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REFERENCES

  1. FHWA. (2008). "2008 Condition and Performance Report." U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  2. Matsumoto, E., Waggoner, M., Sumen, G., Kreger, M., Wood, S., and Breen, J. (2001). Development of a Precast Bent Cap System, Center for Transportation Research, Research Project 0-1748, University of Texas at Austin.

  3. Matsumoto, E., Waggoner, M., Kreger, M., Vogel, J., and Wolf, L. (2008). "Development of a Precast Concrete Bent-Cap System." PCI Journal, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 74-99.

  4. Hieber, D., Wacker, J., Eberhard, M.O., and Stanton, J.F. (2005). State of the Art Report on Precast Concrete Systems for Rapid Construction of Bridges. Report No. WA-RD-549.1, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA.

  5. Wacker, J., Hieber, D., Eberhard, M., and Stanton, J. (2005). Design of Precast Concrete Piers for Rapid Construction of Bridges in Seismic Regions. Report No. WA-RD-629.1, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA.

  6. Hieber, D., Wacker, J., Eberhard, M.O., and Stanton, J.F. (2005). Precast Concrete Pier Systems for Rapid Construction of Bridges in Seismic Regions. Report No. WA-RD-611.1, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA.

  7. Pang, J.B.K., Steuck, K., Cohagen, L., Stanton, J.F., Eberhard, M.O. (2008). Rapidly Constructable Large-Bar Precast Bridge-Bent Seismic Connection. Washington State Transportation Center Report No. WA-RD 684.2, Seattle, WA.

  8. Pang, J.B.K., Eberhard, M.O., and Stanton, J.F. (2010). "Large-Bar Connection for Precast Bridge Bents in Seismic Regions." Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, vol. 15, no. 3, May-June, pp. 231-239.

  9. Steuck, K., Pang, J.B.K., Stanton, J.F. and Eberhard, M.O. (2007) Anchorage of Large Bars in Grouted Ducts. Washington State Transportation Center Report WA-RD 684.1, Seattle, WA.

  10. Steuck, K., Stanton, J.F. and Eberhard, M.O. (2009) "Anchorage of Large-Diameter Reinforcing Bars in Ducts." ACI Structural Journal, vol. 106, no. 4, July-August, pp. 506-513.

  11. Cohagen, L.S., Pang, J.B.K., Eberhard, M.O., and Stanton, J.F. (2008). A Precast Concrete Bridge Bent Designed to Re-center after an Earthquake. Report No. WA-RD 684.3, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA.

  12. Haraldsson, O.S. (2011). "Spread Footing Socket Connections for Precast Columns." MSCE Thesis. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

  13. Janes, T.M. (2011). "Precast Column Socket Connections for Thin Spread Footings." MSCE Thesis. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

  14. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (2009). AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 4th ed., with 2009 Interim Revisions. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC.

  15. AASHTO (2009). AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design. 1st ed. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington DC.

  16. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). (2006). Seismic Design Criteria Version 1.4. Caltrans, Sacramento, CA.

  17. Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). (2008). Bridge Design Manual Version M23-50.02. Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA.

  18. American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318. (2008). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. ACI 318-08, American Concrete Institute, Farming Hills, MI.

  19. Mander, J. Priestley, M., and Park, R. (1998). "Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete." Journal of the Structural Division ASCE, vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 1804-1826.

  20. Building Seismic Safety Council. (2003). "NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA 450)." National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C.

  21. Berry, M.P., and Eberhard, M.O. (2004). "PEER Structural Performance Database User's Manual." Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center Report 2004, www.ce.washington.edu/~peeral, University of California, Berkeley.

  22. Brown, W. (2008). "Bar Buckling in Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns." MSCE Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

  23. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (2004). PCI Design Handbook. 6th ed. PCI, Chicago, IL.

  24. Berry, M.P., and Eberhard, M.O. (2003). "Performance Models for Flexural Damage in Reinforced Concrete Columns." Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center Report 2003, University of California, Berkeley.

  25. Berry, M.P. and Eberhard, M.O. (2005). "A Practical Performance Model for Bar Buckling," Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 131, No. 7, pp. 1060-1070.

  26. Elwood, K.J., and Eberhard, M.O. (2009). "Effective Stiffness of Reinforced Concrete Columns." ACI Structural Journal, vol. 106, no. 4, July-August, pp. 476-484.

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