There are a variety of mechanisms, beyond roadway pricing available to generate revenue for transportation projects. These include a broad assortment of fees or taxes levied on defined groups of beneficiaries expected to benefit from the provision of a particular transportation facility or resource. Such strategies can be used to help pay for non-tolled improvements such as transit by leveraging localized benefits ranging from increased land values to a broader tax base. Value capture strategies, however, may also be applied to toll roads to take advantage of the increased property values and other economic benefits produced by such improvements as is the case for the San Joaquin Toll Road in southern California and E-470 outside Denver, Colorado. Most non-pricing revenue sources are derived from state or local programs or private sources. While they are not specifically supported by Federal programs or involve Federal participation, the Office of IPD encourages state and local jurisdictions to look for new revenue sources to address funding shortfalls and is available to provide technical assistance in these areas. In addition, traditional sources of Federal and state revenue, such as motor fuel taxes, are summarized here.
Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE) - Chicago, Illinois
The CREATE project is an innovative collaboration between freight railroads, the State of Illinois DOT, the City of Chicago DOT, Metra, and Amtrak. CREATE is maximizing the use of four train transportation corridors, including three primarily handling freight traffic and one primarily handling passenger traffic. The project involves 70 improvements, including rail, auto, and pedestrian grade separations using new overpasses and underpasses, as well as viaduct improvements, grade crossing safety enhancements, and extensive upgrades of tracks, switches and signal systems.
Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor Project - Los Angeles, California
The Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor Project is a new 8.5-mile light rail transit line extending from the existing Exposition Line south to LAX, including a minimum of six transit stations (with off-street parking), the procurement of a minimum of 20 light rail vehicles, and the construction of a full service maintenance facility. The project is supported by a TIFIA loan backed by local sales tax revenue, as well as other state funds, including those from general obligation bonds, and additional local sales tax revenue.
Dallas Area Rapid Transit Project Orange Line Extension (I-3) - Dallas, Texas
The DART Orange Line is a partially open, light rail transit line connecting downtown Dallas with the City of Irving and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport northwest of Dallas. The 14.5-mile, $1.3 billion project is being opened in three sections. The TIFIA loan for this project will advance construction on the third phase of its light rail Orange Line extension project.
Eagle Project - Denver Metro Area, Colorado
The East and Gold Line Enterprise (Eagle) Project is part of RTD's FasTracks, a voter-approved program to expand rail and bus transit throughout the Denver metropolitan region. The Eagle Project is being procured through a concession agreement between RTD and Denver Transit Partners to design, build, finance, operate, and maintain the project's components for 34 years.
Heartland Corridor - Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio
Due to the Norfolk Southern's rail network, the Port of Virginia (Newport News) has always had good rail access to the Midwest markets. The Heartland Corridor project makes the most direct rail route to the major markets of Columbus and Chicago accessible to double-stack container trains and shortens trip-times. Extending through Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio, the Heartland Corridor consists of series of five separate intermodal projects designed to improve mobility and increase freight capacity.
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail - Hudson/Bergen Counties, New Jersey
The $1.0 billion, 9.5-mile initial operating segment was procured using innovative 15-year DBOM contract, resulting in an estimated 8 years in savings compared to a traditional multiple design-bid-build approach. The contract was later renegotiated to cover Segments II ($1.2 billion) and III ($100 million) that extended the rail another 7 miles, adding 8 stations.
Interlink (formerly Warwick Intermodal Station) - Warwick, Rhode Island
Interlink, formerly the Warwick Intermodal Station project, is an intermodal project connecting air, rail, bus, automobiles, and rental cars at T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI that serves the Providence area and Southern Massachusetts. The project consisted of construction of a new commuter rail station with an enclosed walkway connection to the airport and a consolidated rental car center and parking garage.
King Coal Highway - West Virginia
The King Coal Highway is a planned four-lane highway approximately 90 miles long running through McDowell, Mercer, Mingo, Wyoming, and Wayne counties along or near currently existing US Route 52. The highway is divided into 11 usable and operationally independent sections. Some of the construction work is being done by local mining companies as they extract coal from the surrounding areas near and on the new highway alignment.
Las Vegas Monorail - Las Vegas, Nevada
The Las Vegas Monorail was originally a joint venture between MGM Grand and Bally's Hotel, creating a one-mile system linking the hotels in 1993. Plans for expansion further along the Strip led to the State of Nevada in 1997 passing legislation that enabled a private company to own, operate, and charge a fare as a public monorail system.
Louisiana TIMED Program - Louisiana (statewide)
The TIMED (Transportation Infrastructure Model for Economic Development) Program is a $4.6 billion transportation infrastructure program designed to increase economic development in Louisiana by investing in transportation improvement projects. It is an innovative capital program financed by a 4-cent gas tax and expedited by a partnership with a private program manager.
Miami Intermodal Center - Florida
Located next to the Miami International Airport (MIA), the Miami Intermodal Center is a large ground transportation hub incorporating a Rental Car Center, the Miami Central Station serving local rail transit, commuter rail, Amtrak, and intercity bus transit, major roadway improvements, the MIA Mover and future joint development. Federal, state, and local funding is supporting this $2 billion program.
Port of Miami Tunnel - Florida
The Port of Miami Tunnel will improve access to and from the Port of Miami, serving as a dedicated roadway connector linking the Port (located on an island in Biscayne Bay) with the MacArthur Causeway and I-395 on the mainland. The project is being developed as a P3 with Miami Access Tunnel, LLC (MAT). The state has agreed to pay for approximately 50 percent of the capital costs (design and construction) and all operations and maintenance, while the remaining 50 percent of the capital costs will be provided by the local governments. FDOT will make milestone payments to MAT at various stages of project development, followed by availability payments during a 30-year concession. Senior bank debt, a TIFIA loan, and private equity have been used to finance the project.
Reno Transportation Rail Access Corridor (ReTRAC) - Reno, Nevada
Traffic congestion and safety concerns brought about the largest public works project ever undertaken in Northern Nevada, the Reno Transportation Rail Access Corridor, or ReTRAC. The project depressed a 2.3-mile stretch of freight rail that ran through downtown, eliminating 10 at-grade street crossings.
Route 3 North - Boston, Massachusetts
Financed using tax-exempt 63-20 debt and leveraging lease payments pledged by the Massachusetts Highway Department, the Route 3 North project involved widening an existing 21-mile highway northwest of Boston from two to three lanes in each direction. The project included the creation of a 30-foot median to accommodate fiber optic line and other utilities, and the replacement of 40 bridges.
Transbay Transit Center - San Francisco, California
The Transbay Transit Center Project will replace the current Transbay Terminal with a new multimodal transportation center and centralize the region's transportation network by accommodating nine transportation systems under one roof. The project consists of replacing the outdated Transbay Terminal with a modern transit hub, extending the Caltrain rail line from its current terminus and accommodating high-speed rail, and redeveloping the area surrounding the Transbay Transit Center.