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Rails-with-Trails: Lessons Learned

APPENDIX B: State-by-State Matrix of Applicable Laws and Statutes

Provided by Andrea Ferster, Esq., as of 2002

This matrix is intended to present the state of the law as of the year 2002. Every effort has been made to assure accuracy in the information contained in this matrix as provided by Andrea Ferster, Esq. However, due to the broad scope of this project and the fluid nature of state statutory law, the Department of Transportation cannot guarantee complete accuracy of the material presented. For more detailed and up-to-date information, the reader is encouraged to review the relevant state statutes directly.

State-by-State matrix of applicable laws and statutes

State Recreational Use Statute (RUS) Trail, Rails-to-Trails Program, Recreational Trails System, or Similar Statute Government Tort Liability Act Railroad Fencing Laws

Alabama Ala. Code § 35-15-1 (1975)   Ala. Code § 41-9-62 et seq. (2000) Ala. Code § 11-93-1 et seq. (2000) Ala. Code § 37-2-89 (2000.)
- RR liable if Pub. Serv. Commission has deemed fence necessary and livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way; does not apply to injury to dogs

Alaska Alaska Stat. § 09.65.200 (Michie 2000)
- limited to undeveloped lands
Alaska Stat. § 42.40.420 (Michie 2000.)
- allows a municipality or the State to petition to use railroad land, including along active railroads for public use, including trails. Must be established that the use will not create a safety hazard, and the municipality or State must enter into an agreement to indemnify the railroad.
Alaska Stat. §§ 09.50.250, -.300 (Michie 2000.)  

Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 33-1551 (West 2000.)   Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 12-820 et seq. (2000.)  

Arkansas Ark. Code Ann. §§ 18-11-301 to -307 (Michie 2000.) Ark. Code Ann. § 22-4-401 et seq.(Michie 2000.)
- Trails System Statute
- no liability provision
Ark. Code Ann. § 21-9-201 et seq. (Michie 2000.)  

California Cal. Civ. Code § 846 (West 2000.) Cal. Pub. Res. Code § 5070 et seq. (Deering 2000.)
- Recreational Trails Act
- limits liability for adjacent property owners
Cal. Gov't Code § 810-996.6 et seq.(West 2000.)

Cal. Pub. Util. Code § 7626 et seq. (West 2000.)
- RR liable for injury to livestock, domestic animals injured due to unfenced right-of-way


Colorado Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 33-41-101 to -106 (West 2000.) Colo. Rev. Stat. § 33-11-101 et seq. (2000.)
- Recreational Trails System Act of 1971
- no liability provision
Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 24-10-101 et seq. (West 2000.) Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40-27-102 (West 2000.)
-RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. §§ 52-557(f)-(k) (West 2000.)   Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 4-140 et seq. (West 2000.)
- administrative claims or procedure
Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 13b-299 (West 2000.)
- Commissioner of Transportation directs where and when RR Co.'s should erect and maintain fences

Delaware Del. Code Ann. tit. 7, §§ 5901-5907 (2000.)   Del. Code Ann. tit. 10, § 4001 et seq. (2000.)
- State and local
Del. Code Ann. tit. 2, § 1811 (2000.)
- RR liable for injury to livestock if injured on unfenced right-of-way

District of Columbia     D.C. Code Ann. § 1-1201 et seq. (2000.)  

Florida Fla. Stat. ch. 375.251 (2000.) Fla. Stat. ch. 260.011 et seq. (2000.)
- Recreational Trails System Statute
- § 260.012(4) of the Recreational Trails System Chapter makes the Recreational Use Statute (RUS)
- § 375.251 is applicable to the Recreational Trails System Chapter
Fla. Stat. Ann. § 768.28 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Tort Claims Act
 

Georgia Ga. Code Ann. §§ 51-3-20 to -26 (2000.) Ga. Code Ann. § 12-3-110 et seq. (2000.)
- Scenic Trails Act
- § 12-3-116 limits liability for property owners whose land is traversed by trails system
Ga. Code Ann. § 36-33-1 et seq. (2000.)  

Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 520-1 to -8 (2000.) Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 198D-7 to -7.5 (Michie 2000.)
- Statewide Trail and Access System
- § 198D-7 requires review by the State of the legal issues relating to trails, including exposures to liability for the State, counties, and private landowners, and strategies to reduce or limit that liability exposure
- § 198D-7.5 permits the State to enter into agreements to defend and indemnify owners of public or private land to further the purposes of the chapter (e.g., developing a trails system)
Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 662-2 et seq. (Michie 2000.)  

Idaho Idaho Code §§ 36-1601 to -1604 (2000.) Idaho Code § 67-4236 (2000.)
- indemnification of owners of land adjacent to trails
- allows State to indemnify the owner of private land adjacent to trail, for damage caused by trail users, for which the owner was unable to recover from the user who caused the damage
Idaho Code § 6-901 et seq. (2000.) Idaho Code §§ 62-1201, 62-406 (2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Illinois 745 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 65/1-31 to -37 (West 2000.) 20 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 862/1 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Recreational Trails of Illinois Act
705 Ill. Comp. Stat. 505/8 (West 2000.)
- Court of Claims Jurisdiction
- State
745 Ill. Comp. Stat. 10/1-101 (West 2000.)
- local gov't units
625 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/18c-7504 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Indiana Ind. Code §14-2-6-3 (2000.) Ind. Code Ann. § 8-4.5-5-1 et seq. (Michie 2000.)
- Recreational Trails Program
- § 8-4.5-5-5 designates abandoned railroad corridors as eligible for grant program to create recreational trails
- § 8-4.5-6-5, Liability for injury; relieves property owner of "duty of care" for recreational trail user that would otherwise be owed
Ind. Code Ann. § 34-6-2-34 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Indiana Tort Claims Act
Ind. Code Ann. § 8-4-33-1 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Iowa Iowa Code Ann. §§ 111C.1 to -.7 (West 2000.) Iowa Code § 465B.1 et seq. (2000.)
- Recreational Trails Statute
- no liability provision
Iowa Code Ann. §§ 669.1 to -.24 (West 2000.)
- Iowa Tort Claims Act
- state
Iowa Code Ann. §§ 670.1 to -.13 (West 2000.)
- Tort Liability of Governmental Subdivisions
Iowa Code Ann. § 327G.3 (2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 58-3201 to -3207 (2000.) Kan. Stat. Ann. § 58-3211 et seq. (2000.)
- Recreational Trails Statute
- § 58-3212 provides an extensive list of duties for trail managers
- § 58-3214 provides that an adjacent property owner has "no duty of care" to any person using a recreational trail, except where an injury is a direct result of negligence or willful or want on misconduct
Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 75-6101 to -6115 (2000.)  

Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 150.645, 411.190 (Michie 2000.) Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 147A.250 (Banks-Baldwin 2000.) Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 277.402 et seq. (Banks-Baldwin 2000.)
- RUS § 411.190 defines owner as including the possessor of a "reversionary, or easement interest."
- The trespass statute, §511.090, was amended to include the following: "(5) Private land adjoining a railtrail that is neither fenced nor otherwise enclosed shall be presumed to be land where notice against trespassing has been given by the owner of the land, and a person utilizing the railtrail shall be presumed to lack privilege or license to enter upon that land unless the person has permission from an adjoining landowner to do so."
Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 44.070 et seq. (Banks-Baldwin 2000.) Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 256.110 (Michie 2000.)
- requires RR and adjoining property owner to construct and maintain a good lawful fence

Louisiana La. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 9, §§ 2791, 2795 (West 2000.) La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 56:1781 et seq. (West 2000.)
- program to establish rails-to-trails
- § 1785 of the statute transfers ownership and all legal rights and obligations to trail administrator, and the railroad or corporation shall be relieved of all responsibilities and legal obligations, unless agreed otherwise through contractual obligations
La. Const., art. XII, § 10.  

Maine Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 14, § 159-A (West 2000.) Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 12, § 1892 (West 2000.)
- Trails System Statute
- no liability provision
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 14, § 8101 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Tort Claims Act
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 23, § 6021 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Maryland Md. Code Ann., Nat. Res. I §§ 5-1101 to -1108 (2000.) Md. Code Ann., Nat. Res. I. § 5-1010 (2000.)
- abandoned railroad corridor as trails
- establishes program to convert abandoned railroad corridors into recreational trails
- no liability provision
Md. Code Ann., State Gov't § 12-101 et seq. (2000.)
- Tort Claims Act
- State gov't
Md. Code Ann., Cts. & Jud. Proc. § 5-401 et seq. (2000.)
- local gov't
 

Massachusetts Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 21, § 17C (West 2000.)   Mass. Ann. Laws ch. 258, § 1 et seq. (Law. Co-op. 2000.)
- Tort Claims Act
Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 160, § 93 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock owned by adjacent property owner injured by unfenced right-of-way

Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 324.73301 (West 2000.)
- RUS protects the owner, tenant, or lessee of land used to enter or exit a public trail or trail covered by the Trailways Act § 721
Mich. Comp. Laws § 324.72101 et seq. (2000.)
- Michigan Trailways Act
- § 72105(a) provides that volunteer groups may adopt trailways or rail-to-trails segments, and that volunteers will be granted the same immunity from civil liability as a State employee while they are working on an "adopt-a-trail" project
Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. §§ 691.1401 to -.1415 (West 2000.) Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 462.325 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Minnesota Minn. Stat. Ann. §§ 87.01 to -.03 (West 2000.) Minn. Stat. § 222.63 (2000.)
- establishes rail bank program for public use Minn. Stat. § 84.029 (2000.)
- permits the State to acquire land, including abandoned railroad rights-of-way, for trails
- no liability provision
Minn. Stat. Ann. § 3.736 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Tort Claims Act, Minn. Stat. Ann. § 466.01 et seq. (West 2000.)
Minn. Stat. Ann. § 219.31 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock or children who could not scale legal fence injured by unfenced right-of-way

Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. §§ 89-2-1 to -7, 89-2-21 to -27 (2000.) Miss. Code Ann. § 55-25-1 et seq. (2000.)
- Rails-to-Trails Recreational District Statute
- no liability provision
Miss. Code Ann. §§ 11-46-1 to -16 (2000.)  

Missouri Mo. Ann. Stat. §§ 537.345 to -.348 (West 2000.) Mo. Rev. Stat. § 258.100 (2000.)
- trails have civil immunity
- specifically covers railroad rights-of-way acquired by State for use as a recreational trail
- provides immunity from liability for adjacent property owners for injuries to person or property if the person entered from the trail; does not apply if person on land is invitee, or the injury was caused by an intentional, unlawful, willful, or wanton act
Mo. Ann. Stat. § 537.600 et seq. (West 2000.) Mo. Ann. Stat. § 389.650 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Montana Mont. Code Ann. §§ 70-16-301 to -302 (2000.)   Mont. Code Ann. § 2-9-101 et seq. (2000.)
- MT Comprehensive State Insurance Plan and Tort Claims Act
- State and local Mont. Code Ann. § 7-1-4125 et seq. (2000.)
- municipal immunity is waived
 

Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 37-1001 to -1008 (Michie 2000.) Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 37-1002 et seq. (Michie 2000.) - Recreational Trails Statute
- § 37-1012, Responsibility for fences. The Game and Park Commission shall "have the same responsibility as a railroad as provided in §74-601 to 74-602."
Neb. Rev. Stat. § 81-8, 209 et seq. (2000.) Neb. Rev. Stat. § 13-902 et seq. (2000.)
- Political Subdivisions Tort Claims Act
Neb. Rev. Stat. § 74-601 (2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Nevada Nev. Rev. Stat. § 41.510 (2000.)   Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 41.031 et seq. (Michie 2000.)  

New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 212.34 (2000.) N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 228:60-a et seq. (2000.)
- Railroad Right-of-Way Statute
- § 228:60-c allows the State to enter into agreements for the use of railroad rights-of-way that relieve the landowner from civil liability for personal injury or property damage for the period of the agreement
N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 541-B: 1 et seq. (2000.)
- administrative claims against the State
- political subdivisions excluded
N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 373:30 (2000.)
- RR liable if livestock of adjacent property owner injured by unfenced right-of-way

New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2A:42A-1 to -7 (West 2000.) N.J. Stat. Ann. § 13:8-30 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Trails System Act
- no liability provision
N.J. Stat. Ann. § 59:1-1 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Tort Claims Act
N.J. Stat. Ann. § 48:12-46 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

New Mexico N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 16-3-9, 17-4-7 (Michie 2000.) N.M. Stat. Ann. § 16-3-3 et seq. (Michie 2000.)
- State Trails System Statute
- § 16-3-9 limits liability for landowner who has granted right-of-way or easement to State for recreational trail
N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 41-4-1 to -27 (Michie 2000.)
- Tort Claims Act
N.M. Stat. Ann. § 77-16-16 (Michie 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

New York N.Y. Gen. Oblig. Law § 9-103 (Consol. 2000.)   N.Y. Ct. Cl. Act § 8 (McKinney 2000.) N.Y. R.R. Law § 52 (McKinney 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way but RR not liable for injuries to livestock resulting from engine frightening animal

N. Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. § 113A-95 (2000.) N.C. Gen. Stat. § 113A-84 et seq. (2000.)
- Trails System Statute
- § 113A-95 limits liability for landowner who allows land to be used for trail by limiting "duty of care" owed to users to that owed to a trespasser
N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 143-291 to -300.1 (2000.)  

N. Dakota N.D. Cent. Code §§ 53-08-01 to -06 (2000.)   N.D. Cent. Code § 32-12.1-01 et seq. (2000.)
- history of statute found in Chapter 303, S.L. 1977
- applicable to political subdivisions of State
N.D. Cent. Code § 49-11-24 et seq. (2000.)
- every owner or lessee of land abutting any RR's right-of-way may make written request of owners/operators of RR to construct a fence N.D. Cent. Code §49-11-30
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Ohio Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 1533.18, 1533.181 (Anderson 2000.) Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 1519.01 to -.02 (Anderson 2000.)
- Recreational Trails Statute
- § 1519.02 permits the State authority to acquire land on an "existing or abandoned" railroad for use as a recreational trail
- no liability provision
Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2743.01 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Court of Claims Act
- applicable only to the State and its agencies or instrumentalities Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2744.01 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Political Subdivisions Act
- applicable to political subdivisions of State
 

Oklahama Okla. Stat. tit. 76, §§ 10 to 15 (2000.) Okla. Stat. tit. 74, § 1853 et seq. (2000.)
- Trails System Act
- § 1859 C makes it a misdemeanor to damage adjacent properties Okla. Stat. tit. 74, § 3458 (2000.)
- limits liability of landowners who permit the State to use their land for trails system
Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 51, § 151 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Political Subdivision Tort Claims Act
Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 66, § 141 (West 2000.)
- every RR Corp. has duty to fence its road with a good & lawful fence

Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 105.688 (2000.) Or. Rev. Stat. § 390.950 et seq. (2000.)
- Recreational Trails Statute
- § 390.980 permits the State to use funds to indemnify landowners adjacent to recreational trails for damage to their property caused by trail users for which the landowner was unable to recover from the user causing the damage
Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 30.260 to -.300 (2000.)
- § 30.265(2) pertains to State and subdivisions
Or. Rev. Stat. § 608.310 (2000.)
- every person owning or operating any railroad shall erect and maintain good and sufficient lawful fences on both sides of the RR line, with exceptions

Pennsylvania 68 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 477-1 to -8 (2000.) 32 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 5611 et seq. (2000.)
- Rails-to-Trails Act
- § 5619(c) encourages the preservation of the trails, if possible, when a rail line is reactivated, creating a rails-with-trail
- § 5621 limits liability for landowners who allow their land to be used for trails, trail, owners and adjacent property owners with the protections similar to a RUS
1 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 2310 (West 2000.)
- commonwealth 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 8541 et seq. (West 2000.)
- local agencies Pa. R. Civ. P. 2101 et seq.
- commonwealth and political subdivisions
 

Rhode Island R.I. Gen. Law § 32-6-1 to -7 (2000.)   R.I. Gen. Laws § 9-31-1 et seq. (2000.)
- State and subdivisions
R.I. Gen. Laws § 39-8-18 (2000.)
- every RR shall erect/maintain fence along boundary lines of right-of-way

S. Carolina S.C. Code Ann. § 27-3-10 to -70 (Law. Co-op. 2000.)   S.C. Code Ann. § 15-78-10 et seq. (Law. Co-op. 2000.)
- Tort Claims Act
- State and local
 

S. Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 20-9-12 to -18 (Michie 2000.)   S.D. Codified Laws § 3-21-1 et seq. (Michie 2000.)
- State
S.D. Codified Laws § 49-16A-91 (Michie 2000.)
- if owner of land abutting the road fences their property, except for the side abutting the road, the RR shall supply landowner with materials needed to construct fence not less than 4.5 feet high

Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 70-7-101 to -104, 11-10-101 to -104 (2000.) Tenn. Code Ann. § 11-11-101 (2000.)
- Trails System Act Tenn. Code Ann. § 11-11-111 et seq. (2000.)
- § 11-111 provides for consideration of abandoned railroad for recreational trails
- §§ 11-113 and 11-114, respectively, prohibit hunting and the use of motor vehicles on trails
Tenn. Code Ann. § 9-8-101 et seq. (2000.)
- State Board of Claims Act
- administrative claims procedure against State Tenn. Code Ann. § 29-20-101 et seq. (2000.)
- Governmental Tort Liability Act
- applicable only to units of local government and not to the State
Tenn. Code Ann. § 65-6-301 (2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Texas Tex. Civ. Prac. & Rem. Code Ann. § 75.001 to -.003 (West 2000.) Tex. Parks & Wild. Code Ann. § 28.001 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Trails System Act
- no liability provision
Tex. Civ. Prac. & Rem. Code Ann. § 101.001 et seq. (West 2000.)  

Utah Utah Code Ann. § 57-14-1 to -7 (2000.) Utah Code Ann. § 63-11a-101, -102(3)(c), -301 (2000.)
- Recreational Trails System Act
- § 301 permits the State to enter into cooperative agreements with private landowners and corporations that specify the responsibilities for development, operation, and maintenance, including law enforcement along trails
Utah Code Ann. §§ 63-30-1 to -34 (2000.)
- Governmental Immunity Act
Utah Code Ann. § 56-1-13 (2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 12, §§ 5791-5794 (2000.) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10, § 443 et seq. (2000.)
- Trails System Act
- does not specifically cover trails on active or inactive railroad
- § 444 requires written permission to use land for trail that must address liability for persons or property and states that for fee simple or lesser interest in property, the State will hold harmless the private landowner who conveyed land
- § 448 limits liability for public and private land owner
Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 12, § 5601 et seq. (2000.)
- Tort Claims Act - State
Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 5, § 3642 (2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 29.1-509 (Michie 2000.) Va. Code Ann. § 15.2-1806 (Michie 2000.)
- Statute provides: "In furtherance of the purposes of this subsection, a locality may provide for the protection of persons whose property interests or personal liability, may be related to or affected by the use of such trails."
Va. Code Ann. § 8.01-195.1 et seq. (Michie 2000.)
- Tort Claims Act,
- State
Va. Code Ann. § 8.01-222 (Michie 2000.)
- notice of claims to cities and towns
Va. Code Ann. § 56-429 (Michie 2000.)
- need written request by adjacent landowner to the registered agent of RR to require RR Co. to erect and to maintain fence; once request is made, RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. §§ 4-24.200, -.210 (West 2000.) Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 79A.35.010 et seq. (West 2000.)
- Recreational Trails System Act
- does not specifically cover rail-trails on active or inactive railroad
- limits liability for volunteers working with public agencies on trails
Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 4.92.090 (West 2000.)
- State and subdivisions
 

West Virginia W.Va. Code § 19-25-1 to -5 (2000.) W. Va. Code § 5B-1A-1 et seq. (2000.)
- Rails-to-Trails Program
- § 5B-1A-8 relieves an owner of an abandoned railroad right-of-way from liability during the interim period when it is being held by the State for future development
- § 5B-1A-9 adopts a RUS-type provision for owners of trails and adjacent property owners under this article
W.Va. Code § 14-2-1 et seq. (2000.)
- Court of Claims Act
- State W. Va. Code § 29-12A-1 et seq. (2000.)
- Governmental Tort Claims and Insurance Reform Act
- political subdivisions
 

Wisconsin Wis. Stat. Ann. § 895.52 (West 2000.) Wis. Stat. § 85.09 (2000.)
- acquisition of abandoned rail property
- no liability provision
Wis. Stat. Ann. § 893.80 (West 2000.)
- claims against governmental bodies or officers, agents, or employees
Wis. Stat. Ann. § 192.33 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 34-19-101 (Michie 2000.)   Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 1-39-101 to -118 (Michie 2000.)
- Governmental Claims Act
Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 37-9-304 (West 2000.)
- RR liable if livestock injured by unfenced right-of-way

Updated: 02/11/2014
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