Composite Bridge Decking, Final Project Report
APPENDIX D: SPECIFICATION FOR COMPOSITE BRIDGE DECKING
This work shall consist of furnishing and installing a prefabricated, lightweight, solid-surface bridge deck system that includes a shop applied wearing surface (course 1), a field applied wearing surface (course 2), connections to the steel stringers, and any necessary haunch/bedding material, as shown on the plans and in accordance with these specifications.
All materials used to furnish and install the deck system are subject to the approval of the Engineer and shall be selected from a Department Approved Material List. To be listed as an approved decking system, prior to fabrication, specifications for materials proposed to be used in the deck system, design calculations (or finite element analysis), and a detailed description of the installation procedure shall be submitted with shop drawings to Engineer as per the “Submittals” section of this specification for preapproval. The bidder should be aware that some deck systems are proprietary in nature and may require additional time to design/detail/manufacture. In addition, certain tasks necessary for the satisfaction of this specification may need to be performed by, or in the presence of, the Supplier’s representative.
All materials, whether steel, grout, fiber-reinforced polymer composite, or structural adhesive, shall meet the design requirements provided by the deck Supplier. All steel hardware shall be stainless steel, hot-dip galvanized steel, or entirely encapsulated in epoxy. The interior of the deck cross-section shall be predominantly hollow and not consist of core material, or made using sandwich construction.
The Supplier shall submit the test methods and minimum values for all material properties, presented in a tabular format as shown below. The proposed design/analysis and shop drawings shall include the minimum guaranteed properties that are assumed in the design.
|Property||Mimimum Value||Test Method|
|Tensile Yield Strength||ASTM A36|
| Compressive Strength
|Ultimate Tensile Strength||ASTM D3039|
|Ultimate Compressive Strength||ASTM D5379|
|Ultimate Shear Strength||ASTM D5379|
|Tensile Modulus of Elasticity||ASTM D3039|
|Shear Modulus||ASTM C273|
|Coefficient of Thermal Expansion||ASTM D696|
|Thermal Conductivity||ASTM C177|
|Fiber Content||ASTM D3171|
|Bearing Strength||ASTM D953|
|Glass Transition Temperature||ASTM D4065|
|Water Absorption||ASTM D570|
|Ultimate Tensile Strength||ASTM D2095|
|Pull off test||ACI 503R|
|Wearing Surface Aggregate|
|Wearing Surface Resin|
|Ultimate Tensile Strength||ASTM D638|
|Compressive Strength||ASTM D695|
|% Elongation at Failure||ASTM D638|
|Tensile Modulus of Elasticity||ASTM D790|
- General documentation of the deck design shall be submitted to the Engineer for preapproval and listing on an Approved List.
- The design of the deck shall be accordance with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. If sufficient reliability data are not available, with the Owner’s approval, the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges may be used.
- Dimensions and skew are shown on the plans, but field verification shall be required and is the sole responsibility of the contractor.
- The structural support members for the deck system shall be as designated on the plans.
- The design load shall include dead load plus HL-93 live load with an additional 30 percent of the live load to account for impact loading. Course 1 and course 2 of the wearing surface shall be included in the dead load. No additional loading will be required for a future wearing surface, unless specified on the drawings.
- Deck weight, including the wearing surface, haunch material, and connection hardware, shall not exceed 30 psf.
- The deck shall be designed for a service life of 100 years.
- The design shall ensure that actual stresses in the fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials under full dead and live load (i.e., allowable stresses) do not exceed 25 percent of the minimum guaranteed failure stresses (i.e., ultimate strength). The minimum guaranteed failure stresses shall be verifiable by experimental tests, and test results shall be made available to Engineer upon request.
- For durability, design calculations shall include a check of the wearing surface’s tensile strength and its adhesive bond to ensure that cracking or debonding will not result from temperature changes or local deformations under wheel loading. In lieu of such documentation, the deflection between stringers shall not exceed S/500, where S is the 0.9 multiplied by the center-to-center spacing of the steel supports.
- All exposed surfaces shall be protected from abrasion and ultraviolet light using a protective coat according to the Supplier’s recommendation. The color shall be selected to resemble concrete (Color System 4000 Balsam SW-4022 or approved equal).
- Deck panels shall be designed to minimize the overall number of joints on the structure and reduce the overall weight increase to the structure’s dead load.
- The deck shall be of constant depth. The cross slope shall be created using course 2 of the wearing surface or haunch material between the support steel and the deck.
- For durability reasons, no penetrations in the top surface of the deck will be allowed for fastening or lifting.
- The minimum thickness of material directly under a wheel load shall be at least 3/8 inches.
- Connections between the deck and the steel supporting members shall not be designed to provide full composite bending action, unless specifically approved by the Engineer.
- Connections between the deck and the supports shall be designed for a minimum of 2,000,000 load cycles.
- Steel clips and expansion bolts used to connect the deck to the superstructure shall be included in the design submittal package and subject to the approval of the Engineer.
- Field joints between prefabricated panels shall be designed to transfer loads between panels without inducing cracks in the wearing surface.
- Details of the panel field joints are subject to the approval of the Engineer.
- Field joints will be subject to a watertight integrity test (i.e., New York State Department of Transportation Standard Specifications subsection 567-3.01H Watertight Integrity Test). Joints that leak shall be repaired by the Contractor using repair methods and materials that are approved by Engineer.
- The wearing surface shall consist of two courses: course 1 applied in the shop and course 2 applied on-site after the deck panels are installed on the bridge. Materials proposed for use in the wearing surface shall be subject to the approval of Engineer, and samples of the materials shall be made available upon request.
- Course 1 shall consist of a clean, coarse, hard aggregate shop-applied with a structural adhesive to the deck surface.
Course 2 shall consist of a thin, polymer concrete layer meeting the requirements of New York State DOT Material Specification 734-01 Thin Polymer (Epoxy) Overlays for Structural Slabs, with the exception of the surface preparation that is intended for concrete decks. If necessary to form the cross slope as shown on the plans, the material may be used as a slurry rather than broadcasting the aggregate.
Adhesives and Resins
- Adhesives and resins shall be as approved by the deck Supplier’s design Engineer.
- Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) shall be provided for any adhesive or resin brought to the job site.
- The deck system shall be approved by the Engineer, prior to use on the project. Evidence of this approval shall be provided as part of the project submittal package (e.g., an approval letter or inclusion on a Department List of Approved Materials). The preapproval package shall contain, as a minimum: shop drawings, manufacturing quality assurance plan, an installation procedure, and design calculations (or finite element analysis) for the bridge deck system. The design shall be certified and signed by a Professional Engineer and provided to the Engineer prior to acceptance. A finite element analysis may be done using any commercial industry software, subject to the approval of the Engineer.
- The project-specific submittal package shall contain the following:
- Shop drawings with dimensioned plan and cross-section views.
- Design assumptions upon which the deck and connection design is based.
- Materials to be used, with assumed design values.
- Details of panel joints, bearing, and connections to supporting steel.
- Dimensional tolerances.
- Lifting instructions, including panel weights.
- Installation procedures.
- Wearing surface type and installation procedure.
- The Engineer reserves the right to inspect the Supplier’s facilities during the fabrication of panels, to install any sensors necessary for long-term monitoring, and to measure residual stresses during the fabrication process.
- The Supplier shall engage an independent testing laboratory satisfactory to the Engineer to conduct material testing necessary to validate the assumptions made about material properties used in the design. The Supplier is to arrange for random samples to be taken from the product being produced or alternatively to make witness panels representative of the materials and methods used in the deck. Results of material testing shall be provided directly to the Engineer upon request. If any test results do not confirm the minimum guaranteed values shown on the shop drawings and the design calculations, the relevant deck component or entire system shall be rejected.
- Lot numbers for all fiber, resin, or adhesive used in the deck system shall be recorded and provided to the Engineer.
- Data sheets and the Supplier’s quality control sheets for all materials and methods used in the fabrication and installation of the deck shall be provided to the Engineer upon request.
- MSDS shall accompany any materials delivered to the site, with a copy provided to the Engineer upon request.
- Deliverables shall include detailed instructions for properly mixing any on-site materials, preventing spills, cleaning up, and disposing of excess material.
- The Supplier shall provide adequate documentation that the approved manufacturing quality assurance plan was followed for all aspects of the manufacturing process.
Basis of Acceptance
- Deck System Warranty – The supplier shall provide a 5-year Supplier’s warranty on the structural deck. The warranty shall protect the owner from direct financial loss due to manufacturing defects. Defects include a) deflections in excess of those specified in the design parameters under design load, b) delamination or any material failure under normal service, or c) any other flaw that could reasonably be considered the result of faulty workmanship or failure to meet the design specifications. In case of a defect, the Supplier’s warranty shall contain provisions for repair, strengthening, or replacement of the faulty component within 30 days of notification by the Engineer that there is a defect. The decision to repair or replace the wearing surface shall rest solely with the Engineer. The warranty shall be transferable to the new Owner should there be a transfer of ownership during the warranty period.
- Wearing Surface Warranty – A 5-year warranty shall be provided for the wearing surface bond. The wearing surface warranty shall protect the Owner against delamination or loss of skid resistance during the entire warranty period. The wearing surface shall provide a wet skid resistance of 60 BPN according to the British Portable Pendulum Test (ASTM E303). The warranty shall also cover any other flaw that could reasonably be considered the result of faulty workmanship or failure to meet the design specifications. The State reserves the right to perform a standard test method for pull-off strength per ASTM D4541-95 at any time during the warranty period. A wearing surface failing to meet the minimum design requirements will be considered as a defect. In case of a defect, the Supplier’s warranty shall contain provisions of repair, strengthening, or replacement of the faulty component within 30 days of notification by the Engineer of the defect. The decision to repair or replace the wearing surface shall rest solely with the Engineer. The warranty shall be transferable to the new Owner should there be a transfer of ownership during the warranty period.
- Performance Tests – The Owner reserves the right to physically load test the deck system up to HL-93 loading at the Owner’s expense any time during the warranty period to verify that the design parameters have been satisfactorily met. A deck failing to meet the performance requirements at any time during the warranty period shall be cause for exercise of the rights provided under warranty.
- As-Built Drawings – Within 30 days of installation, as-built drawings shall be provided to the Engineer.
- Inspection and Maintenance Guidelines – Guidance for inspection and maintenance of the deck shall be provided to the Engineer prior to acceptance.
- Dimensions and Tolerances – Deck panel dimensions shall not vary more than ¼ inch from those shown on the approved working drawings. The flatness of the panels shall not vary more than ¼ inch in 10 feet. The top surface of the construction joints between the deck panels shall be flush within a ¼-inch tolerance. Regardless of tolerances, the panels shall fit together and function per design.
- Transportation and Site Handling – This shall be performed with acceptable equipment methods, and by qualified personnel and in accordance with the Supplier's recommendations. The contractor is responsible until acceptance. The panels shall be lifted and supported during transportation, and erection operations only at lifting or supporting points as shown on the shop drawings, and with approved lifting devices. The panels shall be stored flat, right side up, and protected from the weather until installation. All panels shall be stored off the ground and kept dry prior to installation. Panels damaged by improper handling, storing, transporting, or lifting shall be repaired or replaced at the discretion of the Engineer at no expense to the State.
- Joints – All joints in the deck shall be demonstrated to the Engineer to be watertight in accordance with New York State Department of Transportation Standard Specifications subsection 567-3.01H Watertight Integrity Test.
- Installation – An experienced technical representative of the Supplier shall be present during the complete installation procedure to assure that the deck panels are installed correctly. Upon completion and prior to payment for the item, the technical representative shall certify that the installation has been done correctly. Field measurements necessary to fabricate the deck and install it to the limits shown on the plans shall be the Contractor’s responsibility.
- Damages Prior to Acceptance – The Contractor shall be responsible for any damage incurred prior to acceptance. If there is damage and in the opinion of the Engineer, the damage is repairable with no long term effect on the structure, the deck shall be repaired without compensation. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, the material is damaged beyond repair, it shall be removed and replaced by the Contractor at no cost to the State.
- Damages after Acceptance – If the product is damaged by the installer after acceptance, the Supplier shall be available for consultation and guidance on field repairs at no expense to the State.
Method of Measurement
The quantity of work to be paid for under this item will be measured as the actual number of deck systems provided (one each per bridge site).
Basis of Payment
The lump sum price bid for this item shall include all costs necessary to provide and install the products associated with the specified deck system and provide the necessary quality assurance.
Shipping – The cost of the item shall include all transportation expenses necessary to deliver the deck system to the job site and unload it. This includes the cost of any special hauling permits, escort vehicles, and police escorts that are required.
Installation – The cost of the item shall include the expense of a qualified representative of the Supplier who will be present to facilitate the installation procedure. Field measurements necessary to fabricate the deck and install it to the limits shown on the plans shall be the Supplier’s responsibility.
Partial payment – Progress payments will be made as follows:
- 50 percent of the lump sum price bid will be paid upon delivery to the project site.
- 50 percent of the lump sum price bid will be paid upon completion and approval of the installation.