsible for or involved with climate action planning, including environmental and land use agencies that might also be incorporating climate change considerations - both mitigation and adaptation - into their planning or programs (2B(ii), 3 and 4).

There is an opportunity to add new language to consultation, under "issues” (4B) to specifically address climate change through consideration of climate change plans in addition to the specified conservation plans.

§134(k) Transportation Management Areas (3) Congestion management process.– Within a metropolitan planning area serving a transportation management area, the transportation planning process under this section shall address congestion management through a process that provides for effective management and operation, based on a cooperatively developed and implemented metropolitan-wide strategy, of new and existing transportation facilities eligible for funding under this title and chapter 53 of title 49 through the use of travel demand reduction and operational management strategies... Strategies that reduce SOV travel and improve existing transportation system efficiency, as produced through the CMP, typically reduce GHG emissions, and could therefore be considered climate change mitigation strategies.
§134(m) Additional Requirements for Certain Nonattainment Areas (1) In general.– Notwithstanding any other provisions of this title or chapter 53 of title 49, for transportation management areas classified as nonattainment for ozone or carbon monoxide pursuant to the Clean Air Act, Federal funds may not be advanced in such area for any highway project that will result in a significant increase in the carrying capacity for single-occupant vehicles unless the project is addressed through a congestion management process. Strategies that reduce SOV travel and improve existing transportation system efficiency, as produced through the CMP, typically reduce GHG emissions, and could therefore be considered climate change mitigation strategies.
Title 23 USC 135 - Statewide Planning (FHWA)
Section Aspects Language Relation to Climate Change
§135(a) General Requirements

(1) Findings.--It is in the national interest to encourage and promote the safe and efficient management, operation, and development of surface transportation systems that will serve the mobility needs of people and freight and foster economic growth and development within and through urbanized areas, while minimizing transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution.

(3) Contents.--The plans and programs for each State shall provide for the development and integrated management and operation of transportation systems and facilities (including pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities) that will function as an intermodal transportation system for the State and an integral part of an intermodal transportation system for the United States.

Provides a link to GHG mitigation through emphasis on minimizing fuel consumption, since GHG emissions from transportation are largely correlated with fuel consumption, and air pollution (1).

Emphasis is also placed on an integrated transportation system to serve the country (3); States will need to consider the implications of climate change (such as sea level rise) on their infrastructure to ensure effective connectivity is preserved.

§135(c) Scope of Planning Process

(1) In general.– Each State shall carry out a statewide transportation planning process that provides for consideration and implementation of projects, strategies, and services that will–

  1. (A) support the economic vitality of the United States, the States, nonmetropolitan areas, and metropolitan areas, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency;
  2. (B) increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;
  3. (C) increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;
  4. (D) increase the accessibility and mobility of people and freight;
  5. (E) protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns;
  6. (F) enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes throughout the State, for people and freight;
  7. (G) promote efficient system management and operation; and
  8. (H) emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system.

Requirements for strategies to address safety (B), security (C), accessibility (D), connectivity (F), and preservation (H) will require some States to consider projected impacts of climate change, including sea level rise, on infrastructure. Adaptation strategies will need to be implemented to ensure continued connectivity and accessibility, as well as to promote security of the system, ensure the safety of the system for users, and to support global competitiveness and efficiency (A).

Requirement of strategies in (E) provides a link to GHG mitigation through emphasis on energy conservation (since GHG emissions from transportation are largely correlated with energy consumption) and consideration of environmental protection.

§135(d) Additional Requirements

In carrying out planning under this section, each State shall, at a minimum, consider--

  1. (1) with respect to nonmetropolitan areas, the concerns of local elected officials representing units of general purpose local government;
  2. (3) coordination of transportation plans, programs, and planning activities with related planning activities being carried out outside of metropolitan planning areas.
States should consider, as part of the requirement, climate action planning activities going on within their State or region, as well as local government plans or policies that may consider climate change.
§135(f) Long-Range Statewide Transportation Plan
  1. (2) Consultation with governments.–
    1. (D) Consultation, comparison, and consideration.–
      1. (i) In general.– The long-range transportation plan shall be developed, as appropriate, in consultation with State, tribal, and local agencies responsible for land use management, natural resources, environmental protection, conservation, and historic preservation.
  2. (4) Mitigation activities.–
    1. (A) In general.– A long-range transportation plan shall include a discussion of potential environmental mitigation activities and potential areas to carry out these activities, including activities that may have the greatest potential to restore and maintain the environmental functions affected by the plan.
    2. (B) Consultation.– The discussion shall be developed in consultation with Federal, State, and tribal wildlife, land management, and regulatory agencies.
  3. (7) Existing system.– The statewide transportation plan should include capital, operations and management strategies, investments, procedures, and other measures to ensure the preservation and most efficient use of the existing transportation system.

Direct linkages are possible in consultation with agencies responsible for or involved with climate action planning, including environmental and land use agencies that might also be incorporating climate change considerations - both mitigation and adaptation - into their planning or programs (2 and 4B).

Mitigations activities are specifically required within the statewide plan (4); climate change mitigation strategies could be directly linked to this requirement.

Additionally, in considering preservation of the existing system (7), adaptation strategies could be required or encourages.

23 CFR Part 450 - Planning Assistance and Standards (FHWA)
Section Aspects Language Relation to Climate Change
§ 450.200 Purpose The purpose of this subpart is to implement the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 135 and 49 U.S.C. 5304, as amended, which require each State to carry out a continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive statewide multimodal transportation planning process, including the development of a long-range statewide transportation plan and statewide transportation improvement program (STIP), that facilitates the safe and efficient management, operation, and development of surface transportation systems that will serve the mobility needs of people and freight (including accessible pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities) and that fosters economic growth and development within and between States and urbanized areas, while minimizing transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution in all areas of the State To ensure a transportation system that will serve the mobility needs of passengers and freight and that fosters economic development between areas, states will need to consider the implications of climate change (such as sea level rise) on their infrastructure to ensure effective connectivity is preserved. Additionally, emphasis on minimization of transportation-related energy consumption and air pollution further reinforces climate change mitigation strategies.
§ 450.206 Scope of the statewide transportation planning process

(a) Each State shall carry out a continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive statewide transportation planning process that provides for consideration and implementation of projects, strategies, and services that will address the following factors:

  1. (1) Support the economic vitality of the United States, the States, metropolitan areas, and non-metropolitan areas, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency;
  2. (4) Increase accessibility and mobility of people and freight;
  3. (5) Protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns;
  4. (6) Enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes throughout the State, for people and freight;
  5. (7) Promote efficient system management and operation; and
  6. (8) Emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system.

Requirements for strategies to address economic vitality (1), accessibility (4), connectivity (6), and preservation (8) will require some States to consider projected impacts of climate change, including sea level rise, on infrastructure.

Requirement of management and operations strategies in (7) provides a link to GHG mitigation through emphasis on energy conservation (since GHG emissions from transportation are largely correlated with energy consumption) and consideration of environmental protection.

§450.208 Coordination of planning process activities

a) In carrying out the statewide transportation planning process, each State shall, at a minimum:

  1. (2) Coordinate planning carried out under this subpart with statewide trade and economic development planning activities and related multistate planning efforts;
  2. (4) Consider the concerns of local elected and appointed officials with responsibilities for transportation in non-metropolitan areas;
  3. (6) Consider related planning activities being conducted outside of metropolitan planning areas and between States; and
  4. (7) Coordinate data collection and analyses with MPOs and public transportation operators to support statewide transportation planning and programming priorities and decisions.

States should consider, as part of the requirement, climate action planning activities going on within their State or region, as well as local government plans or policies that may consider climate change.

Specifically, the opportunities to link coordinate process to adaptation include ensuring data collection and analysis (7) considers implications of climate change on the transportation system and land use.

§450.214 Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan.
  1. (a) The State shall develop a long-range statewide transportation plan, with a minimum 20-year forecast...[that] shall consider and include, as applicable, elements and connections between public transportation, non-motorized modes, rail, commercial motor vehicle, waterway, and aviation facilities, particularly with respect to intercity travel.
  2. (c) The long-range statewide transportation plan shall reference, summarize, or contain any applicable short-range planning studies; strategic planning and/or policy studies; transportation needs studies; management systems reports; emergency relief and disaster preparedness plans; and any statements of policies, goals, and objectives on issues (e.g., transportation, safety, economic development, social and environmental effects, or energy) that were relevant to the development of the long-range statewide transportation plan.
  3. (i) The long-range statewide transportation plan shall be developed, as appropriate, in consultation with State, Tribal, and local agencies responsible for land use management, natural resources, environmental protection, conservation, and historic preservation.
  4. (j) A long-range statewide transportation plan shall include a discussion of potential environmental mitigation activities and potential areas to carry out these activities...

Potential to link GHG mitigation and adaptation to one of the specific elements listed or to include new element to address.

Opportunities for linkages to adaptation include the mandate to consider connectivity (a), which requires consideration of the impacts of climate change on transportation infrastructure.

Reference to "strategic planning and/or policy studies” (c) may include climate change plans or policies.

Specific reference to environmental effects and energy (c) as well environmental protection and mitigation (I, j) could directly relate to climate change mitigation activities.

§450.306 Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

(a) The metropolitan transportation planning process shall...address the following factors:

  1. (1) Support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency;
  2. (2) Increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and non-motorized users;
  3. (3) Increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and non-motorized users;
  4. (4) Increase accessibility and mobility of people and freight;
  5. (5) Protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns;
  6. (6) Enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight;
  7. (7) Promote efficient system management and operation; and
  8. (8) Emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system.

Requirements for strategies to address safety (2), security (3), accessibility (4), connectivity (6), and preservation (8) will require some States to consider projected impacts of climate change, including sea level rise, on infrastructure. Adaptation strategies will need to be implemented to ensure continued connectivity and accessibility, as well as to promote security of the system, ensure the safety of the system for users, and to support global competitiveness and efficiency (1).

Requirement to address environmental protect and energy conservation (5) provides a link to mitigation since GHG emissions from transportation are largely correlated with energy consumption and climate change in increasingly recognized as an environmental issue. Additionally, many management and operational strategies (7) are also mitigation strategies.

§450.320 Congestion management process in transportation (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and effective integrated management and operation of the multimodal transportation system, based on a cooperatively developed and implemented metropolitan-wide strategy, of new and existing transportation facilities eligible for funding under title 23 U.S.C. and title 49 U.S.C. Chapter 53 through the use of travel demand reduction and operational management strategies. Integrated management and operational strategies specified in (a) reduce transportation-related emissions by reducing vehicle use or improving traffic flow, and are therefore also climate change mitigation strategies. Congestion management and travel demand strategies typically reduce emissions and therefore link directly to climate change mitigation.
23 CFR Part 500 - Management and Monitoring Systems (FHWA)
Section Aspects Language Relation to Climate Change
§500.106 Pavement Management Systems An effective PMS for Federal-aid highways is a systematic process that provides information for use in implementing cost-effective pavement reconstruction, rehabilitation, and preventative maintenance programs and that results in pavements designed to accommodate current and forecasted traffic in a safe, durable, and cost-effective manner. The PMS should be based on the "AASHTO Guidelines for Pavement Management Systems.”

In discussing the results of the PMS, there is an opportunity to encourage DOTs to use low-GHG emitting construction materials (such as using fly ash in concrete) as a mitigation strategy.

There is also an opportunity to require consideration of adaptation strategies to respond to projected climate change impacts in decision-making, in addition to "current and forecasted traffic.”

§500.107 Bridge Management Systems

An effective BMS for bridges on and off Federal-aid highways that should be based on the "AASHTO Guidelines for Bridge Management Systems” and that supplies analyses and summaries of data, uses mathematical models to make forecasts and recommendations, and provides the means by which alternative policies and programs may be efficiently considered. An effective BMS should include, as a minimum, formal procedures for:

  1. (a) Collecting, processing, and updating data;
  2. (b) Predicting deterioration;
  3. (c) Identifying alternative actions;
Since climate change is expected to cause accelerated aging of infrastructure, particularly bridges, the BMS process could explicitly highlight adaptation concerns in conjunction with (a) data collection, (b) predicting deterioration and (c) identifying alternative actions to encourage consideration of these impacts.
§500.109 Congestion Management Systems

...The CMS results in serious consideration of implementation of strategies that provide the most efficient and effective use of existing and future transportation facilities. In both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, consideration needs to be given to strategies that reduce SOV travel and improve existing transportation system efficiency...

(b) In addition...the CMS...shall include:

(4) Identification and evaluation of the anticipated performance and expected benefits of appropriate traditional and nontraditional congestion management strategies that will contribute to the more efficient use of existing and future transportation systems based on the established performance measures. The following categories of strategies, or combinations of strategies, should be appropriately considered for each area: Transportation demand management measures, including growth management and congestion pricing; traffic operational improvements; public transportation improvements; ITS technologies; and, where necessary, additional system capacity.

Strategies that reduce SOV travel and improve existing transportation system efficiency, as produced through the CMP, typically reduce GHG emissions, and could therefore be considered climate change mitigation strategies.

The evaluation of expected benefits (b4) could also specifically incorporate projected climate change mitigation benefits.

49 CFR Part 613 - Planning Assistance and Standards (FTA)
Section Aspects Language Relation to Climate Change
§613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming ...These plans and programs shall lead to the development of an integrated, intermodal metropolitan transportation system that facilitates the efficient, economic movement of people and goods. In considering ensuring an integrated transportation system, adaptation strategies could be required or encouraged, since some metropolitan areas will need to consider the implications of climate change (such as sea level rise) on their infrastructure to ensure effective connectivity is preserved. Temperature swings resulting from climate change are also expected to cause accelerated aging on infrastructure.
§613.200 Statewide transportation planning and programming ...23 CFR part 450, subpart B, requires each State to carry out an intermodal statewide transportation planning process, including the development of a statewide transportation plan and transportation improvement program that facilitates the efficient, economic movement of people and goods in all areas of the State... In order to facilitate effective future movement, some states areas will need to consider adaptation strategies in light of the implications of climate change (such as sea level rise and accelerated aging) on their infrastructure.
Title 49 USC 5303 - Metropolitan Planning (FTA)
Section Aspects Language Relation to Climate Change
§5303(a) General Requirements (2) Contents.--The plans and programs developed under paragraph (1) for each metropolitan area shall provide for the development and integrated management and operation of transportation systems and facilities (including pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities) that will function as an intermodal transportation system for the metropolitan area and as an integral part of an intermodal transportation system for the State and the United States. To ensure an integrated transportation system to serve the State and the U.S., MPOs will need to consider the implications of climate change (such as sea level rise) on their infrastructure to ensure effective connectivity is preserved. Additionally, emphasis on non-motorized transportation and could also facilitate climate change mitigation strategies.
§5303(b) Scope of Planning Process

(1) In general.--The metropolitan transportation planning process for a metropolitan area under this section shall provide for consideration of projects and strategies that will--

  1. (A) support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency;
  2. (B) increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;
  3. (C) increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;
  4. (D) increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight;
  5. (E) protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns;
  6. (F) enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight;
  7. (G) promote efficient system management and operation; and
  8. (H) emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system.

Requirements for strategies to address safety (B), security (C), accessibility (D), connectivity (F), and preservation (H) will require some MPOs to consider projected impacts of climate change on infrastructure. Adaptation strategies will need to be implemented to ensure continued connectivity and accessibility, as well as to promote security of the system, ensure the safety of the system for users, and to support global competitiveness and efficiency (A).

Additionally, management and operations strategies can often be considered climate change mitigation strategies, if they improve system performance and achieve emissions reductions.

Requirement of projects and strategies in (E) provides a link to GHG mitigation through emphasis on energy conservation (since GHG emissions from transportation are largely correlated with energy consumption) and consideration of environmental protection.

§5303(f) Developing Long-Range Transportation Plans.

...The plan shall be in the form the Secretary considers appropriate and at least shall--

  1. (A) identify transportation facilities (including major roadways, mass transportation, and multimodal and intermodal facilities) that should function as an integrated metropolitan transportation system, emphasizing transportation facilities that serve important national, regional, and metropolitan transportation functions;
  2. (C) identify transportation strategies necessary--
    1. (i) to ensure preservation, including requirements for management, operation, modernization, and rehabilitation, of the existing and future transportation system; and
    2. (ii) to use existing transportation facilities most efficiently to relieve congestion, to efficiently serve the mobility needs of people and goods, and to enhance access within the metropolitan planning area;

In considering ensuring an integrated transportation system (A), system preservation (Ci) and mobility and access (Cii), adaptation strategies could be required or encouraged, since some metropolitan areas will need to consider the implications of climate change (such as sea level rise and temperature fluctuations) on their infrastructure to ensure effective connectivity is preserved.

Congestion management strategies (Cii) are typically also relevant to climate mitigation, as they can reduce GHG emissions.

Updated: 03/27/2014
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