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APPENDIX C: REPORT ON FIELD LOAD TESTS

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this live-load test was to collect data (i.e. strains and deflections) on the performance of the FRP bridge deck that was installed in Bolivar, NY. This information complements the information derived from the finite element model (appendix B).

TRUCK INFORMATION

The county of Allegany, NY, selected two International 7600 tri-axle dump trucks to be used for this live-load test. Figure 42 and table 16 provide information on the axle spacings. Each of the two trucks used was loaded to 71,260 lb prior to the test. The axle loads, provided by the county, are also shown in figure 42.

Truck 63
a) Truck 63
b)	Truck 63 dimensions and axle loads
b) Truck 63 dimensions and axle loads
d)	Truck 64 dimensions and axle loads
c) Truck 64
d)	Truck 64 dimensions and axle loads
d) Truck 64 dimensions and axle loads

Figure 42. Photos and diagrams. 7600 tri-axle dump trucks used for live-load test.

Table 16. 7600 tri-axle dump truck axle spacings.

Description Dimension (in.)
Front axle to last rear axle 268
Tag axle to last rear axle (raised during test) 105
Second drive axle to last rear axle 55
Tires, out-out 96

LOAD PATHS

Three basic load paths (A, B, C) were used to conduct a series of static tests. The trucks were placed at specific locations along the length of the bridge and data sampled for a minimum of 10 seconds before moving to the next position. For each load path, the trucks started on the Bolivar, east side of the bridge, drove through the bridge, drove off, turned around, and drove over the bridge again (starting from the west side this time). Each load path had five basic specific locations (referred as load cases), where the truck mid-axle was be placed on the bridge deck at:

  • Approximately 18 inches from the front edge of the FRP deck.
  • Quarter span.
  • Midspan.
  • Three-quarter span.
  • 18 inches from the far end of the bridge deck.

Five additional load cases were added when the trucks drove over the bridge from the opposite direction. Truck 64 ran load paths A, B, BN, C, CN, and D, and truck 63 was used on A, BN, CN, and D.
 
Load Path A

Truck 64 drove on a path over the bridge mid-width (see figure 43a). The wheels of the truck were placed symmetrical with respect to the bridge centerline (outer side of the wheels positioned approximately at 84 in. from the north or south edge of the deck. Figure 43b shows load case 8 (truck at mid-span, reentering from the west side of the bridge). The same load path was repeated with truck 63.

Load Path B

Truck 64 drove over the south lane when starting from the Bolivar side of the bridge. After turning around, the truck reentered from the west side using the opposite lane. The truck was positioned centering its outside tires between girders 1 and 2 (in the south lane) and girders 10 and 11(return, north lane). The outside wheel (on the driver’s side) was positioned approximately 14 inchesfrom the edge of the bridge, as shown in figure 44. Load case 8 is shown in figure 44b.

Load Path BN

Load path BN is similar to load path B, but starting from the Bolivar side, north lane, and returning on the south lane.

a) Load path B b) Load case 8 - truck placed at midspan
a) Load path A b) Load case 8 - truck placed at midspan
c) Photograph of truck on load path A, load case 8 d) Photograph of truck on load path A, load case 4
c) Photograph of truck on load path A, load case 8 d) Photograph of truck on load path A, load case 4

Figure 43. Diagrams and photos. Illustration of load path A.

a) Load path B b) Load case 8 - truck at midspan, right lane
a) Load path B b) Load case 8 – truck at midspan, right lane
c) Photograph of truck on load path B, load case 1 d) Photograph of truck on load path BN, load case 2
c) Photograph of truck on load path B, load case 1 d) Photograph of truck on load path BN, load case 2

Figure 44. Diagrams and photos. Illustration of load path B.

Load Path C

Truck 64 drove over the south lane, starting from the Bolivar side of the bridge. After turning around, the truck reentered from the west side using the opposite lane. The truck was positioned centering its outside tires over girder 2 (south lane) and over girder 10 (return north lane). The outside wheel (on the driver’s side) was positioned approximately 28 inchesfrom the edge of the bridge, as shown in figure 45.

Load Path CN

Load path CN is similar to load path C, starting from the Bolivar side, north lane, and returning in the south lane.

Load Path D

Trucks 64 and 63 followed load paths C and CN, respectively, starting from the Bolivar end of the bridge, turning, and reentering the bridge in the opposite lanes. See figure 46.

a) Load path C b) Load case 8 - truck at midspan, right lane
a) Load path C b) Load case 8 – truck at midspan, right lane
c) Truck on load path CN, load case 2 d) Truck on load path C, load case 3
c) Truck on load path CN, load case 2 d) Truck on load path C, load case 3

Figure 45. Diagrams and photos. Illustration of load path C.

Bolivar side Bolivar side
c) Trucks on Path D, Case 1 d) Trucks on Path D, Case 8
c) Trucks on Path D, Case 1 d) Trucks on Path D, Case 8

Figure 46. Diagrams and photos. Illustration of load path D.

INSTRUMENTATION

Data Acquisition System

Iotech’s Waveview software was used to collect data from a Wavebook WBK 20A data acquisition system with supporting WBK 10A and two WBK 16 modules. The portable system can support up to nine 120 ohm, quarter-bridge strain gages and six string pots through the wire platform. A portable AC generator powered the system. Figure 47 shows the equipment setup, approximately 20 feet from the bridge.

The strain gages were calibrated to measure in units of microstrain (µe), and the string pots were calibrated to measure in inches. Data were stored as ASCII text files (.txt) for analysis. During testing, measurements were continuously taken at 20 Hz. The trucks were stopped at each load case for approximately 10 seconds. A dynamic test with truck 64 was performed following path BN, and data were collected at 50 Hz for this load case.

a) String pot bases b) Portable data acquisition system
a) String pot bases b) Portable data acquisition system

Figure 47. Photos. Field equipment setup.

Strain Gages

Seventeen strain gages (SG) were installed on the bridge on September 3 and November 18, 2012. They were quarter-bridge gages with a resistance of 120 ohms. Measurements were taken on each repetition of each load case. The strain gage setup for repetition 1 is shown in figure 48, with gage locations and orientations noted in table 17. These strain gages were selected to obtain information on the behavior of the FRP deck. SG 1 and 2 measured the bottom deck panel deformations at the bearings to compare with similar mid span deformations measured by SG 3 and 4. SG 5 and 6 were used to compare the deck deformation to the steel girder deformation at midspan. SG 7 and 8 compared deformations across the transverse panel joint at midspan. The profile detail shows the typical locations of these strain gages: those placed at the bottom of the FRP deck were centered between adjacent girders, approximately 7.5 inches from the end of the nearest girder flange. Those placed on the steel girder were centered on the bottom steel flange (approximately 4 inches from the edge of the flange).

a)	Strain gage locations, plan a)	Strain gage locations, plan - Mid Span
a)	Strain gage locations, plan
a) Strain gage locations, plan b) Strain gage locations, profile and typical detail

Figure 48. Diagrams. Repetition 1 strain gage locations.

Table 17. Strain gage locations and orientations.
Strain Gage Direction Location Longitudinal Placement Centered (between girders or on girder)
1 Transverse Bottom FRP deck West end 6 and 7
2 Transverse Bottom FRP deck West end 7 and 8
3 Transverse Bottom FRP deck Midspan 4 and 5
4 Transverse Bottom FRP deck Midspan 5 and 6
5 Longitudinal Bottom steel girder Midspan 7
6 Longitudinal Bottom FRP deck Midspan 7 and 8
7 Transverse Bottom FRP deck Midspan 10 and 11
8 Transverse Bottom FRP deck Midspan across panel joint 10 and 11
9 Longitudinal Bottom steel girder Midspan 1
10 Longitudinal Bottom steel girder Midspan 2
11 Longitudinal Bottom steel girder Midspan 3
12 Longitudinal Bottom steel girder Midspan 4
13 Longitudinal Bottom steel girder Midspan 5
14 Longitudinal Bottom steel girder Midspan 6
15 Longitudinal Flange steel girder Midspan 1, 7 in. from bottom
16 Longitudinal Flange steel girder Midspan 3, 7 in. from bottom
17 Longitudinal Flange steel girder Midspan 5, 7 in. from bottom

The strain gage setup used in the second repetition is shown in figure 49, and the locations and orientations were the same as for the first repetition. These measurements were selected to obtain strain information on adjacent steel support girders. SG 9 to 14 all measured the bottom flange strains; SG 15 to 17 indicated longitudinal strain at one third (1/3) of the girders’ height (approximately 7 inches from the bottom flange). Figure 49 shows SG 9 to 14 centered on the underside of the bottom flange with SG 15, 16, and 17 located on the north side of the web girders.

a)	Strain gage locations, plan b)	Strain gage locations, profile and typical detail - Mid Span
b)	Strain gage locations, profile and typical detail
a) Strain gage locations, plan b) Strain gage locations, profile and typical detail

Figure 49. Diagrams. Repetition 2 strain gage locations.

String Pots

Vertical displacements were measured by six string potentiometers, or string pots. These transducers measured displacement of a flexible wire attached to an anchor on either the bottom of the FRP bridge girders or the bottom of the FRP deck panels. Unimeasure HX series string pots were used in this field test. String pot locations and descriptions are presented in figure 50 and table 18. The string pot detail shows the typical locations of all string pot attachment points: string pots 4 and 6 were placed at 7.5 inches from the girder flange on the bottom of the FRP deck panels; string pots 1, 2, 3, and 5 were centered at 4 inches on the underside of the bottom flange. String pot 4 measured FRP deck deflections relative to girders 4 and 5, while the others were firmly attached to a concrete base to measure absolute deflections. The same six string pots were used for both repetitions.

a)	String pot locations, plan view b)	String pot locations, profile and typical detail - Mid Span
b)	String pot locations, profile and typical detail
a) String pot locations, plan view a) String pot locations, profile and typical detail

Figure 50. Diagrams. String pot locations.

Table 18. String pot locations and descriptions.
String Pot Longitudinal Placement Attachment Movement Relative To
1 Midspan On girder 1 Ground
2 Midspan On girder 2 Ground
3 Midspan On FRP between 3 and 4 Ground
4 Midspan On FRP between 4 and 5 Girders 4 and 5
5 Midspan On girder 5 Ground
6 At bearing On FRP between 7 and 8 Abutment

RESULTS

A summary of file names, gage setup, truck number, and the tested condition is shown in table 19. Truck 64 was used for the second repetition of the load paths with single loadings, so only one driver was needed for the second half of the live-load test. The file name follows the notation X_Y_Z, where X is repetition 1 or 2, Y is the truck number, and Z is the load path (described before). These file names will be referred to throughout this discussion of the test results.

Table 19. Test names and conditions.
Test/File Name Repetition Truck Load Path Test Condition Note
1_64_A 1 64 A Centered loading  
1_63_A 1 63 A Centered loading  
1_64_B 1 64 B Maximum positive moment No load case 10
1_63_BN 1 63 BN Maximum positive moment  
1_64_C 1 64 C Single loading, maximum positive moment  
1_63_CN 1 63 CN Single loading, maximum positive moment  
1_643_D 1 63 and 64 D Dual loading, maximum negative moment Load cases 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, and 10 only
2_64_A 2 64 A Centered loading  
2_64_B 2 64 B Maximum positive moment  
2_64_BN 2 64 BN Maximum positive moment Used truck 64
2_64_C 2 64 C Single loading, maximum positive moment  
2_64_CN 2 64 CN Single loading, maximum positive moment Used truck 64
2_643_D 2 63 and 64 D Dual loading, maximum negative moment  
2_64_DYN 2 64 A Road conditions Dynamic test, 50 Hz

The data obtained from each path loading were analyzed as follows:

  • The mean values of the pre-trigger measurements, before the trucks entered, were subtracted from all values to eliminate initial displacements. Figure 51 shows the raw and adjusted data for test 1_63_CN.
  • The adjusted data were used to determine the time intervals for each load case. The average displacements of each gage during each load case were calculated as well as the standard deviation of that population. The average values used for 1_63_CN are shown in figure 51.

Since there was no clear indication of when load cases 6 to 10 and 1 to 5 occurred in tests 1_64_B and 1_63_BN, these data were omitted from the results. The other data points were used in the analyses described below.

Figure 51. Graph. SG 5 data from test 1_63_CN.
Figure 51. Graph. SG 5 data from test 1_63_CN.

Maximum FRP Deck Deformations at a Bearing Location

Table 20 shows the calculated maximum deformations of the gages located at one of the bearings. Maximum response occurred with the truck directly over the bearings. String pot 6 registered the largest deflection with the front end of truck 64 off the bridge (load case 5), and SG 1 and 2 registered maximum values with the rear wheels off (load case 6). The maximum uplift for string pot 6 was 0.006 inches and was approximately 10 percent of the downward deflection of 0.07 inches. These data show that the maximum FRP deck deflections at this location are less than 0.1 inch and the maximum FRP deck strain, perpendicular to the steel girder axis, is in the order of 300 µe (in tension). Therefore, it can be inferred the maximum bottom panel stress is also in tension.

Table 20. Maximum deformations at bearing locations.

  Table 20. Maximum deformations at bearing locations.
StrPot 6 (min)
(in.)
StrPot 6 (max)
(in.)
SG 1 (abs max)
(µe)
SG 2 (abs max)
(µe)
Max -6.87E-02 5.98E-03 1.66E+02 3.15E+02
Load Path/File 2_64_A 1_63_BN 1_64_C 1_63_CN
Load Case 5 10 6 6

Maximum Midspan FRP Deck Deformation

Table 21 shows the maximum strains from each of the midspan strain gages measured during repetition 1. Similar to the strain gages located over the bearing, all seven midspan gages experienced tensile strains. Maximum values occurred when the truck’s center axle was at midspan (except for SG 8, which was aligned across the center joint, not at midspan). Maximum strain values recorded on the FRP deck were on the order of 100 to 300 µe. SG 5 on the steel girder registered a maximum tensile strain in the same order of magnitude.

Table 21. Maximum midspan FRP deck deformations (repetition 1).

  Table 21. Maximum midspan FRP deck deformations (repetition 1).
SG 3
(µe)
SG 4
(µe)
SG 5
(µe)
SG 6
(µe)
SG 7
(µe)
SG 8
(µe)
Absolute Max 2.78E+02 2.17E+02 2.21E+02 1.88E+02 1.10E+02 1.94E+02
Load Path/File 1_63_A 1_64_C 1_643_D 1_63_CN 1_643_D 1_643_D
Load Case 8 3 3 3 8 1

SG 7 and SG 8 were located across the midspan FRP panel joint, and a typical plot of their displacement is shown in figure 52. The plot shows that when the truck is traveling over the gages (cases 1 to 5), the panels move together relatively closely. When the truck is traveling over the opposite side of the panels, the difference in strain readings increased. In fact, the west side panel (SG 7) moves much more than the east side panel (SG 8). Strain readings are listed in table 22.

Figure 52. Graph. Test 1_63_CN, SG 7 and SG 8 results vs. time.
Figure 52. Graph. Test 1_63_CN, SG 7 and SG 8 results vs. time.

Table 22. SG 7 and SG 8 response for load case 1_63_A.

Load Case 1_63_A Strain at SG 7 (µe) Strain at SG 8 (µe)
1 -9.65E+00 -1.88E+01
2 -1.85E+00 -1.18E+00
3 -9.99E+00 3.19E+00
4 2.37E+00 4.19E+00
5 5.13E+00 8.55E+00
6 -7.03E+00 8.31E+00
7 1.28E+01 1.46E+01
8 -4.17E+00 5.35E+00
9 1.18E+01 1.02E+01
10 5.47E+00 8.69E+00

Strain Response of Steel Girders

Table 23 shows the strain registered at the underside of the bottom flanges and 1/3 height for what were found to be the two critical cases: 2_64_BN, load case 8, and 2_643_D, load case 3. Each has the trucks positioned at midspan. The data show the strains in the girder webs were lower than those of the flanges, as expected. The flange strains were in the order of 200 µe. Loading 2_64_BN, load case 8, shows the strain decreasing from the outside girder to the inside girder. For 2_643_D, load case 3, the largest strain was found in girder 5. For more information on girder strains for each load case during the second repetition, please refer to tables 25 through 30 at the end of this appendix.

Table 23. Strains in all girders for critical load cases.

  Girder Number/Strain Gage - Strains (µe)
1/SG 9 2/SG 10 3/SG 11 4/SG 12 5/SG 13 6/SG 14 1/SG 15 3/SG 16 5/SG 17
2_64_BN, Load Case 8 238.72 214.84 191.67 167.74 141.83 99.30 84.69 77.47 41.38
2_643_D, Load Case 3 197.70 193.86 167.99 209.99 220.13 198.26 50.70 56.07 65.50

Vertical Displacements at Midspan

The maximum midspan string pot displacements occurred during repetition 2 and are shown in table 24. All maximum displacements occurred with the trucks positioned at midspan. String pots 1, 2, and 5 all measured the displacements of the steel girders, and string pots 3 and 4 measured vertical deflecting of the FRP deck (string pot 3 with respect to a concrete base, and string pot 4 with respect to steel angle attached to the adjacent girders).

Table 24. Maximum vertical displacements at midspan.
  StrPot 1
(in.)
StrPot 2
(in.)
StrPot 3
(in.)
StrPot 4
(in.)
StrPot 5
in.)
Abs. Max -4.47E-02 -3.62E-01 1.24E-02 -3.25E-02 -3.43E-01
File 2_64_BN 2_643_D 2_64_A 2_64_A 2_643_D
Load Case 8 3 8 8 8

Dynamic Test

Figure 53 shows data from string pots 2 and 5, of the dynamic test of the truck at regular driving speed, approximately 20 mph, load path BN. The curves show spikes for each of the two passes of the truck. Since the spikes have relatively short durations compared to recorded time, the two spikes for string Pots 2 and 5 were analyzed. The time shown is simply the duration of the spike. The data show that once the truck was off the bridge, it returned to its original position without much vibration very quickly. It also shows the movement of the bridge panels was very similar, with only a change in magnitude, no matter which direction the truck entered from. The maximum deformations were in the order of -0.2 to -0.3 inches, similar order to those found during the static tests described earlier, indicating that the deformations seen in the static tests can simulate the behavior under real driving conditions, at this age of the deck.

Figure 53. Graph. Dynamic test results, string pots 2 and 5.
Figure 53. Graph. Dynamic test results, string pots 2 and 5.

CONCLUSIONS

  • The bridge deck showed only small deformations when carrying two 72-kip dump trucks. No damage was reported.
  • The maximum strain registered by the installed gages at the bottom of the FRP deck under all load paths and load cases was 315 µe in SG 2 with loading 1_63_CN, load case 6 (3 percent of the tensile strain of the deck material).
  • The maximum vertical deflection (downward) of the FRP deck was found to be 0.07 inches, measured by string pot 6 between girders 7 and 8 during loading 2_64_A and load case 5.
  • The maximum strain at midspan on the steel girder was measured by SG 9 at 239 µe on the bottom, outside flange, with loading 2_64_BN and load case 8.
  • The maximum vertical deflection of the steel girders was 0.362 inches downward, measured by string pot 2 on girder 3 during loading 2_643_D and load case 3.
  • The deformations of the bridge during the dynamic test were on the same order of magnitude as the static testing.
Table 25. Test 2_64_A.
2_64_A Girder Number/Strain Gage - Strains (µe)
Load Case 1/SG 9 2/SG 10 3/SG 11 4/SG 12 5/SG 13 6/SG 14
1 Average 58.30 25.96 49.97 66.90 77.23 74.88
Standard Deviation 5.18 6.76 3.73 5.44 5.50 2.65
2 Average 83.38 50.63 59.33 90.42 109.96 83.79
Standard Deviation 5.32 6.28 3.37 5.25 5.86 2.10
3 Average 85.91 61.37 92.81 138.38 168.37 168.33
Standard Deviation 5.41 6.77 3.52 5.90 6.09 3.52
4 Average 63.14 47.11 69.23 83.41 117.85 85.10
Standard Deviation 6.82 7.91 3.97 6.31 6.35 1.78
5 Average 34.41 18.96 21.27 27.71 36.95 3.96
Standard Deviation 5.16 6.44 3.36 5.01 5.37 1.13
6 Average 61.49 45.31 65.35 78.55 91.79 89.68
Standard Deviation 5.97 8.20 4.25 6.27 6.76 2.57
7 Average 77.51 60.53 61.81 98.44 120.34 87.34
Standard Deviation 4.71 5.83 3.39 4.56 5.17 2.60
8 Average 77.13 66.79 96.78 139.84 176.97 155.87
Standard Deviation 5.49 6.62 3.44 5.78 5.79 2.07
9 Average 81.84 63.64 57.20 102.15 116.93 99.96
Standard Deviation 5.16 6.88 3.56 5.33 5.89 1.92
10 Average 75.24 34.82 23.06 37.32 44.73 14.01
Standard Deviation 5.18 6.83 3.48 5.07 5.71 1.03

 

Table 26. Test 2_64_B.
2_64_B Girder Number/Strain Gage – Strains (µe)
Load Case 1/SG 9 2/SG 10 3/SG 11 4/SG 12 5/SG 13 6/SG 14
1 Average 136.17 104.69 88.75 88.85 80.12 67.34
Standard Deviation 6.64 7.80 4.22 6.02 6.63 1.98
2 Average 156.52 148.78 120.82 135.65 97.11 60.74
Standard Deviation 5.91 7.21 4.21 6.22 6.32 1.53
3 Average 239.01 211.82 181.63 185.23 151.09 114.11
Standard Deviation 5.51 7.05 4.01 5.78 5.73 1.67
4 Average 158.25 127.11 128.89 121.02 105.94 65.34
Standard Deviation 5.85 6.68 3.90 4.99 5.56 1.47
5 Average 52.44 27.55 40.89 45.52 38.00 11.12
Standard Deviation 5.20 6.30 3.43 4.75 4.90 0.74
6 Average 2.30 17.51 21.25 35.68 48.61 68.56
Standard Deviation 5.60 7.43 3.47 5.61 6.02 1.55
7 Average -7.28 15.60 23.91 50.20 69.55 63.56
Standard Deviation 6.04 8.17 4.18 6.17 6.27 1.44
8 Average -14.26 12.79 19.18 52.16 79.15 96.93
Standard Deviation 5.45 7.23 3.49 5.48 6.00 3.29
9 Average -7.88 19.23 20.41 48.73 66.96 67.75
Standard Deviation 5.17 6.58 3.63 5.46 5.38 1.37
10 Average 4.26 20.49 18.30 28.02 32.80 14.23
Standard Deviation 5.53 7.30 3.47 5.69 6.19 1.18

 

Table 27. Test 2_64_BN.
2_64_BN Girder Number/Strain Gage - Strains (µe)
 Load Case 1/SG 9 2/SG 10 3/SG 11 4/SG 12 5/SG 13 6/SG 14
1 Average 4.20 7.38 17.02 23.56 32.59 63.08
Standard Deviation 6.10 7.66 3.84 5.52 5.77 2.59
2 Average 4.05 8.81 27.05 44.01 61.50 57.75
Standard Deviation 4.71 6.95 3.50 5.75 5.75 1.10
3 Average 3.49 9.88 27.31 47.74 70.54 109.83
Standard Deviation 5.41 6.96 3.80 5.37 5.85 2.06
4 Average 3.31 8.24 18.79 38.63 54.85 54.55
Standard Deviation 5.62 7.31 4.71 5.94 7.26 20.33
5 Average 5.56 7.62 5.74 16.57 17.63 5.33
Standard Deviation 6.62 8.18 3.91 6.13 6.59 0.89
6 Average 142.63 111.18 93.68 73.54 61.15 55.92
Standard Deviation 6.59 7.38 3.99 5.30 5.84 1.43
7 Average 173.73 140.49 121.80 118.43 85.90 49.80
Standard Deviation 5.00 5.98 3.30 4.82 5.39 1.22
8 Average 238.72 214.84 191.67 167.74 141.83 99.30
Standard Deviation 6.16 6.98 3.68 5.31 6.22 1.47
9 Average 175.81 157.92 115.87 129.32 87.24 64.70
Standard Deviation 6.48 8.66 4.14 6.12 6.28 1.30
10 Average 55.12 57.08 39.68 46.09 28.37 15.52
Standard Deviation 5.57 6.88 3.52 4.89 5.24 1.01

 

Table 28. Test 2_64_C.
2_64_C Girder Number/Strain Gage - Strains (µe)
 Load Case 1/SG 9 2/SG 10 3/SG 11 4/SG 12 5/SG 13 6/SG 14
1 Average 81.44 81.82 66.87 64.85 71.71 69.19
Standard Deviation 6.11 7.89 4.37 6.03 6.37 2.92
2 Average 114.69 100.62 82.45 115.77 97.44 43.67
Standard Deviation 5.60 7.17 3.56 6.07 6.01 1.41
3 Average 159.41 159.23 146.57 163.03 147.74 109.01
Standard Deviation 6.27 12.56 8.14 7.55 8.81 9.10
4 Average 114.52 101.43 108.21 115.72 108.97 61.98
Standard Deviation 11.01 13.54 10.92 11.12 9.46 12.27
5 Average 22.89 11.32 22.56 32.42 30.32 -4.77
Standard Deviation 5.30 7.51 4.23 5.79 6.04 1.00
6 Average -8.79 8.12 17.92 33.55 48.64 72.39
Standard Deviation 5.59 6.80 3.23 5.65 6.17 7.37
7 Average -8.22 4.20 16.38 43.24 67.98 55.61
Standard Deviation 5.93 7.38 4.12 5.81 6.26 1.70
8 Average -23.11 -2.21 9.40 44.30 76.28 93.72
Standard Deviation 6.05 7.17 3.89 5.62 5.89 8.57
9 Average -31.82 -3.06 4.18 34.65 57.29 53.37
Standard Deviation 6.63 7.81 3.74 5.94 6.15 1.21
10 Average -16.48 -5.07 -7.06 6.91 14.78 -8.04
Standard Deviation 6.35 6.85 3.71 5.66 6.18 0.82

 

Table 29. Test 2_64_CN.
2_64_CN Girder Number/Strain Gage - Strains (µe)
 Load Case 1/SG 9 2/SG 10 3/SG 11 4/SG 12 5/SG 13 6/SG 14
1 Average -26.76 -9.90 -2.28 8.31 26.48 53.90
Standard Deviation 5.61 6.88 3.52 5.66 5.86 1.28
2 Average -31.85 -8.89 8.22 27.68 56.05 47.40
Standard Deviation 5.99 7.42 3.83 5.85 6.35 1.24
3 Average -23.06 -3.13 14.35 39.47 70.90 104.00
Standard Deviation 6.49 8.22 4.12 6.12 6.19 8.04
4 Average -16.59 0.13 14.25 34.00 57.37 55.98
Standard Deviation 6.62 8.25 3.82 5.91 6.16 2.02
5 Average -12.01 0.50 3.08 9.73 14.47 2.43
Standard Deviation 5.84 7.01 3.58 5.59 6.33 1.32
6 Average 113.52 88.22 76.32 61.40 57.85 55.74
Standard Deviation 7.78 8.04 4.88 6.01 6.72 2.64
7 Average 125.26 112.47 101.68 112.09 86.19 44.79
Standard Deviation 6.27 7.57 4.14 6.28 6.41 1.65
8 Average 172.24 177.11 165.27 149.80 140.39 99.14
Standard Deviation 6.05 7.53 3.76 5.55 5.67 1.06
9 Average 116.70 120.34 84.06 109.60 83.44 55.09
Standard Deviation 5.41 7.00 3.85 5.21 5.04 1.59
10 Average 20.62 28.96 13.63 30.37 20.75 3.86
Standard Deviation 6.93 8.61 3.92 6.31 6.59 1.47

 

Table 30. Test 2_643_D.
2_643_D Girder Number/Strain Gage - Strains (µe)
 Load Case 1/SG 9 2/SG 10 3/SG 11 4/SG 12 5/SG 13 6/SG 14
1 Average 98.42 100.17 82.27 103.01 124.35 132.00
Standard Deviation 5.68 7.83 4.09 6.11 6.43 2.05
2 Average 124.27 128.80 109.13 157.79 156.94 97.60
Standard Deviation 5.48 7.92 3.97 6.26 6.36 0.75
3 Average 197.70 193.86 167.99 209.99 220.13 198.26
Standard Deviation 5.81 6.91 3.36 5.28 5.57 1.32
4 Average 121.02 110.56 107.98 133.17 147.72 89.67
Standard Deviation 6.84 7.88 3.57 5.99 6.81 1.34
5 Average 23.05 12.48 11.76 32.24 37.51 -11.88
Standard Deviation 5.56 7.16 3.41 5.11 5.41 0.82
6 Average 97.76 92.46 79.56 87.72 102.10 114.25
Standard Deviation 5.43 6.57 3.46 5.36 5.28 1.04
7 Average 126.67 119.07 108.94 151.25 149.64 93.39
Standard Deviation 6.55 7.95 4.38 5.92 6.28 1.22
8 Average 176.75 186.02 174.51 192.81 212.13 184.35
Standard Deviation 5.92 7.51 3.86 5.76 6.01 1.06
9 Average 124.85 134.90 100.15 151.04 145.49 117.27
Standard Deviation 5.76 7.36 3.95 5.88 6.32 1.48
10 Average 35.37 43.71 22.65 52.02 50.02 17.72
Standard Deviation 5.59 7.41 3.61 5.77 5.95 1.26
Page last modified on May 18, 2012.
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