Chapter 10--Securing Horses and Mules
After riders unload their stock at a recreation site, keeping them there can be a challenge. Stock may escape when a handler accidentally leaves a corral gate open, when a mule opens a gate or unties itself, or when a rider falls off and the horse runs away. A combination of continuous perimeter fences, road barriers, and trail barriers is vital. Inside the recreation site additional confinement methods are used. Corrals and highlines secure stock at camp units, especially overnight. Hitch rails serve short-term needs. Arenas and round pens provide space for exercising and training horses and mules.
When a horse or mule gets loose, it may remain calm or it may run wildly about. Other stock nearby may get nervous if they see or hear a loose animal running because they assume it is running from a predator. Powerful instincts kick in, and the stock nearby may try to join the freed animal and flee the perceived threat. An unbroken barrier around the recreation site makes it easier to catch escaped stock and prevents them from running headlong onto a busy road. Perimeter fences also keep large wildlife or domestic animals, such as cattle, out of the site. These uninvited animals are nuisances and can hurt recreationists. Combine perimeter fences with a barrier at the site entrance.
If the terrain is varied, locate perimeter fences on the highest point of the landscape. Horses and mules watch the horizon and are more likely to see the fences there. They may not notice fences in drainages or hollows.
The materials used to build perimeter fences and horse enclosures, such as corrals, arenas, and round pens, are often the same. Slight variations exist in construction details. For maximum security, perimeter fences should not be one side of a corral, arena, or round pen. When choosing materials for perimeter fences and horse enclosures, the primary consideration is safety. Materials must be durable, suitable for the application, and appropriate for the level of development. The goal is to choose horse-friendly, nontoxic materials that discourage chewing and scratching.
The cornerposts of perimeter fences need to be larger diameter than the lineposts, because cornerposts receive more stress. The recommended distance between perimeter fenceposts is 8 to 12 feet (2.4 to 3.6 meters). Set all posts in concrete and bury them an appropriate depth for local soil conditions. The higher the fence, the deeper the posts must be buried. Set cornerposts and gateposts deeper than lineposts. Regardless of the fence style selected, the bottom rail or strand should be no less than 1 foot (0.3 meter) from the ground, high enough to allow mowing or raking, yet low enough to prevent small stock from rolling under the fence. Corrals, arenas, and round pens should be 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 1.8 meters) high. The recommended height for perimeter fences is between 4.5 and 5 feet (54 and 60 inches or 1,372 and 1,524 millimeters).
Avoid making square or rectangular enclosures that hold more than one animal, because they can be unsafe. Horses and mules that are being pursued are less likely to be trapped by more aggressive stock when enclosures are oval or have angled sections instead of 90-degree corners.
Post-and-rail construction is suitable for perimeter fences and horse enclosures. One style places the rails in line with the posts, and the other mounts the rails on the sides of posts. Of the two styles, inline construction generally is stronger, cleaner, and looks more professional (figure 10-1). Placing steel rails in line requires more welding and is more costly. Saddle-welded joints are preferred because they are stronger than surface- or butt-welded joints. Mounting steel rails on the sides of posts usually is more economical because it requires less labor. However, the fence appears bulky and may have weak joints at the cornerposts (figure 10-2). Rails on the inside don't pop off as easily if an animal runs into or pushes against them.
Some post-and-rail fences made of wood and vinyl have inline rails. The rails measure up to 16 feet (4.9 meters) long and are set in holes drilled through the posts (figure 10-3). Many traditional wood fences have rails attached securely to the sides of the posts on the inside of the horse enclosure.
Post-and-rail perimeter fences and horse enclosures may have three to five rails. Riders debate the required number of rails needed in corral fences. Some feel that the more rails in a corral fence, the better it is. They recommend using four or five rails, saying that the fence appears more solid to a horse or mule, reducing any temptation to run through it. Other riders say the more rails, the easier it is for an animal to trap a leg or hoof. These riders prefer three rails. When deciding how many rails are needed, seek input from riders who will use the enclosures. Regardless of the number of rails, fences must be free from sharp corners or protruding hardware. This is critical--horses, mules, and people get hurt when they rub against sharp objects.
Fences made of steel posts and steel rails are suitable for most perimeter fences and horse enclosures. While steel post-and-rail fences cost more initially than fences made from other materials, steel fences are the most durable and will please riders. The horizontal rails usually are made from schedule 40 pipe that is at least 1 7⁄8 inches (about 47.6 millimeters) in diameter. Posts usually are schedule 40 pipe that is 2 3⁄8 inches (about 60.3 millimeters) in diameter.
Galvanized finishes reduce maintenance, but they may be too shiny for some settings. Black pipe is sometimes used because it rusts, allowing it to blend with less developed settings. However, rusted pipe tends to leave red particles behind when stock rub against it, something riders don't appreciate. If steel fences are painted, use an earth-toned enamel product that blends with the environment. Some stock chew on anything, including steel rails. If the steel rail is painted, chewing can make it unsightly.
Caps on posts keep rainwater from settling at the bottom and rusting through or weakening the posts. Caps on exposed pipe ends keep out bees and wasps.
Wood post-and-rail fences blend well with the natural environment. However, most stock chew on wood fences (figure 10-4). Not only do chewed rails have to be replaced or maintained frequently, ingested wood slivers may be hazardous to stock. Wood rails can be treated with a solution that discourages chewing, but the solution is costly. Stock can easily damage wood fences or panels when they kick, especially if the rails are weak (figure 10-5). Wood post-and-rail fences need to be checked frequently for damage and decay.
Figure 10-5--Riders repair corrals with whatever materials are
available--in this case, baling twine and wire. Schedule regular
inspections and maintenance so riders don't have to make repairs
The American Youth Horse Council (1993) lists decay-resistant woods that are suitable for horse enclosures. Osage orange, western red cedar, western juniper, and black locust make good post materials without pressure treatments. Painting or staining wood fences may help them last longer. Waterborne treatments usually are safer for stock than oil-based treatments. Surface treatments require regular reapplication and are not as effective as pressure treatments. Although pressure-treated posts and rails last longer than untreated posts, avoid posts and rails treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), pentachlorophenol (penta), and creosote, because these substances may be harmful or toxic to stock.
Wood is most appropriate for perimeter fences, arenas, and round pens where horses and mules don't spend a lot of time. Stock spend more time in corrals and have more opportunity to chew or damage wood. Wood is still the most popular material for corrals in some areas of the country. Figure 10-6 shows a sturdy wood corral with round rails.
Molded vinyl materials (figure 10-7) are suitable for perimeter fences, arenas, and round pens because they are durable. Some synthetic fence materials that have a steel wire bonded inside are light, but are still strong enough for gates. When correctly installed, vinyl fences generally need little maintenance. Most synthetic materials have ultraviolet stabilizers and antifungicidal agents that aren't toxic to stock and stock don't find vinyl appealing to chew on. Vinyl has no sharp edges, so most stock don't get satisfaction from rubbing against it. Synthetic fence materials are available in many colors, including colors that harmonize with the surrounding environment--dark green, brown, and black. Vinyl and similar synthetic materials don't blend well in areas with a low level of development--they are more suited to highly developed areas. A disadvantage of vinyl fence panels is their high initial cost.
Equestrians commonly use premanufactured metal panels to construct horse enclosures at home. The lightweight, inexpensive panels are a popular substitute for steel pipe in corrals, arenas, and round pens. It is easy to construct temporary enclosures like the one shown in figure 10-8. An advantage of these panels is their somewhat forgiving nature. Horses and mules are less likely to be injured if they kick or collide with a panel than with a permanent fence.
The safest tubular fence panels are connected with hinged rods, but these panels are difficult to install on uneven terrain. Panels with loose pin connectors are easier to install on uneven surfaces, but stock may be able to catch a leg or tail in the gap between panels (see figure 10-62). Panels with rounded corners may appear safer for stock but they are actually more dangerous. If an animal rears higher than the rail, the rounded corner can funnel the animal's hoof or head into the gap between panels. A square corner with edges that have been ground smooth is better. Other fasteners include bolt clamps and rubber connectors to secure the panels solidly. Stock can rub on the protruding fasteners, which may give way, releasing the panel and freeing the horses.
If the recreation site budget does not cover steel pipe, vinyl, or wood for enclosures, consider using tubular fence panels--but use them with caution. Occasionally an agitated animal will knock the panels down and escape. Sometimes riders tie stock to panels when preparing for a ride. The unsecured panel may move if something spooks the tied animal and it pulls back. Frightened by the panel's unexpected movement, the animal may run off, dragging the panel behind it. There are several solutions:
- Install permanent posts in corrals, arenas, and round pens.
- Place hitch rails near horse areas, arenas, or round pens.
A horse or mule is more likely to challenge materials it can lean over or push through. Because wire fence materials stretch, they are not suitable for corrals, arenas, round pens, or gates. Horses also can get their feet or heads caught in the wires. If they are constructed properly, wire fences may be used to secure a site perimeter. Smooth wire fences with four strands are generally adequate to discourage fleeing stock. Fences with five or six strands are even more secure.
A leaning or running animal can loosen wire fences--install materials on the inside of the posts for maximum strength. Avoid using T-posts for wire and wire-mesh fences, because stock may impale themselves on the posts. Pressure-treated wood is a sturdier--and safer--solution.
High-tensile, smooth wire of at least 12.5 gauge can be used instead of barbed wire. High-tensile wire coated with vinyl or plastic is safer--although it costs more than uncoated high-tensile wire. Coated, smooth wire costs less than post-and-rail construction and does not rust, stretch, or fade. When installed properly, coated wire provides an effective perimeter fence. Coated smooth wire is strong, somewhat flexible, and easier for stock to see than uncoated smooth wire. If stock do run into coated wire, they have less chance of injury than with barbed wire. When using smooth wire for a perimeter fence, consider adding a steel, wood, or vinyl top rail so that stock can see it easily. Using smooth wire instead of barbed wire doesn't eliminate the possibility that stock might get tangled in the strands.
Wire mesh is made of woven wire or welded wire and is commonly used for horse fences. The bottom portion of the pasture fence in figure 10-9 is constructed of wire mesh. Woven wire is a better choice than welded wire, because aging welds can burst, resulting in sharp projecting ends. Although wire mesh is the least expensive fence material, it is not safe for use on horse corrals. When some horses and mules are kept in wire mesh enclosures, they try to climb or step on the wire grids. They can easily catch a hoof or horseshoe in the wire. Wire mesh is suitable for perimeter fences, arenas, and round pens because horses are not loose there for long.
Wire mesh stretches when a horse hits it, distributing the impact over a wide area and reducing injuries and damage. The mesh should be attached to a post-and-rail fence made of wood or steel (figure 10-10). As with all enclosures, secure the boards and wire to the inside of posts. For horse fences, V-mesh woven wire, a more costly variation, generally is safer than rectangular woven wire. Table 10-1 lists suggested materials for horse fences and gates. Table 10-2 compares characteristics of materials suitable for fences in equestrian recreation sites.