U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
|FHWA Audio and Visual Aids Handbook|
|Classification Code||Date||Office of Primary Interest|
|H 1710.4||December 23, 1987||HAIM-20|
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING HANDBOOK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
CHAPTER 2. FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION PUBLICATION
DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION
CHAPTER 3. CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER 4. PUBLICATION FUNDING AND COST REPORTING
CHAPTER 5. GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION PUBLICATIONS
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Steps in Producing the FHWA Publication 2-2
Figure 5.1 Mark and Signature 5-6
Figure 5.2 Standard Order of Elements in a Publication 5-10
Figure 5.3 Example of a Technical Publication -- Front Cover (Cover 1) 5-11
Figure 5.4 Sample of an Inside Front Cover (Cover 2) 5-12
Figure 5.5 Departmental Disclaimer 5-13
Figure 5.6 Disclaimer for Product Names 5-13
Figure 5.7 Optional Notices 5-14
Figure 5.8 Sample Back Cover (Cover 4) when used as a Self-Mailer 5-15
Figure 5.9 Spine Title 5-16
Figure 5.10 Sample Title Page 5-18
Figure 5.11 Sample Title Page with Byline 5-19
Figure 5.12 Sample Preface 5-21
Figure 5.13 Sample Acknowledgments Page 5-22
Figure 5.14 Metric Conversion Factors Page 5-23
Figure 5.15 Sample Table of Contents 5-24
Figure 5.16 Lists of Tables and Figures 5-26
Figure 5.17 Sample List of Abbreviations and Symbols 5-27
Figure 5.18 Acceptable and Unacceptable Type 5-32
LIST OF ATTACHMENTS
[SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR COPIES OF THE FOLLOWING ATTACHMENTS]
Attachment 1. Form FHWA-850, Order for Audio Visual Services and Special Reproduction
Attachment 2. DOT F 1700.8, Duplicating Request
Attachment 3. JCP Form No. 2, Commercial Printing Report
Attachment 4. DOT F 1700.7, Technical Report Documentation Page
Attachment 5. Form NTIS-79, Accession Notice
Attachment 6. Form FHWA-1113, Clearance Request for Publication, Film, Exhibit, or Visual Presentation
Attachment 7. Form FHWA 1528, Authorization to Proceed to Printing/Reprinting
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
CHAPTER 2. FHWA PUBLICATION DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION
(1) Production schedules and timetables should be developed at the conceptual stage of the publication. The FHWA Washington Headquarters and field offices are required to obtain conceptual clearance of publication projects from the Office of Public Affairs (see Clearance Requirements, Chapter 3).
(2) Publication costs, including printing estimates, may be obtained from the P&VA Branch (see Publication Funding and Cost Reporting, Chapter 4).
(3) Staff specialists in the P&VA Branch are available to assist program office personnel in the development of FHWA publications. P&VA specialists can provide advice in the areas of planning, editing, graphics, or still photography for a publication (see Guidelines for Preparing Federal HighwayAdministration Publications, Chapter 5).
(1) Requests for printing and duplicating services should be prepared on Form DOT F 1700.8, Duplicating Request (Attachment 2), and submitted to the P&VA Branch, along with the final copy of the item to be reproduced. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF THIS ATTACHMENT] (The clearance requirements stated in Chapter 3 must be followed where applicable.)
(2) Hot copies (e.g.,copies off a xerographic machine) are ordered on Form 1700.8. Copies, photostats, daisy prints, and any other types of reproduction are ordered on Form FHWA-850, Order for Audio Visual Services. All forms must be signed by the authorized person, designated by the Associate Administrator or Staff Office Director to monitor expenditures for printing services.
(1) Procurement of Printing and Duplicating Services through the Regional Printing Procurement Offices. Printing and duplicating that will be commercially procurable is obtained through the field GPO. All printing and duplicating are considered commercially procurable except classified materials and materials required in 3 work days or less; in practice, the time factor may vary. Printing and duplicating determined to be commercially procurable will be requisitioned from the appropriate GPO Regional Printing Procurement Office.
(2) Procurement of Printing Services from Other Federal Government Agencies
(a) Outside the Washington metropolitan area, printing or duplicating that is not commercially procurable may be procured from other Federal Government agencies in the area where the need originates, e.g., General Services Administration facilities in Federal office buildings.
(b) Outside the 48 contiguous States, any requirements may be procured from other Government agencies.
(3) Direct Procurement of Printing Services from Commercial Contractors
(a) Outside the Washington Headquarters, printing and duplicating may be procured directly from commercial contractors only upon the issuance ofa waiver by a GOP Regional Printing Procurement Office.
(b) Outside the 48 contiguous States, printing and duplicating may be procured directly from commercial contractors. A waiver will be required at such time as the GOP establishes a GPO Regional Printing Procurement Office for the Federal Printing Region in which the contractor is located.
(c) All direct procurement from commercial contractors must be reported on the Joint Committee on Printing (JCP) Form No. 2, Commercial Printing Report (Attachment 3). [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF THIS ATTACHMENT] If printing has not been directly procured from commercial contractors, no report is required.
(1) Procurement of writing and/or editing, preparation of related manuscript copy, or preparation of related illustrative material as a part of the contract or grant.
(2) A requirement for the contractor or grantee to duplicate not more than 5,000 units of one page or 25,000 units in the aggregate of multiple pages.
(3) A requirement for administrative printing (e.g., forms and instructional materials) necessary for use by a contractor or grantee responding to the preclude recording manuscript copy in digital form for typesetting purposes. However, the printing of such material for the Federal Government must be accomplished in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.
(1) Maps and technical diagrams where color is necessary for clarity.
(2) Safety promotion.
(3) Fire prevention.
(4) Competitive areas of personnel recruiting.
(1) Paper Selection. When selecting paper, consider the purpose of the publication. The paper is part of the overall message of the publication. The texture or surface quality of the paper should not compete with the design or images. For advice concerning paper selection, program offices can consult a visual information specialist or printing specialist in the P&VA Branch.
(2) Cover Paper. For publications up to 32 pages, self-covers should be used whenever possible. This means the cover paper should be the same as the paper selected for the text. For booklets of 32 pages or more, a different or heavier cover stock should be considered.
(3) Other Paper Consideration. With perfect bound books of 100 pages or more, bulk must be considered as more pages are added. The stock should not be too rigid, and it should not be difficult to open the book or lay it flat. The use of color ink also affects paper selection.
(1) Vinyl Binder with Clear Window Pocket Cover. This most popular and economical binder has a vinyl cover and clear vinyl window pockets thermally welded to its full exterior front cover and spine. Cover and spine inserts, sized to the dimensions of the windows, may be printed and inserted into the window pockets. This type cover can be handled with short print runs and may not require lengthy productiontime. Covers may be printed in colors and may contain half-tone reproductions. This type of binder usually is less expensive than the silk-screened binders and is recommended for use, whenever practical.
(2) Silk-Screen Binders. Silk-screened covers and spines are recommended only for large quantities of fine-quality publications intended for use over an extended period.
(3) Binder Size. Binders are available in 1- to 3-inch ring size. Choose a binder according to the number of pages to be contained. The size is determined by the diameter of the rings and not by the width of the spine.
(1) Restrict the number of copies published to those actually needed for a planned distribution and a limited reserve stock. (Note: Setup costs for printing a publication are expensive. Do not order an over abundance of copies, but order enough copies to avoid a reprint that would incur additional setup costs.)
(2) Print or duplicate on both sides of paper on all jobs having two or more pages being reproduced in quantities of 100 or more copies.
(3) Plan reproduction work in increments of four pages (especially on saddle-stitched publications) to avoid blank pages in publications, whenever possible (except in looseleaf material). (Books are printed on large sheets, four pages to one sheet, then folded to become four pages of a book.)
(4) Limit the number of typeset proofs to the number of sets actually required for proofreading.
(1) If a publication is expected to be of interest to the general public, it should be considered for sale through the GPO's Superintendent of Documents. Sale of publications through the GPO permits the public to have easier access to popular publications and reduces the number of copies printed by the FHWA, thereby reducing printing costs.
(2) Request the sale of a publication through GPO on Form DOT F 1700.8, Duplicating Request (Attachment 2), when the publication is submitted for printing to the Publications and Visual Aids Branch (HMS-24). [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF THIS ATTACHMENT] The GPO reviews each request and places those publications on sale that are expected to result in acceptable sales.
(1) The NTIS sells technical publications to the public. Program offices shall submit all technical publications to NTIS.
(2) The NTIS requires all submissions to include the Technical Report Documentation Page, Form DOT F 1700.7 (Attachment 4). [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF THIS ATTACHMENT] This form is always included as the first page of the publication. Instructions are included in Attachment 4 on how to complete and paginate Form DOT F 1700.7.
(3) Form NTIS 79, Accession Notice (Attachment 5), accompanied by a minimum of 11 copies of each publication, must be submitted to NTIS. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF THIS ATTACHMENT] In addition, one copy of the Form NTIS 79 is submitted to the P&VA Branch.
CHAPTER 3. CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS
(1) The FHWA Headquarters and field offices planning a publication will submit the clearance request for the concept of a publication to the P&VA Branch. The P&VA Branch will review the request for compliance with current FHWA publication standards and guidelines. The P&VA Branch will then submit the request to the Director, Office of Public Affairs, for approval to proceed.
(2) The request for concept approval is submitted on Form FHWA-1113, Clearance Request for Publication, Film, Exhibit, or Visual Presentation (Attachment 6). [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF THIS ATTACHMENT]
(1) FHWA Headquarters and field offices should submit the clearance request to proceed to print or reprint a publication to the P&VA Branch, along with a final copy of the publication. The P&VA Branch must sign off on this form before it is submitted to the Office of Public Affairs.
(2) The P&VA Branch will review the final copy, attach a final cost estimate for printing, and submit the request to the Director, Office of Public Affairs, for approval.
(3) All final copy submitted for printing to the P&VA Branch receives an editorial review. However, program offices should request editorial servicesearly in the development of a publication project. (See Editorial Assistance, Chapter 2, paragraph 2.)
(4) The request to proceed to printing or reprinting a publication should be submitted on Form FHWA 1528, Authorization to Proceed to Printing/Reprinting (Attachment 7). [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF THIS ATTACHMENT] The form must be signed by the program office and the appropriate Associate Administrator or Staff Office Director before it is submitted to P&VA.
(5) Approved publications must be printed within 60 days from the date of the approval. Should the printing not occur within the 60-day period, the final stage approval cycle must be repeated and a new clearance obtained to proceed to print or reprint.
(1) Administrative materials (memoranda, directives, regulations, legal opinions and decisions, proceedings, programs for ceremonies, press releases, environmental impact statements and assessments, and planning documents
(2) Primarily (90 percent or more) statisticalmaterials. (This exception does not apply to publications that contain statistics from published sources other than FHWA.)
(3) Research and development reports. (These reports are the direct result of research contracts and are distributed to Federal Government employees, contractors involved in the work, and commercial publishers or professional associations for use in technical publications.)
(4) Official instructional/informational publications of a permanent nature, published as a supplement to directive systems of Executive Branch agencies.
(5) Annual updates of instructional/informational publications made available to the public to inform them of laws and regulations.
(1) Name of periodical.
(2) Issuing office.
(3) Proposed frequency of issue.
(4) General content.
(5) Maximum number of copies per issue, both for official use and for free distribution.
(6) Estimated annual cost (including separate indications of costs for (a) printing and binding, and (b) salaries, materials, and other expenses associated with preparing the periodical).
(7) Appropriation to be charged.
(8) A comprehensive statement of the necessity for the periodical, including any specific statutory authorization for publication of the information included in the periodical, is required. In the absence of specific authorization, include a description of why the proposed periodical is necessary to transact public business that the issuing office is required by law to undertake.
(9) A statement justifying the number of copies proposed, both for official use and for free distribution, is required. The statement should indicate the specific segment of the public in need of free distribution and why distribution should be free instead of paid for by recipients.
CHAPTER 4. PUBLICATION FUNDING AND COST REPORTING
(1) Publication name.
(2) Publication number.
(3) Estimated number of pages.
(4) Estimated number of copies.
(5) Size of publication.
(6) Type of paper stock.
(7) Type of binding.
(8) Final copy or typeset composition. (Will final copy be provided by the program office/contractor; or will composition services be requested through the P&VA Branch?)
(9) Frequency of issue.
(10) Estimated number of photos/illustrations.
(11) Number of ink colors.
(12) Target audience.
(1) The report will include the estimated total expenditures for the month and year-to-date (based on the sums of individual job estimates) and the amount of funds remaining under the established guidelines. This will allow Washington Headquarters offices to monitor overall expenditures and trends.
(2) If a program office is in danger of exceeding the total of its expenditure guideline in a fiscal year, each requested job with a cost estimate exceeding $500 for printing services will be cleared by the P&VA Branch with the designated contact person in the Washington Headquarters office prior to processing.
(1) A listing of current and proposed periodicals.
(2) Actual and projected spending for periodicals and nonrecurring publications.
(3) Detailed justifications for proposed periodicals.
CHAPTER 5. GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION PUBLICATIONS
(1) Copyrighted material may not be used in an FHWA publication unless written permission of the copyright owner is obtained. Prior use of copyrighted material in another Federal Government publication does not necessarily constitutepermission to use it in the FHWA publication.
(2) If a contractor-prepared publication contains copyrighted material, the contractor is responsible for identifying it, obtaining the copyright owner's written permission to use it, and including a footnote giving credit to the owner. The written permission must be provided to the Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR).
(3) The program office is responsible for identifying copyrighted material and obtaining written permission for its use in in-house prepared publications. The language of the written release should comply with the statements in paragraph 4b.
(1) The following release language should be used for contractor-prepared publications:
(Name of copyright owner) hereby grants to (name of contractor) and to the United States Government a royalty-free, nonexclusive, irrevocable right to use, reproduce, distribute, and sell (identify the copyrighted work, or the portion of it to which rights are granted) throughout the world.
(2) For in-house prepared publications, the following release language should be used:
(Name of copyright owner) hereby grants to the United States Government a royalty-free, nonexclusive, irrevocable right to use, reproduce, distribute, and sell (identify the copyrighted work, or the portion of it to which rights are granted) throughout the world.
(3) This wording has been approved by the NTIS. If the release is not properly worded, the NTIS may refuse to stock and sell a report that contains copyrighted material.
(1) The number appears in the following form:
(2) Each year the sequence number (001) begins again with 001.
(3) Individual designations are used to number multivolume publications. For example, a publication with two volumes would be given the sequence number 001 for volume 1 and 002 for volume 2 (see following example).
FHWA-RD-87-001 (for Volume 1)
FHWA-RD-87-002 (for Volume 2)
(4) For purposes of the FHWA publication number, the following codes will be used:
AD - Administration
CC - Chief Counsel
CR - Civil Rights
DF - Direct Federal Programs
DP - Demonstration Projects
ED - Engineering and Program Development
HI - National Highway Institute
IP - Implementation
MC - Motor Carriers
OA - Office of the Administrator
PA - Public Affairs
PL - Policy
PR - Program Review
RD - Research, Development, and Technology
TS - Technology Sharing
RE - Right-of-Way and Environment
SA - Safety and Operations
RT - Rural Technical Assistance Program (RTAP)
(a) Departmental Mark and Signature. All publications printed at the FHWA's expense shall have the full Department signature printed on the front or back over, title page, and spine (space permitting). The full signature includes the DOT mark, the Department's name, and the Administration's name (the Administration's name is in bold typeface), as designated in the Graphic Standards for the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT Order 1360.6). (See Figure 5.1 for an example.) [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.1]
(b) Publication Date. The publication date shall appear on the front cover, Technical Report Documentation Page, and title page.
(c) Publication Number. The publication number shall appear on the front or back cover, Technical Report Documentation pate, and title page. If sufficient space is available, the publication number should appear on the spine.
(d) Originating Office. The name of the originating or sponsoring element may appear in the publication.
(1) Courtesy or credit lines are permissible for materials loaned or contributed by nongovernment sources.
(2) No credit lines or acknowledgements shall be given when such materials have been purchased by the FHWA.
(3) Credit lines or acknowledgments are placed on the Technical Report Documentation Page or in the preface. Such credit lines shall be set in the smallest practical typeface so that they shall be subordinate both to text and illustrations. If the acknowledgments are long they may be put on a separate page following the preface. (See Figure 5.13.) [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.13]
(4) No credit lines or acknowledgments shall be permitted for the sole purpose of giving credit to any author or FHWA employee, except in in-house newsletters or similar morale type publications.
(1) Government Agencies. If the contractor preparing the FHWA publication is a State, Federal, or local government agency, the agency's seal or logo may appear to the right or directly below the DOT seal, if the agency so requests.
(2) Private Contractors. Names of private contractors are not permitted on the covers of the FHWA publications. The contractor's name may be placed on the Technical Report Documentation Page (see paragraph 10c(1)) or title page. (See Figure 5.11 for an example of a title page with bylines.) [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.11]
(3) Employees. Bylines are not permitted for the sole purpose of giving credit to any author or an FHWA employee.
(1) Front Cover (Cover 1). The front cover follows the style for technical publications shown in Figure 5.3. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.3] The title, subtitle (if any), DOT mark and signature,and publication date are on the front cover. Depending upon the design of the report, manual, or study, the publication number may be placed on the front cover or the back cover. All FHWA publications require a publication number (see Publication Number, paragraph 5).
(2) Inside Front Cover (Cover 2). Publications containing technical material must have a foreword. All technical manuals, reports, guides, and studies also must have certain disclaimer notices. (See Figure 5.4 for a sample technical inside cover.)[SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.4]
(a) Foreword. The foreword and disclaimer notices in FHWA technical publications must be limited to the inside front cover. They may not continue on to other pages or other cover surfaces of the publication. The foreword contains the following information:
1 The reason for publishing the report, manual, or study.
2 A short summary of the contents.
3 A statement identifying the audience.
4 Whether the publication supersedes another.
5 Whether the publication is preliminary, interim, or final.
(b) Disclaimer Notices. (See Figures 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7 for sample disclaimer notices.) The following disclaimer notices will be used when applicable:
1 Departmental Disclaimer. A departmental disclaimer under the caption "Notice" must be added to the inside front cover.
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.
Figure 5.5. Departmental Disclaimer
2 Disclaimer for Product Names or Manufacturers. If any names of products or manufacturers appear in the publication, the following disclaimer also must be used.
The United States Government does not endorse products or manufactures. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear herein only because they are considered essential to the object of this document.
Figure 5.6. Disclaimer for Product Names
3 Optional Notices. The following notice also may be added at the option of the FHWA program office or contract manager.
The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official policy of the Department of Transportation.
This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.
Figure 5.7 Optional Notices
(3) Inside Back Cover (Cover 3). The inside back cover does not require any special elements. The cover can be blank, or a design element may be added, such as an illustration or photograph or a final page of text.
(4) Back Cover (Cover 4). The back cover does not require any special elements. It can be blank, or a design element may be used, such as an illustration or photograph. Depending upon the overall front and back cover design, the DOT mark and signature, and publication number may be placed on the back cover. For mailing purposes, a self-mailer can be placed on the back cover. The self-mailer portion of the page must occupy no more than one-third of the page. See Figure 5.8 for a sample self-mailer back cover. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.8]
(1) Technical Report Documentation Page. All technical publications require a Technical Report Documentation Page, Form DOT F 1700.7. This page is unnumbered page (i), which indicates it is the first page of the publication. ("Unnumbered" means the number (i) is not actually typed on the page. It is only designated the (i) page for placement in the publication when the book is printed.) The Technical Report Documentation Page replaces the need for a title page; however, a title page may be added. (See Title Page, paragraph 11c (2).) See Attachment 4 for a copy of Form DOT F 1700.7, Technical Report Documentation Page and instructions for completing this form. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF THIS ATTACHMENT]
(2) Title Page. The title page is optional in a technical publication. If it is included in addition to the Technical Report Documentation Page, the title page is the third page in the book and is an unnumbered (iii). The title page is always placed on the right-hand page. (Order of pages: Technical Report Documentation Page, blank page, title page.) See Figure 5.10 for a sample title page. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.10]
(a) The following elements are required on the title page:
2 Subtitle (if a subtitle is used)
3 Publication Number
4 Publications Date
5 Administration's Name
6 Department's Name
(b) A byline may be added to the title page following the guidelines in paragraph 7b (see Figure 5.11). [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.11]
(3) Preface. Among possible uses, a preface may show the relation of the work reported to associated efforts, give credit for the use of copyrighted material, and acknowledge significant assistance received (see Credit Lines, paragraph 7a). If acknowledgments are too long, they may be put on the page following the preface. See Figures 5.12 and 5.13 for examples of a preface and separate acknowledgment page. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR COPIES OF THE FIGURES ABOVE]
(4) Metric Conversion Factors Page. Include a Metric Conversion Factors page (Figure 5.14) in the report, if measurements are used in the publication. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.14] This page provides the reader with information for converting to metric measures. Additional units may be included as they apply to the contents of the report. Figure 5.14 may be reproduced. Copies also can be obtained from the P&VA Branch. The Metric Conversion Factors page may be included on reverse of the preface.
(5) Table of Contents. A table of contents (Figure 5.15) is useful in most publications of more than 10 pages and required in all publications of 30 or more pages. [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.15] In preparing the table of contents, these rules should be followed:
(a) Front matter preceding the table of contents should not be listed. Begin with the introduction or first section, which follows the table of contents.
(b) List every section or subsection title. All capitals or initial capital letters may be used for the titles, but each level of headings must be consistent (e.g., main headings in all capitals, subheadings initial capitals, etc.). If both heading and subheadings are used, bold typeface is recommended for the main headings. The relationship between the levels of headings and subheadings also can be emphasized by indenting the subheadings.
(c) Use titles identical to the headings in the publication.
(d) Use numbers or letters identical to those found in the publication.
(6) Lists of Tables and Figures. Lists of tables and figures are required in publications of 30 or more pages following the table of contents. These lists should include the table or figure number, title, and page number. If the lists are short, both lists can be placed on the same page (see Figure 5.16). [SEE PRINTED OCPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.16]
(7) Lists of Abbreviations and Symbols. When symbols and abbreviations are numerous, provide a separate list with definitions (Figure 5.17). [SEE PRINTED COPY OF ORDER FOR A COPY OF FIGURE 5.17] Then define symbols and abbreviations where first introduced in the text. If a list is used, include organization symbols (e.g., FHWA, ANSI, etc).
(1) Introduction. The introduction includes the following:
(a) Background information on the subject.
(b) Scope of the project, research, or study.
(c) Organization of the contents.
(a) Divisions. The discussion (the main text of the publication) answers the "who, what, where, when, and how" of the subject. The "why" is answered in the forward. The amount of detail in the discussion depends upon the subject, purpose, and scope of the publication. The discussion is divided into sections and subsections, with varying levels of headings and subheadings. This division allows easy identification of the subject matter by the reader.
(b) Headings and Subheadings. The format on the headings varies depending on the number of levels used. The point is for the heading to be easily distinguishable. Bold typeface increases the readability and attractiveness of a publication. A heading should (1) indicate the importance of the section, (2) be identical in form to heading of the same relative importance, (3) be readily distinguishable from the order of other headings, and (4) be clearly distinguishable from the text. One recommended format for headings and subheadings is as follows:
1 Chapter headings - bold type, all capitals, and centered at the top of the page. Underscoring is not necessary.
2 First-level main headings - bold type, all capitals, and flush left on the page.
3 Second-level headings - bold type, initial capitals and flush left on the page.
4 Third-level headings - initial capitals. Do not use bold type. The heading can be underscored, italic, or roman type. The heading should be flush left on the first line leading into a paragraph.
(3) Conclusions and Recommendations. Conclusions and recommendations may be required in some publications, depending upon the subject matter. A conclusion is an opinion based on the results; a recommendation is a suggestion for action.
(1) Appendixes. Supplemental material may be needed in some publications. This information should be placed in the appendix. Information in the appendix should be indirectly related to the subject; directly related information should be part of the discussion.
(2) Glossary. Define special terms where first introduced in the text. When such terms are numerous, list them as a glossary in alphabetical order.
(3) References. Include complete identification of references as footnotes on bottom of page where first cited to aid the reader. When references are numerous, include a reference list in the back of the report. Present entries in a uniform style, withcomplete identifying data, in accepted bibliographic format. Each entry includes the author, title, source, identifying number, pagination, and publication date. Abbreviations are not recommended and should be used sparingly.
(4) Bibliography. A bibliography is useful to (a) direct readers to sources of material, (b) permit authors to acknowledge sources of information, and (c) aid persons using the publication as a reference to locate additional writing on the subject. The U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual is the required reference for format of bibliographies and footnotes.
(5) Index If an index is included for a lengthy report, make it as complete as the nature of the report and its usage requires.
(1) foldouts must be sized to require folding in one direction only (folds parallel to binding), The length of the foldout page should not exceed the size of the publication (usually, 11 inches). The maximum width permitted horizontally is 18 inches, when the page is unfolded.
(2) Foldout pages may be placed throughout the text; however, the preferred placement is to gather all such pages at the end of the volume. Each foldout page should be assigned a page number. Printing on the back of the page is permitted, but should be avoided.
(3) Each foldout page must be folded so that the page number and caption are immediately visible to the reader when opening the book, without unfolding the page.
(1) Two- and Three-Column Formats. The two-column format should be used for manuals, reports, guides, or studies, A two-column format increases the readability, attractiveness, and professional look of a publication. A three-column format also can be used. (The shorter line in a three-column format improves readability.)
(2) One-Column Format. The one-column format is permissible, but it is the least desirable. (The one, long line of text across the page decreases readability and the professional look of a publication.) Using two columns of text on a page is preferable. Consider typing the text in a two-column format on oversize paper for photographic reduction.
(1) Typefaces. Standard typeface rather than cursive, italic, or other ornamental typefaces should be used for the main text. Cursive or italic typefaces are only appropriate for emphasis or specific words, terms, or subheadings. Use elite, pica, or similarly sized type (10 to 12 charters per inch).
(2) Type Arrangement. Typefaces and spacing in the text must be uniform throughout each volume. Indent paragraphs uniformly. The right-hand margin is not required to be justified but should be as smooth as possible.
(1) Typewriter or Word Processor. Technical publications are usually prepared on a typewriter or word processor. Publications (brochures, pamphlets, flyers, bulletins, etc.) requiring a small quantity of copies also are generally typed.
(2) Typeset Composition. Large quality publications (8 1/2 by 11 inch format), such as magazines and some reports, require typeset composition. Most brochures, booklets, and other publications designed for the general public are typeset.
(a) Washington Headquarters. The Typography and Design Section, Office of the Secretary, has the ability to scan typed pages with an optical character reader, instead of rekeying (orretyping) the pages. This saves both time and money. However, typed pages must be submitted in a certain format to be scanned effectively. Printed instructions on this format are available form OST's Typography and Design Section.
(b) Field Offices. When contracting for typesetting services in the field, field offices should consult contractors early in the development of a project. Contractors may have the ability to scan type, using an optical character reader. Scanning type instead of rekeying the type can save time and money.
(1) Submit only clean line art. Original art is preferred, although copies can be used. Use of copies or printed clippings in place of prepared original artwork requires permission form the FHWA Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) (for contract reports) or the FHWA project manager (for in-house reports).
(2) Select artwork that relates directly to the subject matter and is necessary to explain the text.
(3) Do not use artwork that serves to aggrandize an individual.
(4) Blueprints, diazo prints, and translucent prints intended for diazo reproduction are not acceptable. This restriction does not apply to original drawings on mylar or to full-sized prints of engineering drawings to be reduced at reproduction, provided that lettering and details in such prints or drawings are legible after reduction. (Lettering smaller than 6-point type after reduction is not considered legible,)
(1) Figures. On a figure page, (including linedrawings, charts, graphs), the caption is centered at the bottom and is parallel to the lines of the text when the figure is upright.
(2) Tables. On a table page, the caption is centered at the top of the table.
(3) Page Placement for Figures and Tables
(a) Figures and tables should be placed on pages as near as practical to textual references, except in special situations, such as when a report only contains a few pages and many illustrations. In such cases, place the illustrations in sequence in the back of the report.
(b) It is preferable that artwork is placed so it is viewed without turning the page sideways. If a figure or table must be placed sideways on a page, place it so the top of the art is at the left side of the page.
(c) Place captions on the page where they cannot be confused with text. Use adequate space between the caption and text to indicate the difference, or use a different type style or size from the text.
(1) Photographs not cemented in place to the page for same-size reproduction must be adequately identified by a figure number, page number, and percentage or size reduction requested.
(2) Loose photographs must be adequately packaged to prevent loss and damage. Individual mounting of each piece, including protection with tissue overlays, is recommended. (Note: If a publication includes both photographs that must be reduced and ones that are the correct size, it is preferred that all the photographs be left loose and treated as described above.)
(3) Color transparencies are usually not acceptable. A color or black-and-white positive must be made from the transparency prior to printing. Avoid selecting overexposed slides or prints with thin, washed-out color, or underexposed ones with dark tones.
(4) Color photographs should have true color. Color prints to be reproduced in black and white are acceptable but to insure they will reproduce sharply and with adequate contrast, black-and-white prints or enlargements from the negatives or contact prints must be made before printing. Avoid submitting originals that must be enlarged to printing size because the quality of the photograph is reduced.
(1) When the Form DOT F 1700.7, Technical Report Documentation Page is used, it is always the unnumbered page (i). The use of a title page in addition to the technical documentation page is optional.
(2) If both a Technical Report Documentation Page and title page are used, the title page follows the Technical Report Documentation Page and is unnumbered (iii). (Note: The back of the Report Documentation Page is blank and is an unnumbered ii.) The back of the title page may be left blank or additional front matter may be added. This page is numbered iv. (See Technical Report Documentation Page, paragraph 10c(1).)
(1) Definition. Do not designate individual volumes of multivolume publications as section, part, chapter, or other kinds of subdivision. Even if the volume contains only one chapter or one appendix, it is still to be designated as a volume.
(2) Volume Size. Avoid splitting the main parts of the publication when dividing publications into volumes. For example, if the body of a report fits into one volume, appendixes can then be grouped in a second volume. Exceptionally long publications may require each appendix (or each of several groups of appendixes) to have its own volume, or that individual chapters (or groups of chapters) have their own volumes. Avoid splitting long publications into volumes of vastly disproportionate size. For example, it is better to break a 450-page publication into two volumes of approximately equal size, or even into a 150-page volume and a 300-page volume, than to divide it into one of 400 pages and one of 50 pages.
(3) Table of Contents. Complete tables of contents, lists of figures, and lists of tables for all volumes. If feasible, a table of contents should be contained in each volume. Where individual volumes are produced consecutively (and the detailed contents and pagination of later volumes are not known when the earlier ones are submitted for publication), the later volumes should include this information. If Volume 1 of a series has already been printed when the rest of the series is completed, it is recommended that the table of contents, etc., for the entire series be printed as an addendum to Volume 1.