U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
2023664000
Accelerating Innovation
Figure 1. Graphs. Actual and recommended design stressstrain behavior of UHPC in compression.
Figure 2. Graphs. Measured and recommended design stressstrain behavior of UHPC in tension.
Figure 3. Graph. Comparison of various equations suggested for elastic modulus of UHPC with measured experimental data.
Figure 4. Chart. Durability properties of UHPC and HPC with respect to normal concrete (lowest values identify the most favorable material.(26)
Figure 5. Diagrams. Schematic of UHPC waffle deck system.
Figure 6. Diagram. Crosssection details of the replacement bridge with UHPC waffle deck system in Wapello County, Iowa.
Figure 7. Diagrams. Connection details used for the UHPC waffle deck system.
Figure 8. Diagram and photos. Schematic of the test setup used for testing of the UHPC waffle deck panel system.
Figure 9. Diagrams and photos. Schematic of the displacement and strain gauges in the test unit.
Figure 10. Graphs. Measured forcedisplacement response at the center of the waffle deck panel and the transverse paneltopanel joint under service loads.
Figure 11. Graphs. Measured strain distribution along the transverse rib in the center of the panel and normalized strains at the center of the transverse ribs along the longitudinal direction under service load conditions.
Figure 12. Graph. Measured forcedisplacement response of waffle deck system.
Figure 13. Graph and photo. Measured forcedisplacement response and cracking at the center of the paneltopanel joint under ultimate loads.
Figure 14. Graph and photos. Measured loaddisplacement behavior and failure surface during the punching shear failure test of waffle deck system.
Figure 15. Photo. Axle weight and configuration of the test truck.
Figure 16. Diagram. Schematic layout of the load paths used for field testing.
Figure 17. Diagrams. Schematic view of UHPC deck panel.
Figure 18. Diagrams. Illustrations of typical components of bridges.
Figure 19. Diagrams. Schematic of UHPC panels supported by girders.
Figure 20. Equation. The transverse strip width according to article 4.6.2.1.3 of AASHTO LRFD guidelines.
Figure 21. Equation. Selfweight of waffle deck for different rib spacing.
Figure 22. Equation. The dead load due to a 2inchthick wearing surface.
Figure 23. Equation. The design dead load at the strengthI limit state.
Figure 24. Equation. The positive and negative bending moment due to dead load for the design strip.
Figure 25. Equation. The design moment demand equation for strengthI limit state.
Figure 26. Equation. Cracking moment relationship for a rectangular section.
Figure 27. Diagrams. Strain and stress distribution along the crosssection at cracking and ultimate limit states.
Figure 28. Equation. UHPC compression force.
Figure 29. Equation. UHPC tension force.
Figure 30. Equation. Force equilibrium equation for the rectangular section.
Figure 31. Equation. Conditions for controlling limit states.
Figure 32. Equation. Neutral axis depth and moment capacity for compression limit state.
Figure 33. Equation. Neutral axis depth and moment capacity for tension limit state.
Figure 34. Equation. Positive and negative cracking moment for Tbeam.
Figure 35. Diagrams. Stress profile for estimating the positive cracking moment of a Tshaped UHPC beam.
Figure 36. Diagrams. Strain and stress profiles for estimating the positive nominal moment of a Tshaped UHPC beam.
Figure 37. Equation. Concrete compression force.
Figure 38. Equation. UHPC tension force.
Figure 39. Equation. Force equilibrium.
Figure 40. Diagrams. Strain and stress profiles for estimating the negative nominal moment capacity of a Tshaped UHPC beam.
Figure 41. Diagrams. Crosssection of an equivalent strip for positive bending.
Figure 42. Equation. Flange width of equivalent Tbeam for positive and negative bending.
Figure 43. Diagram. Details of an equivalent transverse rib in the positive bending strip.
Figure 44. Diagrams. The details of crosssections considered for transverse ribs.
Figure 45. Diagrams. Critical section locations for overhang design and crosssections of the waffle deck at those locations.
Figure 46. Equation. Tension force in deck panel due to collision loading.
Figure 47. Diagram. Locations of dead and live loads for design case III.
Figure 48. Diagram. Transverse connection detail tested for waffle deck panel at ISU.(40)
Figure 49. Diagrams. Paneltopanel connection details used for HPC deck panels by NYSDOT with fieldcast UHPC.(36)
Figure 50. Diagrams. NCHRP 1071 longitudinal paneltopanel connection.(46)
Figure 51. Photo. US Highway 6 demonstration bridge in Pottawattamie County, Iowa.(47)
Figure 52. Diagram. Global connection configuration.(47)
Figure 53. Diagram. SHRP 2 transverse connection detail.(47)
Figure 54. Diagram. Grouted shear key paneltopanel detail.(48)
Figure 55. Diagram. Posttensioned grouted shear key paneltopanel transverse joint detail.(48)
Figure 56. Diagram. Posttensioned transverse joint connection with simplified pocket geometry.(48)
Figure 57. Diagram. NCHRP 584 panel for system CD1A.(50)
Figure 58. Diagram. NCHRP paneltopanel connection interface.(50)
Figure 59. Diagram. Longitudinal connection tested for waffle deck at ISU.(40)
Figure 60. Diagram. A shear pocket connection tested at ISU.(40)
Figure 61. Diagram. FHWA paneltosteel girder connection detail.(51)
Figure 62. Diagram. FHWA paneltoconcrete girder.(51)
Figure 63. Diagram. Paneltosteel girder connection.(50)
Figure 64. Diagram. Paneltoconcrete girder connection.(50)
Figure 65. Diagram. Paneltogirder (steel) shear stud connection.(54)
Figure 66. Diagrams. Extended stirrups and fieldinstalled reinforcement as horizontal shear connectors.(49)
Figure 67. Photo. Jackhammering deck sections prior to removal.
Figure 68. Photo. Sawn deck section being removed by crane.
Figure 69. Photo. Existing superstructure with remaining reinforcement after deck removal.
Figure 70. Diagram. Shear pockets used for installing precast deck panels.(57)
Figure 71. Photo and diagram. Clustered headed shear stud arrangement for deck panel shear pocket.(60)
Figure 72. Diagram. Postinstalled reinforcement as horizontal shear connector.
Figure 73. Photos. Construction of a UHPC panel.
Figure 74. Photos. Formwork used for waffle deck panel construction.
Figure 75. Diagrams. Full and partialdepth shear pockets.
Figure 76. Photo. Test setup for characterization of skid resistance of textures using the British pendulum tester.
Figure 77. Photo. Closeup of shear pockets and shear hooks at Wapello County, Iowa, waffle deck bridge.
Figure 78. Photo. Watertight seal at paneltogirder connection using quick setting spray.
Figure 79. Photos. Placement of waffle deck panels.
Figure 80. Photos. Transverse and longitudinal connections.
Figure 81. Photos. Batching of UHPC joint fill using IMER Mortarman 750 mixers in field.
Figure 82. Photos. Filling of connection regions with in situ UHPC and completed connections.
Figure 83. Photo. Finished transverse connections (paneltopanel connection) covered with plywood.
Figure 84. Photo. Closeup of the waffle panel deck after grinding along the transverse and longitudinal deck connections.
Figure 85. Diagrams. Proposed transverse reinforcement configurations.
Table 1. Material composition of typical UHPC mix.(12)
Table 2. Durability properties of UHPC compared to HPC and NSC.
Table 3. Sequence and details of the tests conducted on the waffle deck system.
Table 4. Design strip width (Wts).
Table 5. Load factors for different limit states.
Table 6. Recommended values for estimating dead load.
Table 7. Selfweight of the deck panel (wwaffle) in psf for different rib spacing.
Table 8. Properties of Fsection continuous barrier rail as used by the Iowa DOT.
Table 9. Collision design parameters suggested for the Iowa standard Ftype barrier.
Table 10. Suitable values for estimating the design moments for waffle deck panels due to dead load (self weight and wearing surface).
Table 11. Table A41 from AASHTO LRFD specifications with a load factor of 1.75 as the LL positive moment effect in strengthI limit state.(27)
Table 12. Table A41 from AASHTO LRFD specifications with a load factor of 1.75 as the LL negative moment effect in strengthI limit state).(27)
Table 13. The positive moment demand for waffle deck panel at strengthI limit state.
Table 14. The negative moment demand for waffle deck panel at strengthI limit state.
Table 15. Tbeam internal forces and their location at ultimate limit state.
Table 16. Tbeam internal forces and their location at ultimate limit state.
Table 17. Equivalent flange width for the Tsection for different girder and rib spacing.
Table 18. Cracking and nominal moment capacity for UWP6T7B in kipft/ft.
Table 19. Cracking and nominal moment capacity for UWP6T6B in kipft/ft.
Table 20. Negative moment demands due to collision forces at critical locations.
Table 21. Moment capacity of the overhang section for deck panels with two different reinforcement configurations.
Table 22. Details of the textures and average sand patch diameters.
Table 23. Measured skid resistance values for different textured surfaces using British pendulum tester.
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.
The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides highquality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.
1. Report No. 
2. Government Accession No. 
3. Recipient's Catalog No. 

4. Title and Subtitle 
5. Report Date 

6. Performing Organization Code 

7. Author(s) 
8. Performing Organization Report No. 

9. Performing Organization Name and Address 
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 

11. Contract or Grant No. 

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 
13. Type of Report and Period Covered 

14. Sponsoring Agency Code 

15. Supplementary Notes 

16. Abstract Following a successful fullscale validation test on a unit consisting of two panels with various types of connections under laboratory conditions, the waffle deck was installed successfully on a replacement bridge in Wapello County, Iowa. The subsequent load testing confirmed the desirable performance of the UHPC waffle deck bridge. Using the lessons from the completed project and outcomes from a series of simple and detailed finite element analyses of waffle decks, this report was developed to serve as a guide for broadening the design and installation of the UHPC waffle deck panel in new and existing bridges. Following an introduction to UHPC and waffle deck panels and a summary of completed work, this document presents information on waffle deck design, design of connections, redecking using waffle deck panels, and guidance on precast fabrication, construction, and installation of UHPC waffle deck panels. 

17. Key Words 
18. Distribution Statement 

19. Security Classification (of this report) 
20. Security Classification (of this page) 
21. No. of Pages 
22. Price 
APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS  APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS  

Symbol  When You Know  Multiply By  To Find  Symbol  Symbol  When You Know  Multiply By  To Find  Symbol  
LENGTH  LENGTH  
in  inches  25.4  millimeters  mm  mm  millimeters  0.039  inches  in  
ft  feet  0.305  meters  m  m  meters  3.28  feet  ft  
yd  yards  0.914  meters  m  m  meters  1.09  yards  yd  
mi  miles  1.61  kilometers  km  km  kilometers  0.621  miles  mi  
AREA  AREA  
in^{2}  square inches  645.2  square millimeters  mm^{2}  mm^{2}  square millimeters  0.0016  square inches  in^{2}  
ft^{2}  square feet  0.093  square meters  m^{2}  m^{2}  square meters  10.764  square feet  ft^{2}  
yd^{2}  square yards  0.836  square meters  m^{2}  m^{2}  square meters  1.195  square yards  yd^{2}  
ac  acres  0.405  hectares  ha  ha  hectares  2.47  acres  ac^{2}  
mi^{2}  square miles  2.59  square kilometers  km^{2}  km^{2}  square kilometers  0.386  square miles  mi^{2}  
VOLUME  VOLUME  
fl oz  fluid ounces  29.57  milliliters  ml  mL  milliliters  0.034  fluid ounces  fl oz  
gal  gallons  3.785  liters  L  L  liters  0.264  gallons  gal  
ft^{3}  cubic feet  0.028  cubic meters  m^{3}  m^{3}  cubic meters  35.314  cubic feet  ft^{3}  
yd^{3}  cubic yards  0.765  cubic meters  m^{3}  m^{3}  cubic meters  1.307  cubic yard  yd^{3}  
NOTE: Volumes greater than 1000 l shall be shown in m^{3}  
MASS  MASS  
oz  ounces  28.35  grams  g  g  grams  0.035  ounces  oz  
lb  pounds  0.454  kilograms  kg  kg  kilograms  2.202  pounds  lb  
T  short tons (2000 lb)  0.907  megagrams  Mg  Mg (or "t")  megagrams (or "metric ton")  1.103  short tons (2000 lb)  T  
TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)  TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)  
°F  Fahrenheit  5(F–32)/9 or (F–32)/1.8  Celcius  °C  °C  Celsius  1.8C +32  Fahrenheit  °F  
ILLUMINATION  ILLUMINATION  
fc  foot–candles  10.76  lux  lx  lx  lux  0.0929  foot–candles  fc  
fl  foot–Lamberts  3.426  candela/m^{2}  cd/m^{2}  cd/m^{2}  candela/m^{2}  0.2919  foot–Lamberts  fl  
FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS  FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS  
lbf  pounds  4.45  newtons  N  N  newtons  0.225  poundforce  lbf  
lbf/in^{2}  pound per square inch  6.89  kilopascals  kPa  kPa  kilopascals  0.145  poundforce per square inch  lbf/in^{2} 
*SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380. (Revised March 2003)