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Noise Effect on Wildlife

Appendix A

Table - Summary of some bird species found to be affected by the proximity of roads or road noise.
Negative effect = reduced density nearer roads; Positive effect = increased density near roads unless otherwise indicated

Source Location Species Effect

Gutzwiller and Barrow, 2003

Breeding season (February – May)
Chihuahuan desert

407-459 vehicles/day
(average)

Turkrey vulture (Cathartes aura)
Scaled quail (Callipela squamata)
Say’s phoebe (Sayornis saya)
Ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens)
Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneica)
Bewick’s wren (Thyromanes bewickii)
*Black-throated sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata)
House finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)

Lesser nighthawk (Chordeiles actuipennis)
Bell’s vireo (Vireo bellii)

All species showed effect for one year of three year study
*Negative effect for two years of study, positive effect in one year

Negative

 

 

 

Positive

Adams and Geis, 1981

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adams and Geis, 1981 (cont.)

Breeding Season
Southeast

 

Midwest

 

Northwest

 

 

California

Non-breeding (wintering)
Southeast

Midwest

Northwest

Wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)
Indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea)
Field sparrow (Spizella pusilla)
Blue jay * (Cyanocitta cristata)

Horned lark (Eremophila alpestris)

House sparrow (Passer domesticus)

Chestnut-backed chickadee* (Parus rufescens)
Nashville warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla)
Hermit Warbler* (Dendroica occidentalis)
Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)

Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

Lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus)

Brewer’s blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)
Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)
White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata)

Horned lark (Eremophila alpestris)
House sparrow (Passer domesticus)

Chestnut-backed chickadee* (Parus refescens)
Golden-crowned kinglet* (Regulus satrapa)

* = species affected by both county roads and interstates; other species only affected by interstates

Negative

 

Negative

Positive

 

Negative

 

Positive

Negative

Positive

 

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

Forman et al., 2002

Grassland
Breeding season
15-30,000 vehicles/day

≥ 30,000 vehicles/day

Bobolink (Delichonyx oryzivorous)
Eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna)
(possibly- upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), Henslow’s sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), grasshopper sparrow (A. savannarum))

Negative to 700 m

Negative to
1200 m
(effect applies to all species)

Reijnen et al., 1996

Grassland
Breeding season

5,000 vehicles/day

50,000 vehicles/day

 

 
Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)

Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus)

Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus)
Shoveler (Anas clypeatal)
Skylark (Alauda arvensis)
Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)
Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus)

 

Negative to 100 m
Negative to 1500 m

Negative to 1500 m

Reijnen and Foppen, 1994

Woodland
Breeding season

50,000 vehicles/day

Willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus)

Negative to 200 m

Reijnen et al., 1995

Woodland
Breeding season

10,000 vehicles/day

60,000 vehicles/day

Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)
Common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus)
Lesser spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopus minor)
Marsh warbler (Acrocephalus plaustris)
Icterine Warbler (Hippolais icterina)
Greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus)
Gold crest kinglet (Regulus regulus)
Golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus)
Hawfinch (Coccothraustes coccothraustes)

Negative
40-1500 m

Negative
70-2800 m

(effects given as a range for all species at given traffic level)

van der Zande et al., 1980

Grassland
Breeding season
Rural road

Highway

Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus)
Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)
Redshank (Tringa tetanus)

Negative to 500-600 m
Negative to
1600-1800 m

(effects are combined for all species)

Ferris, 1979

Woodland
Breeding season

Interstate highway

Interstate
highway

 

Bay-breasted warbler (Dendroica castanea)
Blue jay (Cyanoeitta cristata)
Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca)
Winter wren (Troglodytes troglodytes)

Chestnut sided warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica)
White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)
Wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)
Common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)
Robin (Turdus migratorius)
Tennessee warbler (Vermivora peregrina)

 

Negative to 300-400 m

 

Positive

Clark and Karr, 1979

Row crop fields
Winter and Breeding
Interstate and county roads

Horned lark (Eremophila alpestris)

Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

Negative to 500 m

Positive to
500 m

Updated: 07/14/2011
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