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Assessment of the Body of Knowledge on Incorporating Climate Change Adaptation Measures into Transportation Projects

10 Appendix A: Detail on Specific Adaptation Initiatives Reviewed for this Report

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Table 5. Overview of Adaptation Activities Reviewed

Adaptation Activity

Lead Actors

Timing

Adaptation Strategies

Cost Assessment

     

Information Sharing and Training

Management & Planning

Design & Construction

Operations & Maintenance

 

State/Local

Adapting to Climate Change in Olympic NF and National Park

FS, NPS

2008

X

X

 

X

 

Cape Cod Interagency Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change Pilot Project

FHWA, NPS, FWS

2011

X

X

     

North Cascadia Adaptation Partnership (NCAP)

FS, NPS

2011 - present

X

X

     

Adaptation Activities at Caltrans

Caltrans

Ongoing

X

X

X

 

Adaptation Activities at Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA)

SEPTA, ICF, DVRPC

2011-present

X

 

X

 

Adaptation Activities at Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA)

MARTA, Georgia Tech

2011-present

X

   

X

Adaptation Activities at Boston Region MPO

Boston MPO

2011-2012

X

     

Adapting Vermont's Transportation

Infrastructure to the Future Impacts of Climate Change

VTrans

2011 - present

X

X

X

X

 

Adaptation Activities at Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (ADOT &PF)

ADOT & PF

Ongoing

X

X

X

 

Adaptation Activities at the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC)

MTC

2011-present

X

X

   

Adaptation Activities at the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA)

MTA

Ongoing

X

X

Adaptation Activities at the Washington Department of Transportation (WSDOT)

WSDOT

2011-present

X

X

Adaptation Activities at the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA)

CTA

2010-present

X

Adaptation Activities at Maryland State Highway Administration (MD SHA)

MD SHA

Ongoing

X

Adaptation Activities at Kansas City Area Transportation Authority (KCATA)

KCATA

Ongoing

X

Adaptation Activities at Hawaii Department of Transportation

Hawaii DOT

Ongoing

X

X

Adaptation Activities at TriMet

TriMet

Ongoing

X

Adaptation Activities at Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation (HART)

HART

Ongoing

X

Adaptation Activities at Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT)

MassDOT

Ongoing

X

X

Adaptation Activities at Michigan Department of Transportation

Michigan DOT

Ongoing

X

Adaptation Activities at Arizona Department of Transportation

Arizona DOT

Ongoing

X

Adaptation Activities in Hampton Roads, VA

Virginia DOT, UVA, HRPDC, Hampton Roads TPO

2010-2012

X

Adaptation Activities at Rhode Island Division of Planning

RI Division of Planning

2012

X

Adaptation Activities at Missouri Department of Transportation

Missouri DOT

Ongoing

X

Regional/National

FLMA Southeast Region Climate Change and Transportation Tool

FHWA, NPS, FWS

2011-present

X

X

Facilities Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts in Coastal Areas

NPS

2010 - present

X

X

Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast Study

DOT

2003 - present

X

X

The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Transportation

FHWA

2002

X

X

Amtrak Northeast Corridor Electrical Systems Upgrade

Amtrak

2011-2017

X

Adaptation Activities at the Piscataqua Regional Estuary Partnership (PREP)

PREP, MaineDOT, NHDOT

Ongoing

X

X

Adaptation Activities at the Port Authority of NY/NJ

PATH

Ongoing

X

X

International

Transport for London: Incorporating Adaptation into Asset Management Systems

Transport for London

2005 - present

X

X

X

X

Adaptation Activities at Tokyo Metro

Tokyo Metro

X

X

Adaptation Activities in Turkey

Various

X

Table 6. Detailed Overview of Adaptation Activities Reviewed

Activity

Overview

State/Local

Adapting to Climate Change in Olympic National Forest and Olympic National Park

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Olympic National Forest and Olympic National Park

Location:

Olympic Peninsula, WA

Description:

The project conducted a sensitivity assessment of the ONF and identified barriers to management in preparation for climate change. The assessment identified the effects of changes in temperature and precipitation on ecosystem services and species. The project also evaluated management tools and strategies for adaptation through workshops focused on hydrology and roads, vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries.

Project URL:

http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/cases/olympic.shtml

Cape Cod Interagency Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change Pilot Project

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Local planning, transportation, and environmental stakeholders in the 15 towns on Cape Cod, and the Cape Cod National Seashore, as well as various federal and regional agencies. Funded by FHWA, NPS, and FWS.

Location:

Cape Cod, MA

Description:

The goal of this project was to develop a replicable process for integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies into transportation and land use planning activities. This project utilized CommunityViz, a GIS-based software, to develop and evaluate ten transportation and land-use scenarios. Climate change vulnerabilities were assessed using expert elicitation. A two-day workshop convened stakeholders to evaluate trade-offs among land use, conservation, climate change mitigation, and adaptation. Elements of a refined scenario developed post-workshop were incorporated into the planning efforts and long-range plans of the NPS, Cape Cod Commission, and Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Project URL:

http://www.volpe.dot.gov/transportation-planning/public-lands/cape-cod-climate-change-scenario-planning-project

North Cascadia Adaptation Partnership (NCAP)

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Two National Parks (Mt. Rainier NP, North Cascades NP), two National Forests (Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF, Okanogan-Wenatchee NF), other federal agencies, and local research institutions

Location:

North Cascades, WA

Description:

The Partnership between the U.S. FS and NPS aims to assess the vulnerability of cultural and natural resources and incorporate climate change adaptation into land management. NCAP held four two-day workshops in sectors including vegetation and fisheries. Resource specialists from the lead agencies collaborated with scientists to identify key vulnerabilities, determine adaptation strategies, and identify barriers. The scenario planning looked at a range of variables, and focused on hydrological changes for the effort focused on transportation.

Project URL:

http://northcascadia.org/

Adaptation Activities at Caltrans

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Caltrans

Location:

CA

Description:

Caltrans has begun implementing measures to increase resilience across nearly all the agency's functional areas, including planning, project delivery, operations, and maintenance at the headquarter and district levels. At the headquarter level, sea level rise adaptation guidance has been developed in response to a state executive order for coastal projects to consider a range of sea level rise scenarios. Additionally, Caltrans has developed a guidance manual for California MPOs and RTPAs to address climate change adaptation in their regional transportation plans, and features a matrix of potential adaptation responses by climate impact. At the district level, many activities to improve the system more generally have the added benefit of increasing climate resilience.

Project URL:

http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/orip/climate_change/documents/Caltrans_ClimateChangeRprt-Final_April_2013.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA)

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC), ICF International

Location:

Philadelphia, PA

Description:

This project conducted a climate risk assessment and adaptation analysis for a selected regional rail line. The climate hazard of interest was primarily flooding from heavy rain and tropical storms, as well as heat and snow. After an initial literature review, adaptation strategies were assessed and refined through a series of structured conversations with various SEPTA departments. The strategies discussed spanned capital planning, maintenance, and operations. For each strategy, the project team noted how the strategy would fit within existing SEPTA processes and identified major barriers. Adaptation strategies SEPTA is already doing include prioritizing tree trimming year-round and accelerating the activity in advance of big storms; acquiring more back-up power systems; and elevating signal houses in flood-prone areas. Funding for this pilot project was awarded by the FTA and is expected to advance the state of practice for adapting transit systems to the impacts of climate change.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/APTA_-_Climate_Adaptation_-_ZaleJohanson_-_080712_FINAL.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA)

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

MARTA, Georgia Tech

Location:

Atlanta, GA

Description:

As an FTA Transit Climate Change Adaptation Assessment Pilot Project, MARTA identified climate risks, assessed vulnerability, and developed adaptive management strategies. MARTA assessed initial adaptation strategies based on order of magnitude costs and mapped each strategy to the agency's organizational units. The project focused on identifying opportunities to incorporate climate change considerations in their asset management system to support strategic investment decision-making to respond to climate impacts.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/Springstead_MARTA_FTA_Climate_Adaption_Pilot_3-20-12_rev4.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Boston Region MPO

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Boston Region MPO

Location:

Boston, MA

Description:

Boston Region MPO conducted hazard mapping to identify areas where transportation infrastructure and proposed projects may be vulnerable to flooding, storm surge, or sea level rise. The MPO developed an interactive web tool (http://www.ctps.org/map/www/apps/eehmApp/pub_eehm_index.html) that maps the transportation network, natural flood zones, bridge condition, emergency routes, and emergency support facilities. The tool links to the MPO's database of Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) projects and can be used during planning of proposed projects.

Project URL:

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/climate_change/adaptation/workshops_and_peer_exchanges/2011-2012_summary/20112012summary.pdf

Adapting Vermont's Transportation Infrastructure to the Future Impacts of Climate Change

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

VTrans

Location:

VT

Description:

VTrans is collaborating with several agencies to implement various adaptation and resilience oriented projects. The adaptation actions intend to help improve emergency management of flood risks and include development of flood maps, a state asset system, and a rapid culvert vulnerability tool to inform project prioritization decisions. VTrans is also holding flood resilience training programs for various stakeholders.

Project URL:

http://vtransplanning.vermont.gov/sites/aot_policy/files/documents/planning/Climate%20Change%20Adaptation%20White%20Paper.pdf

Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities

Location:

AK

Description:

The Department is largely adapting to a variety of climate impacts including flooding, coastal erosion, and permafrost melt, and intense storms. Actions underway include shoreline protection along highways, relocation of an airport, establishing evacuation routes and shelters, drainage improvement, and piloting technology for permafrost protection.

Project URL:

http://climatechange.transportation.org/pdf/gregovichadot.pdf; http://ine.uaf.edu/autc/projects/preservation-of-the-alaska-highway-phase-2/

Adaptation Activities at the Metropolitan Transportation Commission

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

MTC

Location:

San Francisco Bay, CA

Description:

The MTC participated in FHWA's Climate Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Pilot program. As a pilot project, MTC conducted a risk assessment with a focus on sea level rise and sketched out a potential adaptation approach. The adaptation process starts out with an initial list of adaptation measures and uses risk profiles and other criteria to narrow down the list to a potential range of near-term and longer term adaptation options. The exercise was carried out for two example assets.

Project URL:

http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/climate/Rising_Tides_Briefing_Book.pdf

Adaptation Activities at the Metropolitan Transportation Authority

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

MTA

Location:

New York City, NY

Description:

The MTA conducted a study that identified climate change scenarios and key vulnerabilities of assets and operations using a risk-based approach. While the study produced temporary, mid-, and long-term recommendations, the implementation of several adaptation activities was prompted by the impacts from extreme events including Hurricane Sandy. Efforts to adapt to flooding include elevating grates and raising station entrance platforms.

Project URL:

http://new.mta.info/news/2012/10/26/mta-prepares-hurricane-sandy

http://www.mta.info/sustainability/pdf/Jacob_et%20al_MTA_Adaptation_Final_0309.pdf

Adaptation Activities at the Washington Department of Transportation

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

WSDOT

Location:

WA

Description:

WSDOT participated in FHWA's Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Program and the results from the vulnerability assessment are being considered through several avenues within the department to inform decision-making. WSDOT's executive management and Sustainable Transportation Team are working to determine possible strategies to reduce risk. Additionally, the department updated guidance for considering climate change impacts at the project-level using findings from the vulnerability analysis. Adaptation measures have been mainstreamed into design and maintenance activities, such as culvert replacement and rock stabilization.

Project URL:

http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/SustainableTransportation/adapting.htm

Adaptation Activities at the Chicago Transit Authority

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

CTA

Location:

Chicago, IL

Description:

As a FTA Transit Climate Change Adaptation Assessment Pilot Project, CTA is surveying system vulnerabilities, developing implementation plans for three specific adaptation project areas, and will integrate long-term adaptation strategies into standard practices. CTA has held interviews within the authority to collect information on service disruption, costs, and system vulnerabilities. Additionally, CTA is mainstreaming climate into an asset management approach for bus maintenance facilities.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/CTA-Climate-Adaptation-Pilot_APTA_Sust_Presentation_2012.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Maryland State Highway Administration

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

MD SHA

Location:

MD

Description:

MD SHA is using its asset management system as a climate adaptation tool by collecting climate change data, such as sea level rise, to analyze priority assets. MD SHA is integrating the asset and climate data into a GIS-based system. During Hurricane Sandy, the State emergency management agency used a GIS data layer of previous road closures to identify potential hazards and improve storm response.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Kansas City Area Transportation Authority

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

KCATA

Location:

Kansas City, MO

Description:

Kansas City's new bus rapid transit system uses green stormwater infrastructure to prevent localized flooding,

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Hawaii Department of Transportation

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Hawaii DOT

Location:

HI

Description:

Hawaii DOT built retaining wall in an area with repeat landslides.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

Adaptation Activities at TriMet

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

TriMet

Location:

Portland, OR

Description:

Portland TriMet installed expansion joints in their rail in response to rising temperatures

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

HART

Location:

Honolulu, HI

Description:

The buses that Honolulu's transit agency uses to evacuate residents to storm shelters are stored at higher grounds. The agency is also pursuing a memorandum of agreement with a nearby military installation to store additional vehicles at the installation when flooding is predicted.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Massachusetts Department of Transportation

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

MassDOT

Location:

MA

Description:

MassDOT frequently removes debris from culverts to minimize flooding impacts. MassDOT is working with maintenance staff to identify and document information on the drainage impacts of heavy rain and storm events in their asset management system, Maximo. MassDOT is assessing adaptation actions for a major expressway in Boston under the 2013-2014 FHWA Climate Resilience Pilot Program.

Project URL:

http://climatechange.transportation.org/pdf/2013_symposium/6_4_walsh_vulnerability_adaptation_050713.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Michigan Department of Transportation

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Michigan DOT

Location:

MI

Description:

The DOT has improved operations and maintenance approaches for dealing with winter storms. Adaptation activities including investing in tow plow technology, expanding anti-icing efforts, and increasing their salt use efficiency. Furthermore, Michigan Department of Transportation is considering a variety of adaptation measures to reduce risks from more intense precipitation and heat events.

Project URL:

http://glisa.msu.edu/docs/NCA/MTIT_Transportation.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Arizona Department of Transportation

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Arizona DOT

Location:

AZ

Description:

In response to dust storms, Arizona DOT developed a dust storm monitoring system and is using overhead message boards, phone systems, and social media to display advisory and warning messages. The DOT conducted a public outreach campaign to educate drivers about what to do during dust storms. Arizona DOT will develop an adaptive design process under the 2013-2014 FHWA Climate Resilience Pilot Program.

Project URL:

http://climatechange.transportation.org/pdf/2013_symposium/1_5_toth_aashto_extreme_weather_even_2010.pdf

Adaptation Activities in Hampton Roads, VA

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Virginia DOT, University of Virginia (UVA), Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC), Hampton Roads TPO

Location:

Hampton Roads, VA

Description:

Under the 2010-2011 FHWA Climate Resilience Pilot Program, VDOT conducted a vulnerability assessment study to analyze how climate change may impact the region's LRTP. Soon after, Hampton Roads Transportation Planning Organization released their 2034 LRTP which discusses the effect of sea level rise on the region's transportation infrastructure.

Project URL:

http://www.virginia.edu/crmes/fhwa_climate/files/finalReport.pdf

http://hrtpo.org/page/2034-plan-visualization-tools/

Adaptation Activities at Rhode Island Division of Planning

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Rhode Island Division of Planning

Location:

RI

Description:

Rhode Island's state LRTP discusses sea level rise adaptation strategies.

Project URL:

http://www.planning.ri.gov/statewideplanning/transportation/transportation2035.php

Adaptation Activities at Missouri Department of Transportation

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Missouri DOT

Location:

MO

Description:

Missouri DOT uses a wide range of communication channels to notify drivers of extreme weather events.

Project URL:

http://climatechange.transportation.org/pdf/2013_symposium/AASHTO_EWESymposium_2013.pdf

Regional/ National

FLMA Southeast Region Climate Change and Transportation Tool

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

FHWA, NPS Southeast Region, FWS Southeast Region, Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, J. N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Everglades National Park

Location:

Southeast US

Description:

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is partnering with two Federal Lands Management Agencies (FLMAs) in a project titled "Strategic Research Initiative: Integration of Federal Lands Management Agency Transportation Data, Planning, and Practices with Climate Change Scenarios to Develop a Transportation Management Tool." The project is intended to develop a tool that will help agencies manage their transportation assets in the face of climate changes. The overall project has several components: (1) a synthesis report of FLMA climate change efforts and current best practices, (2) a Southeast Region Climate Change and Transportation Tool that will help Parks and Refuges plan for reducing GHG emissions and climate vulnerabilities of each unit, and (3) best practice workshops at four pilot units (two Parks and two Refuges) to test best practices and tool components.

Project URL:

NA

Facilities Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts in Coastal Areas

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

NPS, individual parks

Location:

Various

Description:

SOCC, in partnership with CCRP, is conducting a two-phase pilot effort called "Facilities Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts in Coastal Areas." In the first phase, NPS worked with ICF International to develop and apply a high-level risk screening tool to assess risk posed by sea level rise to facilities within coastal parks. In the second phase, NPS is working with ICF International to develop a park-level risk screening approach and with Robert Young at Western Carolina University to further examine the risk of facilities within Phase I parks that could be impacted by a one meter rise in sea level. ICF International is currently working with two pilots: a Pacific West unit (Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park in Hawaii) and a Northeast unit (Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia).

Project URL:

NA

Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast Study

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

U.S. DOT

Location:

Gulf Coast Region

Description:

To better understand potential climate change impacts on transportation infrastructure and identify adaptation strategies, the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) is conducting a comprehensive, multi-phase study of climate change impacts in the Central Gulf Coast region.

Project URL:

Workshop report available at http://climate.dot.gov/documents/workshop1002/workshop.pdf

The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Transportation

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies, Cost Assessment

Participants:

FHWA

Location:

NA

Description:

This project provided an overview of methods available for conducting impacts analyses, including scenario planning, and also discussed adaptation strategy at the federal, state, and local level. This project also investigated costs of specific adaptation measures, and represents one of the more specific sources of quantified information on adaptation costs.

Project URL:

Workshop report available at http://climate.dot.gov/documents/workshop1002/workshop.pdf

Amtrak Northeast Corridor Electrical Systems Upgrade

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Amtrak

Location:

Between New Brunswick and Trenton, NJ

Description:

This project will upgrade a section of Amtrak's overhead electrical wire, which tends to sag and tighten in variable temperatures. Intermediate support structures for overhead wires will be installed to shorten the spans between supporting poles. Funding for the project was awarded by the U.S. Department of Transportation to support higher operating speeds and improve service.

Project URL:

http://www.amtrak.com/ccurl/903/689/ATK-11-069%20AmtrakAwarded.pdf

Adaptation Activities at the Piscataqua Regional Estuary Partnership

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

PREP, Maine DOT, NHDOT

Location:

ME, NH

Description:

Piscataqua Regional Estuary Partnership (PREP) is conducting outreach on new Maine and New Hampshire culvert and bridge design standards that allows passage of aquatic organisms and stream connectivity, as well as sufficient capacity to prevent catastrophic failures during floods. PREP used evaluation methods to analyze the roads and culverts affected by changes in rainfall and extreme storm events and prioritize stream crossings for repair or redesign.

Project URL:

http://www.prep.unh.edu/plan.pdf

Adaptation Activities at the Port Authority of NY/NJ

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

PATH

Location:

NY, NJ

Description:

PATH raised floodgates at the Hoboken station to account for sea level rise. They sealed any gates that were below the 100-year flood plain.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

International

Transport for London: Incorporating Adaptation into Asset Management Systems

Project Type:

Impacts/Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Transport for London

Location:

London, UK

Description:

Transport for London (TfL) assessed the climate change risks to their assets and services and incorporated key findings into the agency's risk and asset management systems to adapt primarily to heat and flooding. For example, TfL improved ventilation in the deep tunnels of the London Underground; made structural adjustments to trains and buses to cool the transport vehicles; and mapped areas in the London Underground that are vulnerable to flooding and put in place physical barriers. TfL is also incorporating adaptation measures into the design of new major rail projects.

Project URL:

http://archive.defra.gov.uk/environment/climate/documents/adapt-reports/06road-rail/transport-london.pdf; http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/TfLwebinar15-12-11.pdf; Case study available at: http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

Adaptation Activities at Tokyo Metro

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Tokyo Metro

Location:

Tokyo, Japan

Description:

The city's underground tunnels have triple pumps to increase redundancy to flooding impacts. Additionally, metro ventilation shafts are closed when a heavy rain warning is issued.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

Adaptation Activities in Turkey

Project Type:

Adaptation Strategies

Participants:

Various international donors

Location:

Istanbul, Turkey

Description:

A new commuter rail link is built to withstand the 1-in-10,000 year storm with three feet of sea level rise.

Project URL:

http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_0001_-_Flooded_Bus_Barns_and_Buckled_Rails.pdf

 

Updated: 03/27/2014
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