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References

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California Department of Transportation, Guidance on Incorporating Sea Level Rise, 2011.

Eugene Mulero and Julia Pyper, "As states scramble to adapt, DOT pledges $13M in first of many likely cash infusions," Greenwire, October 21, 2012.

Federal Highway Administration, Adaptation Peer Exchanges Final Report, August 2012.

Federal Highway Administration, Assessing Criticality in Transportation Planning, 2011.

Federal Highway Administration, "Eligibility of Activities to Adapt To Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events under the Federal-Aid and Federal Lands Highway Program," 2012.

Federal Highway Administration, Regional Climate Change Effects: Useful Information for Transportation Agencies, 2010.

Federal Transit Administration, Flooded Bus Barns and Buckled Rails: Public Transportation and Climate Change Adaptation, 2011.

Metropolitan Transportation Commission, California Department of Transportation, Bay Conservation and Development Commission, Adapting to Rising Tides: Transportation Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Pilot Project: Briefing Book, November 2011.

National Academy of Sciences, Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change, 2010

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Services Center. Coastal Inundation Mapping Guidebook. Charleston, South Carolina, 2009

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Technical Considerations for Use of Geospatial Data in Sea Level Change Mapping and Assessment, 2010.

New Jersey Transportation Planning Authority, Climate Change Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of New Jersey's Transportation Infrastructure, April 2012.

Oahu Metropolitan Planning Organization, Transportation Asset Climate Change Risk Assessment, November 2011.

Slater, Gregory I., "Climate Change Adaptation: Maryland State Highway Administration," Presentation to U.S. Department of Transportation, March 30, 2011.

Thomas et al., "Effects of Climate Change on the National Flood Insurance Program in the United States - Riverine Flooding." Watershed Management 2010, ASCE, 2011.

U.S. Climate Change Science Program, Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region, 2009 http://library.globalchange.gov/products/assessments/sap-4-1-coastal-sensitivity-to-sea-level-rise-a-focus-on-the-mid-atlantic-region

U.S. Department of Transportation, Policy Statement on Climate Change Adaptation, June 2011.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast Study, 2008.

U.S. Global Change Research Program, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, June 2009.

University of Virginia and Virginia Department of Transportation, Assessing Vulnerability and Risk of Climate Change Effects on Transportation Infrastructure, Hampton Roads, VA Pilot, November 2011.

Washington State Department of Transportation, Climate Impacts Vulnerability Assessment, November 2011.

Washington State Department of Transportation, Guidance for Project-Level Greenhouse Gas and Climate Evaluations, March 2013.

[1] Traffic volume data, which is one of the determinants for highway criticality is not available for all features on NJDOT's centerline network. The CMS network data has link level traffic volume information for higher level functional class highways (primarily interstates/freeways, major and minor arterials, and some urban collectors).

[2] See USGCRP's Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (2009).

[3] The 1-in-100 year floodplain, also called 100 year flood or 1% flood, is the land area flooded during a heavy rain event that has a 1% chance of occurring in any given year, or in other words, on average, once every one hundred years.

[4] Thomas et al., "Effects of Climate Change on the National Flood Insurance Program in the United States - Riverine Flooding" Watershed Management 2010, ASCE, 2011.

[5] These are the variables found in the FEMA study to be most highly correlated with the 1% annual chance flood discharge, in cubic feet per second.

[6] The emissions scenarios are those developed by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The low scenario refers to the IPCC B1 scenario, the medium to A1B, and the high to A2.

[7] Calibration often involves the choice of a vertical datum. As defined by NOAA (2011), "A datum is a base elevation used as a reference from which to reckon heights or depths. A tidal datum is a standard elevation defined by a certain phase of the tide. Tidal datums are used as references to measure local water levels." Example tidal datums include mean higher high water and mean high water.

[8] The sea-level rise projection must be chosen to account for the vertical accuracy of the elevation data for the land (and vice versa). An accurate map requires the root mean square error of the elevation data to be smaller than the projected change in sea-level rise (NOAA 2009). For more in-depth discussion of land elevation data resolution and accuracy, see Chapter 2 of CCSP (2009).

[9] http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3256&from=rss_home

[10] Adjustments to the vertical datum are a necessary part of mapping inundation. The land elevation data are usually referenced to a vertical datum called the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). This data is not tidal, meaning that a value of 0 does not equate to any particular local tide value. Correcting this issue requires converting the elevation data from NAVD88 to a tidal datum, such as mean high tide (NOAA, 2011).

[11] California DOT: Guidance on Incorporating Sea Level Rise (2011). http://www.dot.ca.gov/ser/downloads/sealevel/guide_incorp_slr.pdf . See also: State of California Sea-Level Rise Interim Guidance Document (2010).

[12] Sea-Level Change Considerations for Civil Works Programs (2011) EC 1165-2-212 http://planning.usace.army.mil/toolbox/library/ECs/EC11652212Nov2011.pdf

[13] Snover, A.K., L. Whitely Binder, J. Lopez, E. Willmott , J. Kay, D. Howell and J. Simmonds. 2007. Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional and State Governments. In association with and published by ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, Oakland , CA .

[14] Slater, Gregory I., "Climate Change Adaptation: Maryland State Highway Administration," Presentation to U.S. Department of Transportation, March 30, 2011.

[15] Eugene Mulero and Julia Pyper, "As states scramble to adapt, DOT pledges $13M in first of many likely cash infusions," Greenwire, October 21, 2012.

[16] US DOT, Policy Statement on Climate Change Adaptation, June 2011. The Policy statement noted DOT's intention to integrate consideration of adaptation into its planning, operations, policies, and programs, and also described some of the guiding principles. See: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/climate_change/adaptation/policy_and_guidance/usdot.cfm

Updated: 03/27/2014
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