The large number of people and organizations involved in the research for and writing of this report is an indication of how strongly trail managers and users feel about improving cooperation and sharing on multiple-use trails. Their concern and commitment have earned them the thanks of the trails community. Several contributors deserve special recognition, however. The members of the National Recreational Trails Advisory Committee recognized the need for this baseline information and made this project a high priority. They shared their vast trail contacts and advice and reviewed drafts. Advisory Committee Chair Stuart Macdonalcl, in particular, provided invaluable guidance and contacts and got the effort off to a solid start. Several individuals deserve special thanks for their efforts in actually gathering the information and producing the report you are holding. Melanie Orwig, graduate student in the Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management at North Carolina State University, made a large number of the contacts with trail managers, gathered and recorded references, and compiled all of the appendix material. Steve Fiala, Trails Specialist with the East Bay Regional Park District, made key contacts in California and contributed valuable material. Many others, too numerous to mention, provided guidance and reviewed drafts. Finally, graduate students Timothy Hopkin and Laurie Sullivan researched and gathered much of the original reference material.
|1. Report No.
|2. Government Accession No.||3. Recipient's Catalog No.|
|4. Title and Subtitle
Conflicts on Multiple-Use Trails:
Synthesis of the Literature and
State of the Practice
|5. Report Date
|6. Performing Organization Code|
|7. Author (s)
Roger L. Moore
|8. Performing Organization Report No.|
|9. Performing Organization Name and Address
North Carolina State University
Dept. of Parks, Recreation, & Tourism Mgmt
Raleigh, NC 27695-8004
|10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)|
|11. Contract or Grant No.
|12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Federal Highway Administration
Intermodal Division (HEP-50)
400 Seventh St SW
Washington, DC 20590
|13. Type of Report and Period Covered|
|14. Sponsoring Agency Code|
|15. Supplementary Notes|
The National Recreational Trails Advisory Committee identified trail-user conflicts on multiple-use trails as a major concern that needs resolution. The Committee asked the Federal Highway Administration to produce a synthesis of the existing research to foster understanding of trail conflict, identify approaches for promoting trail-sharing, and identify gaps in current knowledge. This synthesis is intended to establish a baseline of the current state of knowledge and practice and to serve as a guide for trail managers and researchers. The goal of the report is to promote user safety, protect natural resources, and provide high-quality user experiences. It reviews management options such as trail design, information and education, user involvement, and regulations and enforcement.
Trail conflicts can occur among different user groups, among different users within the same user group, and as a result of factors not related to trail user activities at all. Conflict has been found to be related to activity style, focus of trip, expectations, attitudes toward and perceptions of the environment, level of tolerance for others, and different norms held by different users.
The report provides 12 principles for minimizing conflicts on multiple-use trails. Although this report is about conflicts on trails, it is intended to promote cooperation and understanding among trail users and to inspire ideas that will help reduce trail conflict. It is intended to be used by trail managers, State and local trail coordinators, researchers, and trail-user volunteer organizations.
|18. Distribution Statement
|19. Security Classif. (of this report)
|20. Security Classif. (of this page)
|21. No. of Pages 70||22. Price|