P3 QUICK FACTS
P3s include any arrangement in which the private sector takes on more risk than what is traditional.
P3 goals may vary from raising funds from lease of an existing facility (asset monetization), to constructing a brand-new facility (greenfield).
P3s do not necessarily involve toll facilities.
Under traditional procurement, private contractors construct projects based on a public design with public financing and turn them over to the public sector upon completion for operations and maintenance. Under P3 models, the private sector may also participate in design, finance, operations, maintenance and toll revenue collection. "Availability payments" are a type of long-term lease in which the private sector designs, builds, finances and operates a facility over a specified term, in exchange for an annual payment. Under a toll concession, the private concessionaire receives the right to collect toll revenues from the facility instead of collecting a specified payment.
FHWA, through its Office of Innovative Program Delivery (OIPD), seeks to provide technical support for the consideration and use of public-private partnerships (P3s) as a mechanism for procurement and financing of highway projects. OIPD seeks to develop an understanding of P3s by key stakeholder groups, transportation leaders and elected officials and encourage consideration of P3s (where appropriate). OIPD also seeks to improve the capacity of P3 units (or other teams) within State governments to support the consideration and use of P3 procurement.
Building the organizational capacity needed to develop P3s while protecting the public interest presents a major challenge to transportation agencies. Agencies will need to acquire or develop new policy, legal, technical, financial and managerial skills and establish processes and structures, such as specialized P3 units, that allow them to apply those skills in a multidisciplinary way.
To design partnerships that are both in the public interest and attractive to private investors, public agencies will need to gain a better understanding of private sector interests as well as public concerns. Managing the organizational changes needed to develop, implement and monitor P3s will require agencies to involve and educate agency staff and external project stakeholders to build committed leadership at multiple levels.
OIPD assist States in developing new P3 knowledge, skills, and abilities that vary by phase of project development, including policy, legal, technical, financial and managerial capabilities. OIPD supports research and development of tools to facilitate consideration and implementation of P3s; assists in building the capacity of practitioner communities; develops and implements Federal policy on P3s; and collaborates with State and local partners to communicate the various aspects of P3s to elected officials, transportation leaders and the public.
The target audience for OIPD assistance varies by project phase, as follows:
To achieve its objectives, OIPD:
OIPD's draft Program Plan and Road Map for Performance Years 2013-2017 which outlines OIPD's planned collaborative efforts for research, tool development, capacity building, policy development and stewardship is available on OIPD's website at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ipd/p3/
A key current activity in the research area is the development of comparative case studies of representative projects that highlight maturing or evolving P3 policies and practices. Current activities in tool development include development of an analytical toolkit to assist in understanding how to compare a P3 procurement option with the traditional approach. Supporting guides and a training program are also being developed.
OIPD periodically conducts P3 webinars, both introductory and advanced. Recordings and transcripts of past webinars are available to FHWA staff on the Innovative Program Delivery Academy (IPD Academy) Staffnet website at: http://staffnet.fhwa.dot.gov/ipd/academy.htm OIPD also provides a variety of P3 resources on its website at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ipd/p3/
IPD provides a one-stop source for expertise, guidance, research, decision tools, and publications on program delivery innovations. Our Web page, workshops, and other resources help build the capacity of transportation professionals to deliver innovation.
IPD's project delivery team covers cost estimate reviews, financial planning, and project management, and assists FHWA Divisions with statutory requirements for major projects (e.g., cost estimate reviews, financial plans, and project management plans).
IPD's project finance program focuses on alternative financing, including State Infrastructure Banks (SIBs), Grant Anticipation Revenue Vehicles (GARVEEs), and Build America Bonds (BABs).
Public - Private Partnerships
IPD's P3 program covers alternative procurement and payment models (e.g., toll and availability payments), which can reduce cost, improve project quality, and provide additional financing options.
IPD's revenue program focuses on how governments can use innovation to generate revenue from transportation projects (e.g., value capture, developer mitigation fees, air rights, and road pricing).
The Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program provides credit assistance for significant projects. Many surface transportation projects - highway, transit, railroad, intermodal freight, and port access - are eligible to apply for assistance.