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Noise Effect on Wildlife

Preface

This report contains a summary of ongoing work on the effects of noise on wildlife populations to date. It will hopefully provide some indication of the current state of knowledge in the area – particularly with respect to studies of birds that have spurred increased discussion of the subject. No effort was made to evaluate the methodologies applied to any individual study although a large number have appeared in peer-reviewed journals and thus have already been scrutinized. Because the numbers and/or diversity of species have been used as indicators of the effects of noise, a number of studies that have indicated one or both of these factors for species alongside roads are included although noise is not specifically mentioned in some of these. Studies that directly measure the number of individuals or breeding along roadsides provide the most direct indication of the response of populations to road noise. This is supported by those studies in which noise has been used as the best predictor of the negative response of species to roads in recent studies (see Reijnen and colleagues (41, 96-100); Forman et al.(45)).

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS
SYMBOL WHEN YOU KNOW MULTIPLY BY TO FIND SYMBOL
LENGTH
in inches 25.4 millimeters mm
ft feet 0.305 meters m
yd yards 0.914 meters m
mi miles 1.61 kilometers km
AREA
in2 square inches 645.2 square millimeters mm2
ft2 square feet 0.093 square meters m2
yd2 square yard 0.836 square meters m2
ac acres 0.405 hectares ha
mi2 square miles 2.59 square kilometers km2
VOLUME
fl oz fluid ounces 29.57 milliliters mL
gal gallons 3.785 liters L
ft3 cubic feet 0.028 cubic meters m3
yd3 cubic yards 0.765 cubic meters m3
NOTE: volumes greater than 1000 L shall be shown in m3
MASS
oz ounces 28.35 grams g
lb pounds 0.454 kilograms kg
T short tons (2000 lb) 0.907 megagrams (or "metric ton") Mg (or "t")
TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)
°F Fahrenheit 5 (F-32)/9
or (F-32)/1.8
Celsius °C
ILLUMINATION
fc foot-candles 10.76 lux lx
fl foot-Lamberts 3.426 candela/m2 cd/m2
FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS
lbf poundforce 4.45 newtons N
lbf/in 2 poundforce per square inch 6.89 kilopascals kPa
APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS
SYMBOL WHEN YOU KNOW MULTIPLY BY TO FIND SYMBOL
LENGTH
mm millimeters 0.039 inches in
m meters 3.28 feet ft
m meters 1.09 yards yd
km kilometers 0.621 miles mi
AREA
mm2 square millimeters 0.0016 square inches in2
m2 square meters 10.764 square feet ft2
m2 square meters 1.195 square yards yd2
ha hectares 2.47 acres ac
km2 square kilometers 0.386 square miles mi2
VOLUME
mL milliliters 0.034 fluid ounces fl oz
L liters 0.264 gallons gal
m3 cubic meters 35.314 cubic feet ft3
m3 cubic meters 1.307 cubic yards yd3
MASS
g grams 0.035 ounces oz
kg kilograms 2.202 pounds lb
Mg (or "t") megagrams (or "metric ton") 1.103 short tons (2000 lb) T
TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)
°C Celsius 1.8C+32 Fahrenheit °F
ILLUMINATION
lx lux 0.0929 foot-candles fc
cd/m2 candela/m2 0.2919 foot-Lamberts fl
FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS
N newtons 0.225 poundforce lbf
kPa kilopascals 0.145 poundforce per square inch lbf/in2
*SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380.
(Revised March 2003)

List Of Abbreviations And Symbols

SPL = sound production level
dB = decibel = unit of sound production level (logarithmic scale)
dB(A) = decibel on A-weighted scale (levels weighted according to sound frequency)

Leq = equivalent continuous sound level
SEL = sound equivalent level integrated per 1 second

Hz = hertz = cycles per second (measure of sound frequency)
kHz = kilohertz (thousand hertz)

ROW = rights-of-way

Updated: 07/14/2011
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