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Stewardship and Oversight Agreement
Massachusetts Highway Department (MHD)/Federal Highway Administration, Massachusetts Division (FHWA-MA)
Table of Contents
October 30, 2009
Stewardship and Oversight Agreement
This stewardship and oversight agreement is the result of the joint efforts of the Massachusetts Highway Department and the Federal Highway Administration, Massachusetts Division.
The purpose of this agreement is to facilitate the implementation of the provisions of Title 23 U.S.C. This stewardship and oversight agreement is a comprehensive agreement that covers all aspects associated with administering the Federal-aid Highway Program (FAHP) under Title 23 and other associated laws.
It is understood that this agreement is subject to change and revision as additional information and implementing guidance becomes available or at the request of either signatory party. This agreement replaces the existing agreement dated March 8, 1999 and becomes effective on the date of the last executed signature below.
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
3R Project – A type of project typically intended to extend the service life of existing highways, bridges, and related appurtenances; and/or restore safe, efficient travel on an existing facility. 3R projects are typically constructed within existing right-of-way, or require only minor acquisitions necessary to enhance safety.
Delegated Projects, MHD Oversight, MHD Administered Projects, Exempt Projects or X Projects – Projects that do not require FHWA to review or approve most actions. See Exhibit 1, Project Management and the Project Management Approval Action Responsibility Matrix for these review and approval actions.
Change Order –An order covering changes in the plans or quantities or both, within the scope of the contract, and establishing the basis of payment and time adjustments for the work affected by the changes.
EOTPW – The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Transportation and Public Works.
Federal-aid Highway Program – Congress has charged Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) with administering the Federal-aid Highway Program (FAHP) under Title 23, and other associated laws.
FHWA – The Federal Highway Administration
FHWA-MA – The Massachusetts Division Office of the Federal Highway Administration
Final Voucher – A final voucher represents the final claim, submitted by the State for a single completed project accepted by the FHWA. The approval of the final voucher does not eliminate the FHWA's right to disallow costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review or the State's obligation to return or request any additional funds due as a result of later refunds, corrections, or other transactions.
Full Oversight Projects – Projects that require FHWA to review and approve most actions pertaining to project development and contract modification. See Exhibit 1 and Exhibit 2, the Project Management Approval Action Responsibility Matrix and the Federal-aid Oversight Flowchart.
Goal – A broad statement that amplifies the end toward which the effect is directed.
ITS – Intelligent Transportation Systems (23 CFR 940.3)
ITS Elements – Intelligent Transportation System items including, cameras, remote traffic microwave sensors(RTMS) to collect speed and volume data, environmental sensor stations (ESS), traffic signalization, traffic signal prioritization/preemption, fiber optic cabling, road weather information stations (RWIS) stations, variable message signs (VMS) and installations, weight and motion stations, flood sensors, and other similar items identified or to be identified in the Statewide or CCMPO ITS architectures.
ITS Projects – Any project that in whole or in part funds the acquisition of technologies or systems of technologies that provide or significantly contribute to the provision of one or more ITS user services as defined in the approved statewide or MPO architectures.
Major Projects – Projects with an estimated total cost greater than $500 million (in year of expenditure dollars), or projects approaching $500 million with a high level of interest by the public, Congress, or the Administration. The NEPA decision for each project or program of projects defines the project scope, limits and cost for each project.
National Highway System (NHS) – Consists of interconnected urban and rural principal arterials and highways, which serve major population centers, international border crossings, ports, airports, public transportation facilities, other intermodal transportation facilities and other major travel destinations; meet national defense requirements; and serve interstate and interregional travel. All routes on the Interstate System are a part of the National Highway System.
New or Reconstruction (4R) Project A type of highway-oriented project that is designed to add capacity, modify and/or create new access points, reconstruct existing pavements and structures, or create new facilities on new location. 4R (resurfacing, rehabilitation, restoration and reconstruction) work includes the placement of additional surface material and other work necessary to return an existing roadway to a condition of structural or functional adequacy. Thjs may include improving geometric features such as flattening curves, improving sight distance and minor roadway and/or shoulder widening.
Non-Title 23 Programs – The United States Codes (U.S.C.) governing programs such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Air Act, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, Council on Environmental Quality, Section 4(f), Disadvantaged Business Enterprises, Prevailing Wage Rates, Acquisition of Right-of-Way, that have a direct effect on implementing the Federal-aid Highway Program and those required in USC and CFR.
Objective – A description of the intended result, effect, or consequence that is sought and expected will occur as a result of carrying out a program, strategy, or activity.
Oversight – This is the act of ensuring that the Federal-aid Highway Program is delivered consistent with applicable laws, regulations, and policies. In this context, oversight is the compliance or verification component of FHWA stewardship activities. Narrowly focused, oversight activities ensure that the implementation of the various elements of the Federal-aid Highway Program is in accordance with applicable laws, regulations, and policies. More broadly focused oversight activities enable the FHWA to ensure the effective delivery and operation of the transportation system envisioned in its base Federal statutes.
Performance/Compliance Measure – A tangible, measurable value or characteristic against which actual achievement can be compared, including a result expressed as a quantitative standard, value, or rate. Another term used for a performance/compliance measure is a performance/compliance indicator.
Preliminary Engineering – For funding purposes, preliminary engineering is defined as the phase of a project beginning with project initiation through award of the construction contract.
Preservation Projects – Projects employing planned, cost effective strategies to an existing roadway system and its appurtenances that preserve the system, retards future deterioration, and maintains or improves the functional condition of the system without increasing structural capacity.
Program Area – A program in which performance measures, program assessments, program/process reviews, program management and project management activities will be developed to govern the management of the Federal-aid Highway Program. Core program areas are Planning, Environment, ROW, Finance, Safety, Civil Rights, Design, Construction, Operations, and System Preservation.
Program Assessment – This process may take many forms including joint risk assessments, self-assessments, and the Program Delivery Improvement Tool (PDIT). All of these techniques are based on the common concepts of identifying strengths, weaknesses and opportunities and the identification and sharing of "best practices" to continually improve the program.
Program Management – Ensuring that Federal program requirements are met through daily stewardship, oversight, and assistance.
Program/Process Review – A review is a thorough analysis of key program components and the processes employed by MHD in managing the Federal-aid programs. A review is conducted to 1) ensure compliance with Federal requirements, 2) identify areas for efficiencies and improvements to the program, 3) identify exemplary practices, and/or 4) define and document the process being reviewed.
Project – Portions of a highway that a State proposes to construct, reconstruct, or improve as described in the preliminary design report or applicable environmental document. A project may consist of several contracts or phases over several years, as used in the Agreement's Project Management Section and Project Management Approval Action Responsibilities Matrix.
Project Management – This responsibility includes 1) the development of a project's design, plans, specifications, 2) obtaining environmental permits, 3) developing cost estimates, 4) performing right-of-way activities and providing right-of-way certification statements, 5) providing fiscal management, and 6) awarding a contract(s), 7) performing construction, and inspections/final acceptance of a project.
ROW – Right-of-Way
Risk Management – The systematic process of identifying, assessing, and managing threats and opportunities faced by Federal-aid projects and programs.
Strategy – A description of one or more activities, programs, or projects, which will be produced or provided over a multi-year period or by a specified date.
Stewardship – The efficient and effective management of the public funds that have been entrusted to MHD and the FHWA. FHWA's stewardship involves all activities necessary to deliver the Federal-aid Highway Program, such as leadership, technology deployment, technical assistance, problem solving, program administration and oversight. Stewardship efforts include oversight and approval actions, as well as many day-to-day actions that are routinely performed by either FHWA or MHD to ensure that the FAHP is administered appropriately. FHWA stewardship activities, beyond oversight, include continuous process improvement initiatives, technical assistance, technology deployment, performance measurement, project involvement activities, and sharing best practices.
Target – An objective or goal that a program area is trying to achieve by a future date.
Title 23 – The United States Code governing the Federal-aid Highway Program.
BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION
Congress has charged the Federal Highway Administration with administering the Federal-Aid Highway program (FAHP) under Title 23, and other associated laws. In addition, FHWA responsibility for administering the FAHP has been clearly outlined in the following legislation: the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991; the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st century (TEA-21) of 1998; and the Safe Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) of 2005.
Federal funding is provided to assist States and Federal Agencies in providing transportation services through the various FHWA programs. By law, the nature of the majority of these Federal programs is Federal assistance for State administered programs. The FHWA and MHD have jointly administered the FAHP with a strong sense of partnership for many years. These parties have administered the FAHP efficiently and effectively to help accomplish national, state and local goals—to develop and maintain a national highway network, improve its operation and safety, and provide for national security and commerce while protecting and improving the environment. Stewardship efforts include oversight and approval actions, as well as many day-to-day actions that are routinely performed by either or both parties to ensure that the FAHP is administered appropriately. The Stewardship and Oversight Agreement formalizes these delegated responsibilities and agreement to address how the FAHP will be administered.
The flexibility afforded in ISTEA and TEA-21 allows States to assume the U.S. Secretary of Transportation's responsibilities for design, plans, specifications, estimates, contract awards and inspection of certain Federal-aid projects. While States may assume certain project approval authorities in accordance with 23 USC 106, FHWA is ultimately accountable for ensuring that the Federal Highway Program (FAHP) is delivered consistent with the established requirements.
On August 10, 2005, the President signed into law the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). SAFETEA-LU addresses the many challenges that the transportation agencies are facing today such as improving safety, reducing traffic congestion, protecting the environment, improving efficiency in freight movement, and increasing intermodal connectivity. SAFETEA-LU provides more flexibility to State and Local transportation decision makers for solving transportation problems in their communities. It makes it easier and attractive for the private sector to participate in highway infrastructure projects to bring new ideas and resources to the table.
Notwithstanding the provisions of this Agreement, FHWA-MA retains overall responsibility and accountability for all aspects of the Federal-aid program. Therefore, the Agreement does not preclude FHWA's access to and review of Federal-aid projects or federally funded program activities in planning, environment, right-of-way, finance, civil rights, design, construction, operations, and system preservation at any time, and does not replace the provisions of Title 23, USC. Further, FHWA-MA and by extension MHD including any sub-recipients, are responsible for the effective, efficient and appropriate use of Federal funds."
SUMMARY OF MHD/FHWA-MA REQUIREMENTS AND AGREEMENTS
The following provisions are based on Section 1305 of TEA-21 and Section 1904 of the SAFETEA-LU. As permitted by Section 1305 of TEA-21, MHD and FHWA-MA agree that FHWA-MA will retain full FHWA Oversight responsibilities on the following types of Federal-aid projects:
FHWA-MA delegates and MHD agrees to assume FHWA-MA's responsibility for the oversight of compliance with Title 23 – U.S.C. for the preliminary engineering, design, plans, specifications, estimates, contract awards, and construction inspection for all other Federal-aid projects in Massachusetts. These projects will be referred to as Delegated Projects, MHD Oversight Projects, MHD Administered Projects, Exempt Projects or X Projects.
Obligation of Funds
FHWA has the sole authority to authorize Federal-aid projects since Authorization of a Federal-aid project is a contractual obligation of the Federal government under 23 U.S.C. 106. On all Federal-aid projects (FHWA Oversight or MHD Oversight), the FHWA Massachusetts Division will authorize the project by execution of the Project Agreement contained inFHWA's Fiscal Management Information System (FMIS 4).
MHD must include appropriate justification for any additional funds being requested as part of any request for the modification to existing project agreements. No additional federal funds will be authorized without proper justification.
Preliminary Engineering/Environmental Authorizations
Final Design Authorizations:
The initial authorization for ROW and utility relocations is given at the preliminary stage of development. However, FHWA-MA requires that MHD submit a modified project agreement, through Fiscal Management Information System (FMIS4), at such point that the ROW and utility plans are complete in order to request authorization for full ROW and utility relocation work. The following items must be completed prior to any ROW or utility authorizations being executed:
In addition to the items listed above, the FHWA-MA must have the following information in order to execute an authorization for construction:
Also, MHD/EOTPW must contact the FHWA-MA to assure that the project has been authorized prior to it being advertised. No authorizations will be given after the project has been advertised. Exceptions to the above listed requirements will only be considered in special cases. The MHD Construction Engineer or the MHD Chief Engineer must make all requests for exceptions. Approval of such requests is reserved for the FHWA Massachusetts Division Administrator or the Assistant Division Administrator.
Any revisions to FHWA approved PS&E's (contract addenda and/or updated project costs) must be submitted to FHWA-MA and approved prior to opening of bids.
OTHER PROJECT AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AREAS
FHWA Construction Inspections
FHWA Oversight Projects: The FHWA-MA will inspect those projects defined as full FHWA Oversight as deemed appropriate. Inspections will consist of an office review and/or field inspection of construction activities. The office review is intended for MHD staff to inform FHWA-MA representatives of any on-going activities on the project such as extra work orders, claims, and the overall progress of work. The field inspection is intended for FHWA -MA representatives to observe MHD's oversight of the contractor's on-going activities, as well as completed products. In addition, the field inspection gives FHWA-MA representatives an opportunity to meet with MHD's inspectors in the field to discuss the project and any other relevant topics.
The FHWA-MA will also perform a final inspection as part of the inspection activities for all FHWA Oversight projects. This activity is most efficiently and efficiently accomplished when done at the time of MHD final inspection. Therefore, MHD should notify the FHWA-MA as soon as a final inspection is scheduled.
Final Acceptance of FHWA Oversight Projects by FHWA
Final Acceptance of FHWA Oversight Projects is made at the time the FHWA-MA office makes final payment after MHD submits a final voucher for reimbursement. Prior to final acceptance, the FHWA-MA office must have the following documents:
FHWA Oversight Projects: The FHWA-MA shall be made aware by MHD of the details of any claim at an early stage so that coordination of efforts can be satisfactorily accomplished. It is expected that MHD will diligently pursue the satisfactory resolution of claims within a reasonable period of time. MHD not allowing FHWA-MA the opportunity for input could be the basis of not participating in the claim settlement. FHWA participation in the settlement of a claim will be in accordance with 23 CFR 635.124
MHD Administered Projects: MHD may approve Federal participation in claims for MHD Administered Projects, but must evaluate and document the claim as if they were doing it for the FHWA. Federal participation in claims approved by MHD is still subject to FHWA-MA oversight through periodic process reviews. Any significant claims should be brought to the attention of FHWA-MA regardless of oversight responsibility. FHWA-MA will maintain a representative as a non-voting member of the MHD Claims Committee to monitor the claims resolution process.
A major project is a project with an estimated total cost in the year of expenditure of over $500,000,000 and one that involves any amount of Federal financial assistance. SAFETEA-LU lowered the monetary threshold of a major project from $1 billion to $500 million.
Special Funded Projects
FHWA-MA will establish an effective oversight program in accordance with provisions in FHWA Order 4560.1, Financial Integrity Review and Evaluation (FIRE) to ensure that Federal-aid funds are properly managed and effectively used in accordance with Federal policies, and that safeguards are in place to minimize fraud, waste, and abuse. In addition, the FIRE program ensures that proper internal controls are established and followed, with objectivity and a separation of financial duties in conducting the Agency's day-today operations. FHWA-MA's Financial Management Team is responsible for completing the FIRE activities on an annual basis. The FHWA-MA is also responsible for ensuring actions have been completed in support of the Annual Certification as required in the FIRE Order.
Transportation Planning Program
The FHWA-Massachusetts Division (FHWA-MA) will employ full oversight for all aspects of statewide and metropolitan planning, including air quality conformity, to ensure compliance with 23 USC 134 and 135 and the Clean Air Act, and with the regulations at 23 CFR 450.300 (metropolitan planning), 23 CFR 450.200 and 23 CFR 420 (statewide planning), and 40 CFR 93 Subpart A (air quality conformity).
In addition, the FHWA-MA will enter into three separate sub-agreements with the EOTPW that will describe the FHWA-MA and the EOTPW's roles and responsibilities, including schedules for key deliverables, for statewide transportation planning, metropolitan planning and air quality conformity.
FHWA is the lead federal agency responsible for compliance with a wide range of environmental requirements under a single, unified process for transportation decision-making. Pertinent laws and regulations include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); implementing regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), 40 CFR 1500, et seq and FHWA 23 CFR 771; Section 4(f) [49 U.S.C. 303] and implementing regulations 23 CFR 774; Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and implementing regulations 36 CFR 800; Section 404 of the Clean Water Act; and Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA).
The FHWA-MA shall retain approval authority for all Environmental Impact Statements, all Environmental Assessments, and all Section 4(f) statements as required by the above laws and regulations.
The FHWA-MA has a Programmatic Agreement for Categorical Exclusions (CEs) with the MHD in which responsibilities are delegated to the MHD, in compliance with NEPA, for Automatic and Programmatic CEs. The FHWA-MA retains approval authority for Individual Categorical Exclusions under the agreement.
The FHWA-MA also delegates responsibilities for consultation involving historic properties under Section 106 to the MHD in accordance with a Programmatic Agreement (PA) between the FHWA-MA, the MHD, and the MHC. The PA only applies to minor highway projects classified as CEs under NEPA. For projects requiring an EA or an EIS as class of action under NEPA, the FHWA-MA conducts the consultation according to 36 CFR 800.
The FHWA-MA does not delegate formal consultation with Native American tribes as such tribal consultation is required by the regulations to be "government-to-government" consultation.
For all projects that require an action or approval by the FHWA, the MHD and the FHWA-MA will work cooperatively to (1) ensure compliance with NEPA and all other applicable laws and regulations, and (2) determine the type of environmental document that is appropriate (such determination shall be made before an alternative is selected). For CEs, the MHD shall use an agreed-upon checklist to reach the appropriate CE determination, in accordance with the Programmatic Agreement for CEs. The MHD will be responsible for the preparation of all necessary environmental studies and documentation, with guidance provided by the FHWA-MA.
Right of Way Program
The right-of-way (ROW) discipline involves both project and program related activities. The project related activities include the functional areas of appraisal, acquisition and relocation, the principal activities used to acquire space for highway projects. Oversight of ROW projects will be in accordance with the thresholds specified elsewhere in this document. ROW program related activities requiring specific FHWA-MA approval and/or oversight include: State ROW operations manual; property management activities; early acquisition, protective buying and hardship; functional replacement; Federal land transfers; and highway beautification.
The applicable laws, regulations and orders governing the ROW functional area include the following:
Refer to the ROW sub-agreement to be executed with the MHD for a detailed description of FHWA-MA and MHD roles and responsibilities for project and program related activities.
Highway Safety Improvement Program
The FHWA-MA will make project eligibility determinations for all proposed safety improvement projects as outlined in the HSIP Guidelines and as active participants of the HSIP Task Force. Oversight of safety projects shall be in accordance with the thresholds specified elsewhere in this document.
The State will submit the necessary documents to satisfy the Highway Safety Reporting requirements identified in 23 USC 148(g).
Systems Operations Program
For all ITS projects, MHD shall provide adequate documentation to the FHWA-MA, and the FHWA-MA will provide concurrence, that the ITS project is consistent with the Regional ITS Architecture and the project has been or will be developed based on a systems engineering analysis in accordance with the provisions of 23 USC 940.11.
ITS Service contracts, i.e. those providing for operations (HOV lanes, motorist assistance patrols, staffing of TOC's, incident management activities, 511, etc.) shall have full FHWA oversight by the FHWA-MA.
Oversight of ITS Construction contracts (projects providing for the installation of ITS field devices) shall be determined in accordance with the thresholds specified elsewhere in this document.
System Preservation Program
System Preservation represents a proactive approach in maintaining existing highways. It enables MHD to reduce costly, time consuming major rehabilitation and reconstruction projects and the associated traffic disruptions. With timely preservation we can provide the traveling public with improved safety and mobility, reduced congestion, and smoother, longer lasting pavements, bridges, and other appurtenances.
A program for System Preservation consists primarily of three components: preventive maintenance, minor rehabilitation (non structural), and some routine maintenance activities as seen in figure 1.
Figure 1: Components of System Preservation
For a treatment to be considered pavement/bridge preservation, one must consider its intended purpose. As described and defined in Appendix A, the distinctive characteristics of preservation activities are that they restore the function of the existing system and extend its service life, not increase its capacity or strength.
The FHWA-MA will work closely with MHD and EOTPW to ensure that an appropriate balance of System Preservation projects is programmed in the STIP. This will be addressed each fiscal year in the STIP development and approval process.
The FHWA-MA oversight of System Preservation projects using Federal-aid funds will be as follows:
Oversight of System Preservation Construction contracts shall be determined in accordance with the thresholds specified elsewhere in this document.
Construction Quality Assurance Program
Each State Transportation Agency (STA) is required to have in place a Construction Quality Assurance (QA) Program to assure that the materials and workmanship incorporated into each Federal-aid construction project on the NHS are in conformity with the approved plans and specifications, including approved changes. The QA Program must meet the criteria of 23 CFR 637B (Quality Assurance Procedures for Construction) and be approved by FHWA.
A QA Program is comprised of six distinct elements that contribute to the achievement of quality. As presented in the National Quality Improvement Task Force Report on QA Procedures for Highway Construction (NQI/FHWA Report, June 1994), the AASHTO Implementation Manual for Quality Assurance (AASHTO SOC, February 1996), and 23CFR637, the core elements of a Construction Quality Assurance Program include:
All six elements are needed in order to have a complete and effective QA Program. A QA Program having only four or five out of the six program elements is not sufficient and should not be construed as being "substantially compliant" with the intent of the AASHTO guidelines or the federal regulation.
MHD, in consultation with the FHWA-MA will prepare and maintain a written Construction QA Program document that addresses the above six (6) core elements. Following approval by the FHWA-MA of the QA Program document, MHD and the FHWA-MA will periodically evaluate and update the QA Program as needed.
The parties acknowledge that MHD will be incorporated into the Massachusetts Department of Transportation ("MassDOT") as of November 1, 2009. It is the parties' intention to enter into a new version of this Agreement after that date. The parties agree to work cooperatively to develop performance measures as well as indicators of compliance in pertinent areas.
The FHWA Massachusetts Division Office and MHD work as partners in delivering the Federal-aid transportation program in Massachusetts. It is recognized, however, that there may be times when consensus cannot be achieved between the two agencies. Whenever these situations arise, the FHWA Massachusetts Division Office and MHD agree to work together to resolve disputes in a timely manner. In those cases where a solution cannot be identified, MHD and the FHWA Massachusetts Division office may elevate the issue to the next level in the "chain of command."
It has been agreed that only MHD Commissioner or the Chief Engineer will make MHD appeals to FHWA Headquarters' offices with prior notice to the FHWA Massachusetts Division Office.
This "MHD/FHWA-MA Stewardship and Oversight Agreement" will become effective upon signature of both parties and will apply to new projects after November 1, 2009. On going construction projects will continue under their current oversight status until final acceptance.
It may be necessary to amend this agreement at any time should essential modification become apparent to either party. The parties agree that there will be periodic reviews of this Agreement to reflect changes in federal and state laws, regulations and requirements.
The following attachments are included:
EXHIBIT 1 - OVERSIGHT RESPONSIBILITY BY SYSTEM
EXHIBIT 2 – FEDERAL-AID OVERSIGHT FLOWCHART
FHWA-MA typically reviews and approves the following MHD control documents including all updates and amendments:
Definitions for System Preservation
Pavement/Bridge Preservation is "a program employing a network level, long-term strategy that enhances pavement/bridge performance by using an integrated, cost-effective set of practices that extend asset life, improve safety and meet motorist expectations."
An effective preservation program will address pavements and bridges while they are still in good condition and before the onset of serious damage. By applying a cost-effective treatment at the right time, the pavement or bridge is restored almost to its original condition. The cumulative effect of systematic, successive preservation treatments is to postpone costly rehabilitation and reconstruction. During the life of a pavement/bridge, the cumulative discount value of the series of preservation treatments is substantially less than the discounted value of the more extensive, higher cost of reconstruction and generally more economical than the cost of major rehabilitation. Additionally, performing a series of successive preservation treatments during the life of a pavement/bridge is less disruptive to uniform traffic flow than the long closures normally associated with reconstruction projects.
Preventive Maintenance is "a planned strategy of cost-effective treatments to an existing roadway system and its appurtenances that preserves the system, retards future deterioration, and maintains or improves the functional condition of the system (without significantly increasing the structural capacity)." Source: AASHTO Standing Committee on Highways, 1997
Preventive maintenance is typically applied to pavements/bridges in good condition having significant remaining service life.
Minor Rehabilitation consists of non-structural enhancements that extend the service life of an existing pavement/bridge. It includes non-structural enhancements made to existing pavement sections or bridge elements to eliminate age-related distresses that develop due to environmental exposure. Because of the non-structural nature of minor rehabilitation techniques, these types of rehabilitation techniques are placed in the category of System Preservation.
Routine Maintenance "consists of work that is planned and performed on a routine basis to maintain and preserve the condition of the highway system or to respond to specific conditions and events that restore the highway system to an adequate level of service." Source: AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Maintenance
Routine maintenance consists of day-to-day activities that are scheduled by maintenance personnel to maintain and preserve the condition of the highway system at a satisfactory level of service. Depending on the timing of application, the nature of the distress, and the type of activity, certain routine maintenance activities may be classified as preservation. Routine Maintenance activities are often "in-house" or agency-performed and are not normally eligible for Federal-aid funding.
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