Road pricing involves charging fees for the use of a roadway facility. The revenue generated may be used to pay for highway operations and maintenance or as the primary source of repayment for long-term debt used to finance a toll facility itself. There are two primary variants:
183-A Turnpike - Austin, Texas
The 183-A Turnpike is an 11.6-mile controlled access north-south tolled highway east of the existing US 183 in metropolitan Austin. This regionally significant project connects to the Central Texas Turnpike System, previously funded in part with TIFIA credit assistance. 183-A was developed by the state's first Regional Mobility Authority - CTRMA - which was legislatively authorized in 2001 to form at the county level if a regional toll authority did not already exist to construct, operate, and maintain toll roads. CTRMA opened a northern 5-mile extension of the 183-A in April 2012, fully funded with the sale of toll revenue bonds.
91 Express Lanes - Orange County, California
The 91 Express Lanes is a 10-mile, barrier-separated, variable priced express lane facility - the first priced managed lane facility in the U.S. The lanes, two in each direction, extend from the Costa Mesa Freeway near Anaheim to the Orange/Riverside County Line in Orange County, California. They were constructed as a private, for-profit project in 1995 and purchased by Orange County Transportation Authority in 2003.
95 Express - Miami, Florida
When fully constructed, the 95 Express will provide two express lanes in each direction and additional general purpose lane capacity for approximately 22 miles along I-95 from I-395 in Miami-Dade County to I-595 in Broward County, Florida. Phase 1 is complete, delivered as a design-build-finance project under a federal Urban Partnership Agreement. Phase 2 is a design-build project.
Alaskan Way Viaduct - Seattle, Washington
The Alaskan Way Viaduct is an elevated section of State Highway SR 99, one of two major North-South corridors in the City of Seattle. Its reconstruction comprises two sections of replacement, one with a new viaduct section and another with a bored tunnel, as well as repairs and enhancements to a third viaduct section. This major project's financial plan includes Federal, state, and local funding, including revenue from recent increases in Washington State's motor fuel tax as well as toll proceeds.
Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel - Porter-Whittier, Alaska
The privately operated, 2.6-mile, dual mode Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel (aka Whittier Tunnel) connects the cities of Porter and Whittier on Prince William Sound, 65 miles southeast of Anchorage, Alaska. The project was funded on a pay-as-you-go basis.
Central Texas Turnpike System
The Central Texas Turnpike System consists of three contiguous toll highways serving the Austin metropolitan region and the Austin-San Antonio corridor: SH 45 North, Loop 1, and SH 130 (Segments 1-4). State and local funding sources were combined with a Federal TIFIA loan to finance the project. SH 130 (Segments 1-4) was delivered via a design-build contract procured through Texas' first application of legislation permitting expanded private sector involvement.
Chicago Skyway - Chicago, Illinois
The Chicago Skyway is a 7.8-mile elevated toll road connecting I-94 (Dan Ryan Expressway) in Chicago to I-90 (Indiana Toll Road) at the Indiana border. It was leased to a consortium of Cintra and Macquarie in 2005 for an upfront payment of $1.83 billion, which the City used to pay down Skyway and city debt and establish reserve funds.
Delaware U.S. Route 301 - Northern Delaware
U.S. Route 301 in Northern Delaware will be upgraded to a four-lane, limited access toll road on new location, replacing the existing two-lane route. The 12.5-mile toll road will extend from the Maryland/Delaware state line to SR-1 and will include a 4.5-mile Spur Road extending to SR-15/SR-896. The purpose of the project is to improve safety and relieve congestion problems in the corridor. Fatality rates on the existing roadway are significantly higher than statewide and national averages. Funding for the project will mostly come through the sale of bonds (GARVEEs and toll revenue bonds), achieving the state's goal of minimizing any use of funds from the State Transportation Trust Fund.
Dominion Boulevard Improvement Project - Chesapeake, Virginia
The Dominion Boulevard Improvement Project is a series of improvements to 3.8 miles of Dominion Boulevard, including the replacement of Steel Bridge. After construction, the facility will open as an all-electronic tolled highway as part of the newly designated Chesapeake Transportation System, which includes the Chesapeake Expressway. The project is financed in part through toll revenue backed bonds, and a loan from Virginia's state infrastructure bank.
Downtown Tunnel / Midtown Tunnel / MLK Extension - Cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia
The Downtown Tunnel / Midtown Tunnel / MLK Extension consists of five construction components involving three facilities in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia. The $2.1 billion project will be built on a design, build, finance, operate, and maintain (DBFOM) concession basis by Elizabeth River Crossings LLC (ERC) composed of Skanska Infrastructure Development and Macquarie Group. ERC will operate the concession for 58 years. Tolling of the existing Midtown and Downtown Tunnels to help finance the project will commence in January 2014.
Dulles Greenway - Loudoun County, Virginia
The Dulles Greenway is a 14-mile, limited-access, privately financed highway extending from the State-owned Dulles Toll Road - which carries traffic between Washington's Capital Beltway and Dulles Airport - to Leesburg. The two roads connect at a toll plaza. Drivers pay one toll, which the operators of the two facilities divide.
E-470 Tollway - Denver, Colorado
The E-470 is a 47-mile orbital toll road running along the eastern perimeter of the Denver metropolitan area. The tollway was financed entirely by private enterprise and the E-470 Public Highway Authority using an innovative mix of revenue sources including: tolls: vehicle registration fees, a highway expansion impact fee, and private sector contributions ranging from office space, to right-of-way, property assessments, and monetary donations.
Foley Beach Express - Baldwin County, Alabama
The Foley Beach Express (Beach Express) is a 13.5-mile limited access, privately-operated four-lane route from the City of Foley to Orange Beach, Gulf Shores, and Perdido Key in Alabama. It is in alternative to the heavily traveled Highway 59.
Goethals Bridge Replacement -Staten Island, New York to Elizabeth New, Jersey
The Goethals Bridge project is the reconstruction of a new six-lane, cable-stayed bridge adjacent to the existing bridge and the demolition and removal of the existing bridge. The reconstructed bridge will include a bicycle/pedestrian lane along the northern edge of the New Jersey bound side, as well as a central area between eastbound and westbound lanes to accommodate future transit service. The project is being delivered as a 40-year, design-build-finance-maintain (DBFM) public-private partnership (P3) concession by the NYNJ Link Partnership. The project was financed with a TIFIA loan, private activity bonds, and equity from the private partner.
Grand Parkway (SH 99) Segments D-G - Houston Metropolitan Area, Texas
Grand Parkway (SH 99) Segments D-G (the Grand Parkway Project) is a 53-mile segment of the planned 180-mile circumferential Grand Parkway System toll highway around the Greater Houston Metropolitan Region. The Project includes five segments, located in the northwest portion of the Grand Parkway from just south of I-10 to I-69/US 59N (Eastex Freeway). The completed Project will be a four-lane, 53-mile toll road in Harris County and Montgomery County. The TIFIA loan will go toward the design and construction of specific sections of the Project.
I-4 / Selmon Expressway Connector - Tampa, Florida
The I-4 Connector is an elevated north-south toll road that will connect I-4 with the Selmon Expressway, two major east-west corridors in the Tampa region. The Connector will have exclusive truck lanes to provide direct access to the Port of Tampa and remove commercial traffic from local roads in Ybor City. The project is being delivered using a design-build-finance approach.
I-4 Ultimate - Orlando, Florida
The I-4 Ultimate project is the reconstruction and widening of 21 miles of I-4 from west of Kirkman Road in Orange County, Florida through downtown Orlando to east of State Road 434 in Seminole County. The project is adding four express toll lanes to median of the rebuilt stretch of interstate through a 40-year design-build-finance-operate-maintain availability payment concession, financed in part by a senior bank debt, a TIFIA loan, and private equity.
I-495 Capital Beltway HOT Lanes - Fairfax County, Virginia
The I-495 Capital Beltway HOT Lanes project is a P3 between VDOT and Capital Beltway Express, LLC, a joint venture of Fluor and Transurban. Improvements include 14 miles of twin HOT lanes in each direction, the replacement of more than 50 bridges and overpasses, and interchange upgrades. Financing includes the first-ever combination of TIFIA credit assistance and private activity bonds (PABs).
I-595 Corridor Roadway Improvements - Broward County, Florida
The I-595 Corridor Roadway Improvements project consists of the reconstruction and widening of 10.5 miles of the I-595 mainline from the I-75/Sawgrass Expressway to I-95. The project is being implemented as a P3 between FDOT and a private concessionaire, I-595 Express, LLC, to design, build, finance, operate, and maintain the roadway for a 35-year term. FDOT will make availability payments backed by Federal and state resources for the concessionaire's successful completion of construction and ongoing operations. The concessionaire's financing, backed by these availability payments, includes senior bank debt, a TIFIA loan, and private equity.
I-95 HOV/HOT Lanes - Fairfax, Prince William, and Stafford Counties, Virginia
The I-95 Express Lanes will be the second step in creating a regional network of tolled managed lanes in Northern Virginia. The project consists of the development, design, finance, construction, maintenance and operation of 29.4 miles of high occupancy toll lanes along I-95 and I-395 from Garrisonville Rd. in Stafford County to Edsall Rd. in Fairfax County over a 76-year concession period.
IH 635 Managed Lanes - Dallas County, Texas
The IH-635 (LBJ Freeway) Managed Lanes Project will relieve congestion north of Dallas on a 13-mile stretch of the LBJ Freeway with reconstruction of its main lanes and frontage roads and the addition of six managed lanes along I-635 (subsurface) and I-35E (elevated). The project is being built as a P3 (Comprehensive Development Agreement [CDA]) between TxDOT and LBJ Infrastructure Group, which will operate and maintain the facility for 52 years.
Indiana Toll Road - Indiana
In operation since 1956, the Indiana Toll Road stretches 157 miles across the northernmost part of Indiana from its border with Ohio to the Illinois state line, where it provides the primary connection to the Chicago Skyway and downtown Chicago. The Indiana Toll Road was leased to a consortium of Cintra and Macquarie in 2006 for an upfront payment of $3.8 billion, which is primarily being reinvested in statewide roadway and bridge improvement projects.
Intercounty Connector - Maryland
The Intercounty Connector (ICC) is a toll highway linking existing and proposed development areas between the I-270/I-370 and I-95/US 1 corridors within central and eastern Montgomery County and northwestern Prince George's County, Maryland. The project is largely supported by GARVEE and toll revenue bonds, as well as a TIFIA loan and State Transportation Trust Fund and General Fund revenues.
Katy Freeway Reconstruction - Houston, Texas
TxDOT undertook a major five-year reconstruction of a 12-mile section of the east-west Katy Freeway from west of SH 6 to the I-10/610 interchange west of Houston. The reconstruction widened the Katy to provide six general purpose highway lanes in each direction and two variably priced high occupancy toll lanes in the median of the highway. The financing of the $2.8 billion project has involved an innovative collaboration between TxDOT and the Harris County Toll Road Authority, combining toll-backed debt with more traditional grant funding.
LA 1 Improvements - Leeville, Louisiana
Phase I of this project has replaced approximately 10 miles of elevated highway and the Leeville Bridge in Southern Louisiana, which had suffered from subsidence, erosion, and frequent storm damage. The highway features open road tolling and was constructed within an area of sensitive wetlands.
Monroe Bypass - Mecklenburg and Union Counties, North Carolina
The Monroe Bypass will be a new, 20-mile all-electronic toll road in Mecklenburg and Union Counties, North Carolina. The Bypass will provide a high-speed alternative to US 74 in the region. The project is supported through a variety of bond proceeds, including GARVEEs.
New NY Bridge (Tappan Zee Bridge Replacement) - Westchester to Rockland Counties, New York
The "New NY Bridge" will replace the Tappan Zee Bridge spanning the Hudson River between Westchester and Rockland Counties 20 miles north of New York City. The new bridge is a tolled, eight-lane, dual-span twin bridge, being constructed alongside the current bridge to provide the least traffic disruption to users. The project is being delivered under a design-build contract and is financed with a combination of bonds and a TIFIA loan. The project is expected to be completed in 2018.
NoMa - Gallaudet U Metrorail Station - Washington, DC
The NoMa - Gallaudet U station, formerly known as the New York Avenue station, opened in 2004 as the Washington Metrorail's first infill station. The station was funded through a unique partnership between the District of Columbia, developers and property owners, community leaders, and WMATA. The private sector and local property owners funded $35 million (34 percent) of the $104 million project cost through land donations ($10 million) and the creation of a special assessment district ($25 million).
North Tarrant Express Segments 1 and 2A - Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex
TxDOT awarded two Comprehensive Development Agreements (CDA - equivalent to a P3) for the North Tarrant Express project to NTE Mobility Partners. The Concession CDA for Phase 1 includes the design, development, construction, finance, maintenance, and operation of 13 miles along Interstate (IH) 820 and SH 121/SH 183 north and east from Fort Worth. The duration of the concession is 52 years. The roadway is being reconstructed with the addition of two managed lanes and an additional general purpose lane in each direction. The CDA for Segments 2-4 includes developing master plans for the remainder of the NTE.
North Tarrant Express Segments 3A and 3B - Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex
Segments 3A and 3B of the North Tarrant Express (NTE) are part of a planned 36-mile network of managed lanes and widened and rebuilt freeways in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. The project includes design, construction, operations, and maintenance of approximately 12 miles of managed lanes, associated improvements to adjacent cross-roads, frontage roads, and ramps, and the intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and tolling systems on IH-35W in Tarrant County, Texas. Segment 3A will be designed and constructed via a public-private partnership between the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) and the NTE Mobility Partners Segments 3, LLC. TxDOT is responsible for the financing and construction of Segment 3B, excluding Tolling and ITS. The concessionaire will perform operations and maintenance for the entire facility, including the 3B portion constructed by TxDOT.
Northwest Corridor - Atlanta, Georgia
The Northwest Corridor project will include extensions of existing HOV lanes and the addition of reversible tolled managed lanes along sections of nearly 30 miles of I-75 and I-575 northwest of Atlanta. The nearly $850 million project will delivered using a design-build-finance approach.
Northwest Parkway - Denver Metro Region, Colorado
The Northwest Parkway is an 8-mile segment of the Denver Beltway System, connecting E-470 in northern Denver to U.S. 36 in Broomfield. The project was developed by a three-municipality joint powers agency and opened in 2003. It was subsequently leased in 2007 to a private consortium for 99 years after four years of lower than expected toll revenues.
Ohio River Bridges Downtown Crossing - Louisville, Kentucky/Southern Indiana
The Ohio River Bridges Downtown Crossing project is one half of the bi-state Ohio River Bridges project, which also includes the East End Crossing project, that together are addressing cross-river capacity and mobility needs in the greater Louisville-Southern Indiana region. The project consists of a new Downtown Bridge carrying northbound I-65 across the Ohio River between Louisville and Southern Indiana. In the background is the existing Kennedy Bridge that will carry the southbound lanes. The Downtown Crossing project also includes the reconstruction of the Kennedy Interchange in downtown Louisville to eliminate design deficiencies and safety hazards. The project is being delivered an availability-pay design-build-finance-operate-maintain concession.
Ohio River Bridges East End Crossing - Southern Indiana/Louisville, Kentucky
The Ohio River Bridges East End Crossing project is one half of the bi-state Ohio River Bridges project, which also includes the Downtown Crossing project, that together are addressing cross-river capacity and mobility needs in the greater Louisville-Southern Indiana region. The project consists of a new East End Bridge and approaches connecting I-265/KY 841 in Kentucky to I-265/SR 265 in Indiana. The project is being delivered an availability-pay design-build-finance-operate-maintain concession.
Pocahontas Parkway / Richmond Airport Connector - Greater Richmond, Virginia
This $354 million project was financed by tax-exempt toll revenue bonds issues by a 63-20 corporation. It is the first transportation project implemented under Virginia's Public-Private Transportation Act of 1995. The Parkway was leased to a private toll road operator in 2007. The deal defeased its underlying debt and included the construction of the 1.6-mile Richmond Airport Connector, which opened in January 2011.
Portland Streetcar - Portland, Oregon
The Portland Streetcar network is a 14.7-mile modern streetcar network in Downtown Portland, Oregon. Property owners along the proposed alignment agreed to establish a special property tax levy through the formation of a Local Improvement District (LID), funding approximately 13.9 percent ($34.9 million) of the $251.4 million project. In addition, Tax Increment Financing also contributed to 8.2 percent ($21.5 million) of total project costs.
Potomac Yard Metrorail Station - City of Alexandria, Virginia
The City of Alexandria, Virginia negotiated exactions for developer contributions in return for land rezoning, dedicated net new tax revenues, and created two special assessment districts to fund the project costs of a proposed infill station on the Washington Metrorail system. The Potomac Yard station - estimated to begin construction in 2016 and open to service in 2018 - is the cornerstone of the redevelopment plan for the Potomac Yard, a 295-acre former rail yard near the Potomac River.
President George Turnpike - North Dallas, Texas
The President George Bush Turnpike (PGBT) is a 30.5-mile circumferential toll roadway connecting various cities in the northern part of the Dallas Metroplex. The original PGBT was fully opened in 2006 and was the first project to benefit from USDOT's TE-045 innovative finance provisions including a Section 129 loan, partial conversion of advance construction, and the use of flexible match. Construction on an Eastern Extension began in October 2008 and was opened in December 2011. The project was sponsored by the North Texas Tollway Authority and financed by toll-backed revenue bonds and other state and local resources.
President George Bush Turnpike Western Extension (SH 161) - Dallas, Texas
State Highway (SH) 161, the President George Bush Turnpike Western Extension (PGBT WE), will provide a new, approximately 11.5-mile link between SH 183, I-30, and I-20 as part of a western loop around Dallas through the cities of Irving and Grand Prairie south of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. This toll road was completed in four phases. The first three were constructed by TxDOT and the remaining phase and overall ownership and operation has become the responsibility of the North Texas Tollway Authority under a concession agreement signed in 2008.
Puerto Rico PR-22 and PR-5 Lease - Puerto Rico
PR-22 and PR-5, heavily traveled toll roads stretching about 55 miles along the northern coast of Puerto Rico from Bayamon westward through San Juan to Arecibo, are being leased to consortium of Goldman Sachs and Abertis. The total $1.436 billion administrative concession will finance, rehabilitate, operate, and maintain the facilities over 40 years. Of that total, $1,080 million is an upfront payment of which at least 90% will be used to defease all outstanding tax-exempt toll-revenue debt ($902 million), and approximately $350 million will be expended on expected upgrades over the concession period, $56 million of which will be spent in the first three years on "accelerated safety improvements."
Route 28 Corridor Improvements - Northern Virginia
Property owners in Fairfax and Loudon Counties agreed to establish an additional property tax through the creation of a special assessment. Revenue was dedicated to major highway improvements along the Route 28 corridor.
SH 130 (Segments 5-6) - Austin, Texas Metropolitan Area
SH 130 is a four-lane, 91-mile toll road east and south of Austin designed to relieve congestion on the heavily traveled I-35, the primary north-south route through Central Texas. Segments 5 and 6 have been developed through a 50-year concession (Comprehensive Development Agreement) with the SH 130 Concession Company (a joint venture of Cintra and Zachry American Infrastructure). They were financed with senior bank debt, a TIFIA loan, and private equity. Segments 1-4 were constructed under a design-build project as part of the Central Texas Turnpike System.
South Bay Expressway (formerly SR 125 South Toll Road) - San Diego County, California
The South Bay Expressway toll road is a 9.2-mile privately-funded southern extension of SR 125, extending from SR 905 near the International Border to SR 54 near Sweetwater Reservoir in San Diego, California. The original operator, South Bay Expressway, L.P., held a 35-year franchise with the State of California under which it financed and built the highway, then transferred ownership to the State. The concessionaire emerged from bankruptcy in April 2011 as South Bay Expressway, LLC, and sold the toll road to the San Diego Association of Governments in December 2011.
South Lake Union Streetcar - Seattle, Washington
The South Lake Union Streetcar project is a 2.6-mile modern streetcar connecting the South Lake Union area to Downtown Seattle, Washington. Forming the centerpiece of an innovative funding package, local businesses and property owners along the proposed alignment agreed to establish a special property tax levy through the formation of a Local Improvement District (LID), funding approximately 47 percent ($25 million) of the $53.5 million project.
Southern Connector - South Carolina
The Southern Connector is a 16-mile toll road connecting I-85 to I-395 in Greenville, SC. The project is a DBFOM P3 developed by Connector 2000 Association Inc., a 63-20 non-profit corporation that holds a 50-year license with the state and issued tax-exempt toll revenue bonds to finance the project.
SR 91 Corridor Improvement Project - Riverside County, California
The SR 91 Corridor Improvement Project is an eight-mile extension of the Orange County SR 91 express lanes into Riverside County through conversion of existing HOV lanes. Two general purpose lanes will also be added, along with improvements made to interchanges and bridges. The project is supported by a TIFIA loan, and project is almost exclusively paid for with local funding through a combination of toll revenue and voter-approved county-level sales tax proceeds.
SR 520 Floating Bridge - Seattle, Washington Metropolitan Area
SR 520 is one of two major east-west roadways crossing Lake Washington, located within King County and the Seattle metropolitan area in the State of Washington. The SR 520 Floating Bridge and Eastside plus West Approach Bridge Project includes the replacement of the existing floating bridge across Lake Washington, the widening of the roadway to the east and accommodation of a transit/HOV lane, and the west approach project connecting to the floating bridge on the Seattle side. Project financing includes toll-backed revenue bonds and a TIFIA loan supported by tolls collected on the existing and replacement bridges, in combination with other federal and state funding.
Teodoro Moscoso Bridge - San Juan to Carolina, Puerto Rico
The Teodoro Moscoso Bridge spans the San José Lagoon, running from San Juan to Carolina. It was constructed in 1994 as a design, build, operate, and maintain P3 project. The bridge is tolled, and at its opening featured an electronic tolling system capable of accepting, cash, credit cards, and electronic tag system.
Triangle Expressway - Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina
The 18.8-mile Triangle Expressway, composed of three sections, provides congestion relief on existing north-south routes serving the Research Triangle Park region (including I-40) between Raleigh and Durham. The project is being financed with toll and state revenue bonds and a $386 million TIFIA loan.
U.S. 36 Managed Lane/Bus Rapid Transit Project: Phase 1 - Denver Metro Area, Colorado
The U.S. 36 Managed Lane Project Phase I is an initial 10-mile phase of improvements along 16 miles of roadway between Denver and Boulder, Colorado. This $306 million first phase is being delivered under a design-build contract.
U.S. 36 Managed Lane/Bus Rapid Transit Project: Phase 2 - Denver Metro Area, Colorado
Phase 2 of a 15-mile reconstruction and expansion of U.S. 36, a four-lane divided highway connecting Denver and Boulder, extends the 10-mile Phase I project five miles further northwest to Boulder. The corridor is being reconstructed and augmented with a single HOT lane in each direction. The project also includes the reconstruction or rehabilitation of three bridges, accommodations for bus rapid transit, provision for ITS, improvements to a commuter rail station, and a bikeway. Phase 2 is being delivered as a DBFOM P3. In addition to the Phase 2 construction, the concessionaire will operate and maintain the entire U.S. 36 HOT lane corridor as well as the existing I-25 Express Lanes that start at its southern terminus.
U.S. Route 460 Corridor Improvements Project - Virginia
The U.S. Route 460 Corridor Improvements Project is a 55-mile tolled highway project that will improve safety for freight traffic and establish a shipping corridor between the Port of Virginia and distribution centers along the route. It is being financed in part through tax-exempt bonds issued by a 63-20 nonprofit corporation.