Skip to content U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway AdministrationU.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration

Office of Planning, Environment, & Realty (HEP)
PlanningEnvironmentReal Estate

HEP Events Guidance Publications Awards Contacts

Conflicts on Multiple-Use Trails

Bibliography

Adelman, B. J., T. A. Heberlein & T. M. Bonnicksen (1982). Social psychological explanations for the persistence of a conflict between paddling canoeists and motorcraft users in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Leisure Sciences, 5(1): 45-61.

Albrecht, J. (1992). Trail Planning, Construction, and Maintenance: A Bibliography Supplement. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Miscellaneous Publication 76-1992, pps. 30.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (1991). Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. Washington, D.C.: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 44 pps.

American Hiking Society (1990). Directory of Technical Assistance Materials for Trails Development and Maintenance. Washington, D.C.: American Hiking Society, 43 pps.

Baker, N. (1990). Mountain bike management: A tale of three cities. Western Wildlands, 16(3): 36-39.

Bicycle Federation of America (1990). Mountain Bike Action Kit. Washington, DC: The Bicycle Institute of America.

Birchard, W. & R. D. Proudman (1981). Trail Design, Construction, and Maintenance. Harpers Ferry, WV: Appalachian Trail Conference, 166 pps.

Brehm, J. (1966). A Theory of Psychological Reactance. New York: Academic Press.

Bury, R. L, S. M. Holland & D. N. McEwen (1983). Analyzing recreational conflict: Understanding why conflict occurs is requisite to managing that conflict. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Sep.-Oct.: 401-403.

Chavez, D., P. Winter & J. Baas (1993). Recreational mountain biking: A management perspective. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 11(3): 29-36.

Clark, R. N. & G. H. Stankey (1979). The recreation opportunity spectrum: A framework for planning, management and research (General Technical Report PNW-98). Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Cole, D. N. (1986). Resource impacts caused by recreation. In A Literature Review, The President's Commission on Americans Outdoors (pp. Management 1-11). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Devall, B. & J. Harry (1981). Who hates whom in the great outdoors: The impact of recreational specialization and technologies of play. Leisure Sciences, 4(4): 399-418.

Dingman, R. (1992). Sharing back country trails. In Proceedings 11th National Trails Symposium (pp. 168-169). American Trails, 1420 East Sixth Avenue, Helena, MT 59620.

Driver, B. L. & J. R. Bassett (1975). Defining conflicts among river users: A case study of Michigan's Au Sable River. Naturalist, 26(2): 19-23

Driver, B. L. & P. J. Brown (1978). The opportunity spectrum concept and behavioral information in outdoor recreation supply inventories: A rationale. In Proceedings of the Integrated and Renewable Resource Inventories Workshop (Gen. Tech. Report RM-55) (pp. 24-31). Ft. Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment Station.

Driver, B. L. & R. C. Knopf (1977). Personality, outdoor recreation and expected consequences. Environment and Behavior 9: 169-193.

Driver, B. L. & S. R. Tocher (1970). Toward a behavioral interpretation of recreation, with implications for planning. In B. L. Driver (Ed.), Elements of Outdoor Recreation, (pp. 9-31). Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.

Filkins, M. E. (1992). Sharing back country trails. In Proceedings 11th National Trails Symposium, (pp. 175-178). American Trails, 1420 East Sixth Avenue, Helena, MT 59620.

Filkins, M. E. (personal communication, May 6, 1994).

Flink, C. A. & R. M. Searns (1993). Greenways: A Guide to Planning, Design, and Development. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 351 pps.

Gobster, P. H. (1990). The Illinois Statewide Trail User Study: Final Report. Springfield, IL: Illinois Chapter, Rails-To-Trails Conservancy, 6l pps.

Goldbloom, A. (1992). The 1991 Texas Trails Study. Austin, TX: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 17 pps.

Graefe, A. R., R. B. Ditton, J. W. Roggenbuck & R. Schreyer (1981). Notes on the stability of the factor structure of leisure meanings. Leisure Sciences 4(1): 51-66.

Graefe, A. R., F. R. Kuss & J. J. Vaske (1990). Visitor Impact Management: The Planning Framework. Washington, D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Association, 106 pps.

Gramann, J. H. & R. J. Burge (1981). The effect of recreation goals on conflict perception: The case of water skiers and fishermen. Journal of Leisure Research, 13(1): 15-27.

Gramann, J. H. & G. A. Vander Stoep (1987). Prosocial behavior theory and natural resource protection: A conceptual synthesis. Journal of Environmental Management, 24: 247-257.

Hammitt, W. E. (1988). The spectrum of conflict in outdoor recreation. In A. H. Watson (Compiler) Outdoor Recreation Benchmark: 1988 Proceedings of the National Outdoor Recreation Forum (Gen. Tech. Report SE-52). (pp. 439-450). Tampa, FL: USDA Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experimental Station.

Hendee, J. C. (1974). A multiple-satisfaction approach to game management. Wildlife Society Bulletin 2(3): 104-113

Hendee, J. C., G. H. Stankey & R. C. Lucas (1990). Wilderness Management. Golden, CO: North American Press, pps. 546.

Henley, S. (1992). Sharing back country trails. In Proceedings llth National Trails Symposium (pp. 170-174). American Trails, 1420 East Sixth Avenue, Helena, MT 59620.

Hollenhorst, S., M. Schuett & D. Olson (1993). An Examination of the Characteristics, Preferences, and Attitudes of Mountain Bike Users of the National Forests: A Preliminary Analysis. Riverside, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station.

International Mountain Bicycling Association (1993, November). REI awards grant to IMBA for mediated sessions with Sierra Club. IMBA Trail News, 6(5): 1, 11.

Isbill, J. (1993). Report on the Multi-Use Discussion with the Bay Area Ridge Trail Council County Committees. San Francisco, CA: The Bay Area Ridge Trail Council.

Ivy, M. I., W. P. Stewart & C. Lue (1992). Exploring the role of tolerance in recreational conflict. Journal of Leisure Research, 24(4): 348-360.

Jackson, G. R. & R. A. G. Wong (1982). Perceived conflict between urban cross-country skiers and snowmobilers in Alberta. Journal of Leisure Research, 14(1): 47-62.

Jacob, G. R. (1977). Conflict in outdoor recreation: The search for understanding. Utah Tourism and Recreation Review, 6(4): 1-5.

Jabob, G. R. & R. Schreyer (1980). Conflict in outdoor recreation: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Leisure Research, 12: 368-380.

Jefferson County Open Space Department (1994, March). Jefferson County parks set proactive policy on mountain bicycles. Colorado State Trails News, p. 10.

Keller, K. (1990). Mountain Bikes on Public Lands: A Manager's Guide to the State of Practice. Washington, D.C.: Bicycle Federation of America, 68 pps.

"Kepner-Trego Analysis" Mountain Bicycle Situation on Santa Barbara Front Trails (1987). Unpublished report. USDA Forest Service, Santa Barbara Ranger District: Los Padres National Forest, CA.

Knopp, T. B. & J. B. Tyger (1973). A study of conflict in recreational land use: Snowmobiling versus ski-touring. Journal of Leisure Research, 5(3): 6-17.

Krumpe, E. E. & R. C. Lucas (1986). Research on recreation trails and trail users. In A Literature Review, The President's Commission on Americans Outdoors (pp. Management 151-163). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Kulla, A. (1991). A New Perspectives Approach in National Forest Recreation and its Application to Mountain Bike Management. Unpublished paper prepared for Utah State University's Professional Development for Outdoor Recreation Managers/Planners Shortcourse, 56 pps.

Kuss, F. R., A. R. Graefe & J. J. Vaske (1990). Visitor Impact Management: A Review of Research. Washington, D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Association, 256 pps.

Lawler, E. E. (1973). Motivation in Work Organizations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Lloyd, K. (1992). Sharing back country trails. In Proceedings 11th National Trails Symposium (pp. 179-183). American Trails, 1420 East Sixth Avenue, Helena, MT 59620.

Lucas, R. C. (1964). The Recreational Capacity of the Quentico-Superior Area (Research Paper, LS-15). St. Paul, MI: USDA Forest Service, Lake States Forest Service Experiment Station.

Lucas, R. C. (1981). Redistributing wilderness use through information supplied to visitors (Research Paper, INT-277). Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 15 pps.

Macdonald, S. (1992). Forging alliances among trails users. In Proceedings llth National Trails Symposium (pp. 18-21). American Trails, 1420 East Sixth Avenue, Helena, MT 59620.

Manfredo, M. J. (Ed.)(1992). Influencing Human Behavior. Champaign, Illinois: Sagamore Publishing, Inc., 371 pps.

Marion, J. L, J. W. Roggenbuck & R. E. Manning (1993). Problems and Practices in Backcountry Recreation Management: A Survey of National Park Service Managers. Denver, CO: USDA National Park Service, Natural Resources Publication Office. 65 pps.

Martin, B. H. & D. T. Taylor (1981). Informing Backcountry Visitors: A Catalog of Techniques. Boston, MA: Research Department, Appalachian Mountain Club, 104 pps.

Matheny, S. J. (1979). A successful campaign to reduce trail switchback shortcutting. In Ittner, R. (Ed.) Recreational Impacts on Wildlands: Conference Proceedings (R-6-001-1979) (pp. 217-221). Seattle, WA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region.

McAvoy, L., J. H. Gramann, R. J. Burdge & J. D. Absher (1986). Understanding the cause of conflict between commercial and recreational users of the Mississippi River. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 4(3): 49-60.

McCay, R. E. & G. H. Moeller (1976). Compatibility of Ohio Trail Users (Research Note NE-225). Upper Darby, PA: USDA Forest Service.

McCoy, M. & M. Stoner (1992). Mountain Bike Trails: Techniques for Design, Construction and Maintenance. Missoula, MT: Bikecentennial, 19 pps.

Merriman, K. (1988). Multi-use trails: A question of courtesy? Outdoor Ethics, 1 (3): 1, 6-7.

Moore, R. L. & Graefe, A. R. (1994). Attachments to recreation settings: The case of rail-trail users. Leisure Sciences (16)1: 17-31.

Moore, R. L, A. R. Graefe, R. J. Gitelson & E. Porter (1992). The Impacts of Rail-Trails: A Study of the Users and Property Owners From Three Trails. Washington, D.C.: Rivers & Trails Conservation Program, National Park Service.

National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council (Date Unknown). Off-Highway Vehicle Resource Bibliography/Abstract. P.O. Box 2225, Torrance, CA: National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, 98 pps.

New Webster's Dictionary and Thesaurus (1992). Danbury, Connecticut: Lexicon Publications, Inc.

Nielson, J., B. Shelby & J. E. Haas (1977). Sociological carrying capacity: The last settler syndrome. Pacific Sociological Review, 20(Oct.): 568-581.

Noe, F. P., R. B. Hull & J. D. Wellman (1982). Normative response and norm activation among ORV users within a seashore environment. Leisure Sciences, 5(2): 127-142.

Noe, F. P., J. D. Wellman & G. Buhyoff (1982). Perceptions of conflict between off-road vehicle and non off-road vehicle users in a leisure setting. Journal of Environmental Systems, 11(3); 223-233.

Owens, P. L. (1985). Conflict as a social interaction process in environment and behavior research: The example of leisure and recreation research. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 5: 243-259.

Peterson, G. L. (1974). Evaluating the quality of the wilderness environment: Congruence between perception and aspiration. Environment and Behavior, 6(2): 169-193.

Petty, R. E., S. McMichael & L. Brannon (1992). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion: Applications in recreation and tourism. In M. J. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing Human Behavior (pp. 77-101). Champaign, Illinois: Sagamore Publishing, Inc., 371 pps.

Proshansky, H. Wm, W. Ittelson & L. Rivlin (1970). Freedom of choice and behavior in a physical setting. In H. Proshansky, W. Ittelson & L. Rivlin (Eds.), Environmental Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Prouciman, R. D. & R. Rajala (1981). Trail Building and Maintenance. Boston, MA: Appalachian Mountain Club, 286 pps.

Rapoport, A. (1975). Toward a redefinition of density. Environment and Behavior, 7(2): 133-157.

Reese, G. A. (1992). Sharing back country trails. In Proceedings 11th National Trails Symposium (pp. 184-188). American Trails, 1420 East Sixth Avenue, Helena, MT 59620.

Roggenbuck, J. W. (1992) Use of persuasion to reduce resource impacts and visitor conflicts. In M. J. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing Human Behavior (pp. 149-208). Champaign, Illinois: Sagamore Publishing, Inc., 371 pps.

Roggenbuck, J. W. & S. H. Ham (1986). Use of information and education in recreation management. In: A Literature Review, The President's Commission on Americans Outdoors (pp. Management 59-71). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Ryan, K. L. (Ed.) (1993). Trails for the Twenty-First Century. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 213 pps.

Saremba, J. & A. Gill (1991). Value conflicts in mountain park settings. Annals of Tourism Research, 18: 455-472.

Schreyer, R. (1979). Succession and displacement in river recreation: Problem definition and analysis. St. Paul, MI: USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station.

Schreyer, R., D. W. Lime & D. R. Williams (1984). Characterizing the influence of past experience on recreation behavior. Journal of Leisure Research, 16: 34-51.

Schreyer, R. & M. L. Neilson (1978). Westwater and Desolations Canyons: Whitewater Recreation. Utah State University. Institute for the Study of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. Logan.

Schreyer, R. & J. W. Roggenbuck (1978). The influences of experience expectations on crowding perceptions and social-psychological carrying capacities. Leisure Sciences 1(4): 373-394.

Seier, D. (1990). Urban trails. GRIST, 34(3):1, 26-28.

Seney, J. (1990). Erosional Impacts of Hikers, Horses, Motorcycles and Mountain Bikes on Mountain Trails. Unpublished master's thesis, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Boseman, MT.

Shelby, B. & T. A. Heberlein (1986). Carrying Capacity in Recreation Settings. Corvallis, Oregan: Oregon State Press.

Sprung, G. (1990, December). Rocky Mountain update: LIMB. Mountain Bike, p. 29.

Stankey, G. H. (1973). Visitor Perception of Wilderness Recreation Carrying Capacity (Research Paper INT-142), Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Stankey, G. H., D. N. Cole, R. C. Lucas, M. E. Peterson & S. S. Frissell (1985). The Limits for Acceptable Change (LAC) System for Wilderness Planning (Gen. Tech. Report INT-176). USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Stokols, D. (1972). On the distinction between density and crowding: Some implications for future research. Psychological Review, 79: 275-277.

Tinsley H. E. A. & R. A. Kass (1978). Leisure activities and need satisfaction: A replication and extension. Journal of Leisure Research 10(3): 191-202.

Todd, S. L. & A. R. Graefe (1989). Level of experience and perception of conflict among canoeists on the Delaware River. In T. More, M. Donelly, A. Graefe & J. Vaske (Eds.) Proceedings of the 1989 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (Gen. Tech. Report NE-132), (pp. 147-156). Broomall, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

USDA Forest Service (1984). Standard Specification for Construction of Trails (EM-7720-102). Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture.

USDA Forest Service (1991). Trails Management Handbook (FSH 2309.18). Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture.

USDA Forest Service (1992). Leave No Trace! (FS-521). Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Vaske, J. J., A. J. Fedler & A. R. Graefe (1986). Multiple determinants of satisfaction from a specific waterfowl hunting trip. Leisure Sciences, 8(2): 149-166.

Viehman, J. (1990). Let's build trails, not walls. Backpacker, August: 3.

Vincent, M. A. & R. H. Fazio (1992). Attitude accessibility and its consequences for judgment and behavior. In M. J. Manfredo (Ed.) Influencing Human Behavior, (pp. 51-75). Champaign, Illinois: Sagamore Publishing, Inc., 371 pps.

Watson, A. E., M. J. Niccolucci & D. R. Williams (in press). The nature of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in the John Muir Wilderness. Journal of Leisure Research.

Watson, A. E., D. R. Williams & J. J. Daigle (1991). Sources of conflict between hikers and mountain bike riders in the Rattlesnake NRA. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 9(3): 58-71.

White, R. G. & R. Schreyer (1981). Nontraditional uses of the National Parks. Leisure Sciences, 4(3): 325-341.

Williams, D. R. (1988). Great expectations and the limits of satisfaction: A review of recreation and consumer satisfaction. In A. H. Watson (Compiler) Outdoor Recreation Benchmark: 1988 Proceedings of the National Outdoor Recreation Forum (Gen. Tech. Report SE-52). (pp. 422-438). Tampa, FL: USDA Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experimental Station.

Williams, D. R. (1993). Conflict in the great outdoors. Parks and Recreation, September: 28-35,122.

Williams, D. R. & J. W. Roggenbuck (1989). Measuring place attachment: Some preliminary results. Paper presented at the Symposium on Leisure Research, National Recreation and Parks Association Congress, San Antonio, TX, October 22-21, 1989.

Updated: 02/11/2014
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000