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[1] For more information, see:http://www.dot.gov/livability/101.

[2] To learn more about legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability, see:http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/transportation_enhancements/guidance/te_ada.cfm.

[3] The functional definition of "low-income'" can vary if a State has adopted a more inclusive income threshold than the HHS poverty level, and uses it routinely on all transportation projects.

[4] See Effective Methods for Environmental Justice Assessment for discussion about general transportation impacts, available at:http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_532.pdf

[5] Our Built and Natural Environments: A Technical Review of the Interactions between Land Use, Transportation, and Environmental Quality, U.S. EPA, 2001,http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/built.pdf .

[6] Strategic Highway Safety Plan, AASHTO, 1998, and NCHRP Project 17-18(3) Implementation Guides,http://safety.transportation.org/about.aspx .

[7] State Highways as Main Streets: A Study of Community Design and Visioning, Washington State DOT, 2009http://66.132.139.69/uploads/wsdotmnst.pdf .

[8] Surface Transportation Policy Partnership. "From the Margins to the Mainstream: A Guide to Transportation Opportunities in Your Community." 2006.

[9] Reconnecting America's Center for Transit-Oriented Development. "Realizing the Potential: Expanding Housing Opportunities Near Transit." April 2007.

[10] Center for Housing Policy. "A Heavy Load: The Combined Housing and Transportation Burdens on Working Families." October 2006.

[11] Center for Neighborhood Technology. "Penny Wise, Pound Fuelish." February 2010.

[12] Reconnecting America's Center for Transit-Oriented Development. "Realizing the Potential: Expanding Housing Opportunities Near Transit." April 2007.

[13] http://www.ci.austin.tx.us/housing/roi/m_station.htm

[14] "Wheeling" is a universal term referring to using bicycles, wheelchairs, mobility scooters, strollers, skateboards, rollerblades, etc.

[15] American Public Transportation Association.http://www.apta.com/mediacenter/ptbenefits/Pages/FactSheet.aspx .

[16] WA Livability Initiative Web site,http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/livability/ .

[17] Holstege, Sean. "Can you afford to live in your house?" The Arizona Republic. May 7, 2010.

[18] DOT Secretary Ray LaHood, HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan, and EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson Announce Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities: Partnership sets forth six 'livability principles' to coordinate policy. Press Release. June 16, 2009.

[19] Litman, Todd. "Transportation Affordability." Victoria Transport Policy Institute. August 7, 2009.

[20] Cox, Wendell. "The Argument against Smart Growth."http://www.planetizen.com/node/11 .

[21] Lewis, Paul G. and Mark Baldassare. Journal of the American Planning Association. Volume 76, March 2, 2010. pp 219-237.

[22] A.C. Nelson, "Longer View: Leadership in a new era," Journal of the American Planning Association, Volume, 72 (4), Fall 2006, page 395-397.

[23] Center for Neighborhood Technology.http://htaindex.cnt.org/ .

[24] Center for Neighborhood Technology for the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. "Bay Area Housing and Transportation Affordability: A Closer Look." November 2009.

[25] Center for Neighborhood Technology. "Penny Wise, Pound Fuelish." February 2010.

[26] Center for Neighborhood Technology for the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. "Bay Area Housing and Transportation Affordability: A Closer Look." November 2009.

[27] Center for Neighborhood Technology for the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. "Bay Area Housing and Transportation Affordability: A Closer Look." November 2009.

[28] Pealer, Casius. "Transit Costs Undermine Housing Affordability." Housing Finance News.http://www.housingfinance.com/news/ahf/041410-ahf-Transit-Costs-Undermine-Housing-Affordability.htm .

[29] KKO & Associates, L.L.C., Fairmount Line Feasibility Study-Final Report, Volume I, October 25, 2002.

[30] Connecting America's Center for Transit-Oriented Development. "Realizing the Potential: Expanding Housing Opportunities Near Transit." April 2007.

[31] Designing a Public Engagement & Decision Making Program,www.contextsensitivesolutions.org/content/topics/process/involving-stakeholders/public-engagement .

[32] Goodspeed, Robert (2008). Citizen Participation and the Internet in Urban Planning. Final Paper in Urban Studies and Planning Program. University of Maryland.

[33] For more information, see:http://sfBART.posterous.com .

[34] U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, "Social Media and Social Networking Tools, Transportation Industry Public Involvement Applications and Practitioner Considerations" (unpublished manuscript currently under revision).

[35] For more information, see:http://www.goto2040.org/blogs/blog.aspx .

[36] U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, "Innovative Uses of Digital Video" (unpublished manuscript currently under revision).

[37] U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, "Social Media and Social Networking Tools, Transportation Industry Public Involvement Applications and Practitioner Considerations" (unpublished manuscript currently under revision).

[38] Goodspeed, Robert (2008). Citizen Participation and the Internet in Urban Planning. Final Paper in Urban Studies and Planning Program. University of Maryland.

[39] The Baltimore Metropolitan Council Web site available atwww.baltometro.org/transportation-planning/comm-unity-workshop-on-ej-and-transportation .

[40] The project Web site is available athttp://ejkit.com .

[41] A listing of DOT's programs that support projects that enhance or relate to livability is available athttp://www.dot.gov/livability/grants-programs.

[42] For example, see Robert Bullard, Glenn Johnson, and Angel Torres (editors), Highway Robbery: Transportation Racism and New Routes to Equity, South End Press, 2004.

[43] Under federal procurement law, the DBE program is open to all DBEs and cannot be restricted to only those DBEs located in the communities in which a federally funded transportation project is being built.

[44] TriMet, "Interstate MAX DBE & Workforce Story: Overcoming Barriers to Inclusion," 2005, p. 6,http://trimet.org/pdfs/business/DBE_Workforce_Story.pdf .

[45] TriMet, "Interstate MAX Yellow Line," May 2008,http://trimet.org/pdfs/history/railfactsheet-interstate.pdf , accessed June 18, 2010.

[46] TriMet, "Interstate MAX DBE & Workforce Story: Overcoming Barriers to Inclusion," 2005, p. 6,http://trimet.org/pdfs/business/DBE_Workforce_Story.pdf .

[47] TriMet, "Interstate MAX DBE & Workforce Story: Overcoming Barriers to Inclusion," 2005, p. 46,http://trimet.org/pdfs/business/DBE_Workforce_Story.pdf .

[48] Atlanta BeltLine, Inc., "BeltLine Projects Underway: May 2010,"http://beltline.org/Portals/26/Images/materials/blprojectsunderway.pdf , accessed June 17, 2010.

[49] HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan, "Growing Our Communities Sustainably," White House blog, May 21, 2010,http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/05/21/growing-our-communities-sustainably .

[50] Affordable "workforce" housing is usually considered moderate-income housing (e.g., at least 30% of area median income). According to Beltline officials, other affordable housing programs are available to assist Atlanta residents with incomes below this threshold.

[51] Personal communication with Beth McMillan, Atlanta BeltLine Office of Community Engagement, June 17, 2010. For more information on community land trusts, visit the website of the National Community Land Trust Network at:http://www.cltnetwork.org/ .

[52] http://www.beltline.org/Implementation/EquitableDevelopment/tabid/3860/Default.aspx

[53] For more information about his program, see:http://www.beltline.org/Portals/26/PDF/FAQ%20and%20FSEA%20for%20Website%20-%20community%20benefits.pdf .

[54] City of Stamford, CT, Request for U.S. DOT TIGER Discretionary Grant for the Stamford Urban Transitway, Sept. 15, 2009, p. 2.

[55] Stamford Urban Transitway TIGER grant application, p. 15.

[56] Source:http://www.greenimpactzone.org/About/index.aspx

[57] FHWA (2008), "Income-Based Equity Impacts of Congestion Pricing-A Primer", p. 6, available athttp://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop08040/cp_prim5_00.htm . Accessed June 18, 2010.

[58] Parkany (2005), "Environmental Justice Issues Related to Transponder Ownership and Road Pricing," paper presented at TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 2005.

[59] Ungemah, D. (2007), "This Land Is Your Land, This Land Is My Land: Addressing Equity and Fairness in Tolling and Pricing," paper presented at TRB Annual Conference, 2007, Washington, DC.

[60] Plotnick, R., J. Romich, J. Thacker, and M. Dunbar (2009). "Analyzing the Impact of Highway Tolls on Low-Income Persons: An Application to the Puget Sound Region of Washington State," paper prepared for the Research Conference of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, Washington, DC, November 2009.

[61] Congestion in the Twin Cities: Who's Paying the Price - A Summary Report, Workshop held November 28-29, 2000, in Minneapolis, MN, Center for Transportation Studies.

[62] Lee W. Munnich, Jr., and Kenneth R. Buckeye, "I-394 MnPASS High-Occupancy Toll Lanes: Planning and Operational Issues and Outcomes (Lessons Learned in Year 1)," Transportation Research Record (TRR): Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1996, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 2007, p. 56.

Updated: 03/07/2013
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