This archived guidanace was obtained from the National Archives and Records Administration Electronic CFR and was current as of October 16, 2001. For current guidance, see the online eCFR.
FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SUBCHAPTER E -- PLANNING AND RESEARCH
PART 470 -- HIGHWAY SYSTEMS
Subpart A -- Federal-aid Highway Systems
Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.
Federal-aid highway systems.
System procedures -- General.
Interstate System procedures.
National Highway System procedures.
Appendix A to Subpart A -- Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Interstate System Designations under 23 U.S.C. 139 (A) and (B).
Appendix B to Subpart A -- Designation of Segments of Section 332(A)(2) Corridors as Parts of the Interstate System.
Appendix C to Subpart A of Part 470 -- Policy for the Signing and Numbering of Future Interstate Corridors Designated by Section 332 of the NHS Designation Act of 1995 or Designated Under 23 U.S.C. 139(B).
Appendix D to Subpart A -- Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System.
Subparts B-C [Reserved]
23 U.S.C. 103(b)(2), 103 (e)(1), (e)(2), and (e)(3), 103(f), 134, 135, and 315; and 49 CFR 1.48(b)(2).
40 FR 42344, Sept. 12, 1975, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 41 FR 51396, Nov. 22, 1976.
Subpart A -- Federal-aid Highway Systems
62 FR 33355, June 19, 1997, unless otherwise noted.
This part sets forth policies and procedures relating to the identification of Federal-aid highways, the functional classification of roads and streets, the designation of urban area boundaries, and the designation of routes on the Federal-aid highway systems.
Except as otherwise provided in this part, terms defined in 23 U.S.C. 101(a) are used in this part as so defined.
Consultation means that one party confers with another identified party and, prior to taking action(s), considers that party's views.
Cooperation means that the parties involved in carrying out the planning, programming and management systems processes work together to achieve a common goal or objective.
Coordination means the comparison of the transportation plans, programs, and schedules of one agency with related plans, programs, and schedules of other agencies or entities with legal standing, and adjustment of plans, programs, and schedules to achieve general consistency.
Federal-aid highway systems means the National Highway System and the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (the "Interstate System").
Federal-aid highways means highways on the Federal-aid highway systems and all other public roads not classified as local roads or rural minor collectors.
Governor means the chief executive of the State and includes the Mayor of the District of Columbia.
Metropolitan planning organization (MPO) means the forum for cooperative transportation decisionmaking for the metropolitan planning area in which the metropolitan transportation planning process required by 23 U.S.C. 134 and 49 U.S.C. 5303-5305 must be carried out.
Responsible local officials means --
- In urbanized areas, principal elected officials of general purpose local governments acting through the Metropolitan Planning Organization designated by the Governor, or
- In rural areas and urban areas not within any urbanized area, principal elected officials of general purpose local governments.
State means any one of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, or, for purposes of functional classification of highways, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas.
Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.
- Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining the boundaries of urbanized and nonurbanized urban areas is provided in the "Federal-Aid Policy Guide," Chapter 4 [G 4063.0], dated December 9, 1991. 1
1The "Federal-aid Policy Guide" is available for inspection and copying as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, Appendix D.
- Highway Functional Classification.
(1) The State transportation agency shall have the primary responsibility for developing and updating a statewide highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine functional usage of the existing roads and streets. Guidance criteria and procedures are provided in the FHWA publication "Highway Functional Classification -- Concepts, Criteria and Procedures." 2
The State shall cooperate with responsible local officials, or appropriate Federal agency in the case of areas under Federal jurisdiction, in developing and updating the functional classification.
2This publication, revised in March 1989, is available on request to the FHWA, Office of Environment and Planning, HEP-10, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590.
- The results of the functional classification shall be mapped and submitted to the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for approval and when approved shall serve as the official record for Federal-aid highways and the basis for designation of the National Highway System.
Federal-aid highway systems.
- Interstate System.
- The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Interstate System) shall consist of routes of highest importance to the Nation, built to the uniform geometric and construction standards of 23 U.S.C. 109(h), which connect, as directly as practicable, the principal metropolitan areas, cities, and industrial centers, including important routes into, through, and around urban areas, serve the national defense and, to the greatest extent possible, connect at suitable border points with routes of continental importance in Canada and Mexico.
- The portion of the Interstate System designated under 23 U.S.C. 103 (e)(1), (e)(2), and (e)(3) shall not exceed 69,230 kilometers (43,000 miles). Additional Interstate System segments are permitted under the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 139 (a) and (c) and section 1105(e)(5)(A) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), Pub. L. 102-240, 105 Stat. 1914, as amended.
- National Highway System.
- The National Highway System shall consist of interconnected urban and rural principal arterials and highways (including toll facilities) which serve major population centers, international border crossings, ports, airports, public transportation facilities, other intermodal transportation facilities and other major travel destinations; meet national defense requirements; and serve interstate and interregional travel. All routes on the Interstate System are a part of the National Highway System.
- The National Highway System shall not exceed 286,983 kilometers (178,250 miles).
- The National Highway System shall include the Strategic Highway Corridor Network (STRAHNET) and its highway connectors to major military installations, as designated by the Administrator in consultation with appropriate Federal agencies and the States. The STRAHNET includes highways which are important to the United States strategic defense policy and which provide defense access, continuity, and emergency capabilities for the movement of personnel, materials, and equipment in both peace time and war time.
- The National Highway System shall include all high priority corridors identified in section 1105(c) of the ISTEA.
System procedures -- General.
- The State transportation agency, in consultation with responsible local officials, shall have the responsibility for proposing to the Federal Highway Administration all official actions regarding the designation, or revision, of the Federal-aid highway systems.
- The routes of the Federal-aid highway systems shall be proposed by coordinated action of the State transportation agencies where the routes involve State-line connections.
- The designation of routes on the Federal-aid highway systems shall be in accordance with the planning process required, pursuant to the provisions at 23 U.S.C. 135, and, in urbanized areas, the provisions at 23 U.S.C. 134(a). The State shall cooperate with local and regional officials. In urbanized areas, the local officials shall act through the metropolitan planning organizations designated for such areas under 23 U.S.C. 134.
- In areas under Federal jurisdiction, the designation of routes on the Federal-aid highway systems shall be coordinated with the appropriate Federal agency.
Interstate System procedures.
- Proposals for system actions on the Interstate System shall include a route description and a statement of justification. Proposals shall also include statements regarding coordination with adjoining States on State-line connections, with responsible local officials, and with officials of areas under Federal jurisdiction.
- Proposals for Interstate or future Interstate designation under 23 U.S.C. 139(a) or (b), as logical additions or connections, shall consider the criteria contained in appendix A of this subpart. For designation as a part of the Interstate system, 23 U.S.C. 139(a) requires that a highway meet all the standards of a highway on the Interstate System, be a logical addition or connection to the Interstate System, and have the affirmative recommendation of the State or States involved. For designation as a future part of the Interstate System, 23 U.S.C. 139(b) requires that a highway be a logical addition or connection to the Interstate System, have the affirmative recommendation of the State or States involved, and have the written agreement of the State or States involved that such highway will be constructed to meet all the standards of a highway on the Interstate System within twelve years of the date of the agreement between the FHWA Administrator and the State or States involved. Such highways must also be on the National Highway System.
- Proposals for Interstate designation under 23 U.S.C. 139(c) shall pertain only to Alaska or Puerto Rico. For designation as parts of the Interstate System, 23 U.S.C. 139(c) requires that highway segments be in States which have no Interstate System; be logical components to a system serving the State's principal cities, national defense needs and military installations, and traffic generated by rail, water, and air transportation modes; and have been constructed to the geometric and construction standards adequate for current and probable future traffic demands and the needs of the locality of the segment. Such highways must also be on the National Highway System.
- Routes proposed for Interstate designation under section 332(a)(2) of the NHS Designation Act of 1995 (NHS Act) shall be constructed to Interstate standards and connect to the Interstate System. Proposals shall consider the criteria contained in appendix B of this subpart.
- Proposals for Interstate route numbering shall be submitted by the State transportation agency to the Route Numbering Committee of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
- Signing of corridors federally designated as future Interstate routes can follow the criteria contained in appendix C of this subpart. No law, rule, regulation, map, document, or other record of the United States, or of any State or political subdivision thereof, shall refer to any highway under 23 U.S.C. 139, nor shall any such highway be signed or marked, as a highway on the Interstate System until such time as such highway is constructed to the geometric and construction standards for the Interstate System and has been designated as a part of the Interstate System.
National Highway System procedures.
- Proposals for system actions on the National Highway System shall include a route description, a statement of justification, and statements of coordination with adjoining States on State-line connections, with responsible local officials, and with officials of areas under Federal jurisdiction.
- Proposed modifications to the National Highway System shall enhance the national transportation characteristics of the National Highway System and shall follow the criteria listed in §470.107. Proposals shall also consider the criteria contained in appendix D of this subpart.
- The Federal Highway Administrator will approve Federal-aid highway system actions involving the designation, or revision, of routes on the Interstate System, including route numbers, future Interstate routes, and routes on the National Highway System.
- The Federal Highway Administrator will approve functional classification actions.
Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 470 -- Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Interstate System Designations Under 23 U.S.C. 139 (A) and (B)
Section 139 (a) and (b), of title 23, U.S.C., permits States to request the designation of National Highway System routes as parts or future parts of the Interstate System. The FHWA Administrator may approve such a request if the route is a logical addition or connection to the Interstate System and has been, or will be, constructed to meet Interstate standards. The following are the general criteria to be used to evaluate 23 U.S.C. 139 requests for Interstate System designations.
- The proposed route should be of sufficient length to serve long-distance Interstate travel, such as connecting routes between principal metropolitan cities or industrial centers important to national defense and economic development.
- The proposed route should not duplicate other Interstate routes. It should serve Interstate traffic movement not provided by another Interstate route.
- The proposed route should directly serve major highway traffic generators. The term "major highway traffic generator" means either an urbanized area with a population over 100,000 or a similar major concentrated land use activity that produces and attracts long-distance Interstate and statewide travel of persons and goods. Typical examples of similar major concentrated land use activities would include a principal industrial complex, government center, military installation, or transportation terminal.
- The proposed route should connect to the Interstate System at each end, with the exception of Interstate routes that connect with continental routes at an international border, or terminate in a "major highway traffic generator" that is not served by another Interstate route. In the latter case, the terminus of the Interstate route should connect to routes of the National Highway System that will adequately handle the traffic. The proposed route also must be functionally classified as a principal arterial and be a part of the National Highway System system.
- The proposed route must meet all the current geometric and safety standards criteria as set forth in 23 CFR part 625 for highways on the Interstate System, or a formal agreement to construct the route to such standards within 12 years must be executed between the State(s) and the Federal Highway Administration. Any proposed exceptions to the standards shall be approved at the time of designation.
- A route being proposed for designation under 23 U.S.C. 139(b) must have an approved final environmental document (including, if required, a 49 U.S.C. 303(c) [Section 4(f)] approval) covering the route and project action must be ready to proceed with design at the time of designation. Routes constructed to Interstate standards are not necessarily logical additions to the Interstate System unless they clearly meet all of the above criteria.
Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 470 -- Designation of Segments of Section 332(A)(2) Corridors as Parts of the Interstate System
The following guidance is comparable to current procedures for Interstate System designation requests under 23 U.S.C. 139(a). All Interstate System additions must be approved by the Federal Highway Administrator. The provisions of section 332(a)(2) of the NHS Act have also been incorporated into the ISTEA as section 1105(e)(5)(A).
- The request must be submitted through the appropriate FHWA Division and Regional Offices to the Associate Administrator for Program Development (HEP-10). Comments and recommendations by the division and regional offices are requested.
- The State DOT secretary (or equivalent) must request that the route segment be added to the Interstate System. The exact location and termini must be specified. If the route segment involves more than one State, each affected State must submit a separate request.
- The request must provide information to support findings that the segment (a) is built to Interstate design standards and (b) connects to the existing Interstate System. The segment should be of sufficient length to provide substantial service to the travelling public.
- The request must also identify and justify any design exceptions for which approval is requested.
- Proposed Interstate route numbering for the segment must be submitted to FHWA and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Route Numbering
Appendix C to Subpart A of Part 470 -- Policy for the Signing and Numbering of Future Interstate Corridors Designated by Section 332 of the NHS Designation Act of 1995 or Designated Under 23 U.S.C. 139(B)
State transportation agencies are permitted to erect informational Interstate signs along a federally designated future Interstate corridor only after the specific route location has been established for the route to be constructed to Interstate design standards.
- The corridor must have been designated a future part of the Interstate System under section 332(a)(2) of the NHS Designation Act of 1995 or 23 U.S.C. 139(b).
- The specific route location to appropriate termini must have received Federal Highway (FHWA) environmental clearance. Where FHWA environmental clearance is not required or Interstate standards have been met, the route location must have been publicly announced by the State.
- Numbering of future Interstate route segments must be coordinated with affected States and be approved by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials and the FHWA at Headquarters. Short portions of a multistate corridor may require use of an interim 3-digit number.
- The State shall coordinate the location and content of signing near the State line with the adjacent State.
- Signing and other identification of a future Interstate route segment must not indicate, nor imply, that the route is on the Interstate System.
- The FHWA Regional Office must confirm in advance that the above conditions have been met and approve the general locations of signs.
- Signs may not be used to give directions and should be away from directional signs, particularly at interchanges.
- An Interstate shield may be located on a green informational sign of a few words. For example: Future Interstate Corridor or Future I-00 Corridor.
- The Interstate shield may not include the word "Interstate."
- The FHWA Division Office must approve the signs as to design, wording, and detailed location.
Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 -- Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System
Section 103(b), of title 23, U.S.C., allows the States to propose modifications to the National Highway System (NHS) and authorizes the Secretary to approve such modifications provided that they meet the criteria established for the NHS and enhance the characteristics of the NHS. In proposing modifications under 23 U.S.C. 103(b), the States must cooperate with local and regional officials. In urbanized areas, the local officials must act through the metropolitan planning organization (MPO) designated for such areas under 23 U.S.C. 134. The following guidance criteria should be used by the States to develop proposed modifications to the NHS.
- Proposed additions to the NHS should be included in either an adopted State or metropolitan transportation plan or program.
- Proposed additions should connect at each end with other routes on the NHS or serve a major traffic generator.
- Proposals should be developed in consultation with local and regional officials.
- Proposals to add routes to the NHS should include information on the type of traffic served (i.e., percent of trucks, average trip length, local, commuter, interregional, interstate) by the route, the population centers or major traffic generators served by the route, and how this service compares with existing NHS routes.
- Proposals should include information on existing and anticipated needs and any planned improvements to the route.
- Proposals should include information concerning the possible effects of adding or deleting a route to or from the NHS might have on other existing NHS routes that are in close proximity.
- Proposals to add routes to the NHS should include an assessment of whether modifications (adjustments or deletions) to existing NHS routes, which provide similar service, may be appropriate.
- Proposed modifications that might affect adjoining States should be developed in cooperation with those States.
- Proposed modifications consisting of connections to major intermodal facilities should be developed using the criteria set forth below. These criteria were used for identifying initial NHS connections to major intermodal terminals. The primary criteria are based on annual passenger volumes, annual freight volumes, or daily vehicular traffic on one or more principal routes that serve the intermodal facility. The secondary criteria include factors which underscore the importance of an intermodal facility within a specific State.
Commercial Aviation Airports
- Passengers -- scheduled commercial service with more than 250,000 annual enplanements.
- Cargo -- 100 trucks per day in each direction on the principal connecting route, or 100,000 tons per year arriving or departing by highway mode.
- Terminals that handle more than 50,000 TEUs (a volumetric measure of containerized cargo which stands for twenty-foot equivalent units) per year, or other units measured that would convert to more than 100 trucks per day in each direction. (Trucks are defined as large single-unit trucks or combination vehicles handling freight.)
- Bulk commodity terminals that handle more than 500,000 tons per year by highway or 100 trucks per day in each direction on the principal connecting route. (If no individual terminal handles this amount of freight, but a cluster of terminals in close proximity to each other does, then the cluster of terminals could be considered in meeting the criteria. In such cases, the connecting route might terminate at a point where the traffic to several terminals begins to separate.)
- Passengers -- terminals that handle more than 250,000 passengers per year or 1,000 passengers per day for at least 90 days during the year.
- 50,000 TEUs per year, or 100 trucks per day, in each direction on the principal connecting route, or other units measured that would convert to more than 100 trucks per day in each direction. (Trucks are defined as large single-unit trucks or combination vehicles carrying freight.)
- 100 trucks per day in each direction on the principal connecting route.
- 100,000 passengers per year (entrainments and detrainments). Joint Amtrak, intercity bus and public transit terminals should be considered based on the combined passenger volumes. Likewise, two or more separate facilities in close proximity should be considered based on combined passenger volumes.
- 100,000 passengers per year (boardings and deboardings).
- Stations with park and ride lots with more than 500 vehicle parking spaces, or 5,000 daily bus or rail passengers, with significant highway access (i.e., a high percentage of the passengers arrive by cars and buses using a route that connects to another NHS route), or a major hub terminal that provides for the transfer of passengers among several bus routes. (These hubs should have a significant number of buses using a principal route connecting with the NHS.)
- Interstate/international -- 1,000 passengers per day for at least 90 days during the year. (A ferry which connects two terminals within the same metropolitan area should be considered as local, not interstate.)
- Local -- see public transit criteria above.
Any of the following criteria could be used to justify an NHS connection to an intermodal terminal where there is a significant highway interface:
- Intermodal terminals that handle more than 20 percent of passenger or freight volumes by mode within a State;
- Intermodal terminals identified either in the Intermodal Management System or the State and metropolitan transportation plans as a major facility;
- Significant investment in, or expansion of, an intermodal terminal; or
- Connecting routes targeted by the State, MPO, or others for investment to address an existing, or anticipated, deficiency as a result of increased traffic.
Intermodal terminals, identified under the secondary criteria noted above, may not have sufficient highway traffic volumes to justify an NHS connection to the terminal. States and MPOs should fully consider whether a direct connection should be identified for such terminals, or whether being in the proximity (2 to 3 miles) of an NHS route is sufficient.
Subparts B-C [Reserved]