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Report on Determining the Reactivity of Concrete Aggregates and Selecting Appropriate Measures for Preventing Deleterious Expansion in New Concrete Construction

5.0 Summary

This document describes a report for determining the reactivity of concrete aggregates and selecting appropriate measures for preventing deleterious expansion in new concrete construction. It is recommended that the following sequence of testing is followed to determine aggregate reactivity: consideration of field performance history, petrographic examination, accelerated mortar bar testing and concrete prism testing. Some agencies may adopt one or more of these test procedures depending on prior experience with ASR and the acceptable level of risk of ASR in new construction. Appropriate preventive measures can be selected either by performance testing using the accelerated mortar bar test or concrete prism test, or by using prescribed measures which have been developed based on previous experience and published research data. The level of prevention prescribed is a function of the class of the structure, the reactivity of the aggregate, the alkali content of the portland cement, the composition of the material used for prevention, and the exposure conditions. This report is not aimed at completely eliminating the possibility of ASR expansion occurring in new construction but it does provide various approaches for minimizing the risk of ASR to a level acceptable to the owner.

6.0 References

  • American Concrete Institute (ACI), "Use of Raw of Processed Natural Pozzolans in Concrete," ACI 221.1R, 2000.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Guide for Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete," ASTM International, ASTM C295.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Carbonate Rocks as Concrete Aggregates (Rock–Cylinder Method)," ASTM International, ASTM C586.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete," ASTM International, ASTM C618.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete," ASTM International, ASTM C856, Annual book of ASTM Standards, Section Four, Vol. 04.02 Concrete and Aggregates, pp. 434–450, 2003.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Specification for Ground Granulated Blast–Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars," ASTM International, ASTM C989.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Test Method for Length Change of Concrete Due to Alkali–Carbonate Rock Reaction," ASTM International, ASTM C1105.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious Mixtures," ASTM International, ASTM C1240.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates (Mortar–Bar Method)," ASTM International, ASTM C1260.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Test Method for Determination of Length Change of Concrete Due to Alkali–Silica Reaction," ASTM International, ASTM C1293.

  • American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Test Method for Determining the Potential Alkali–silica Reactivity of Combinations of Cementitious Materials and Aggregates," ASTM International, ASTM C1567.

  • Canadian Standards Association (CSA), "Determination of Potential Alkali–Carbonate Reactivity of Quarried Carbonate Rocks by Chemical Composition," CSA A23.2–26A, Canadian Standards Association, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

  • Canadian Standards Association (CSA), "Standard Practice to Identify Degree of Alkali–Aggregate Reactivity of Aggregates and to Identify Measures to Avoid Deleterious Expansion in Concrete (2000a)," CSA A23.2–27A, Canadian Standards Association, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, 2000.

  • Folliard, K.J., Barborak, R., Drimalas, T., Du, L., Garber, S., Ideker, J., Ley, T., Williams, S., Juenger, M., Thomas, M.D.A., and Fournier, B., "Preventing ASR/DEF in New Concrete: Final Report," The University of Texas at Austin, Center for Transportation Research (CTR), CTR 4085–5, 2006.

  • Lu, D.Y., Fournier, B. and Grattan–Bellew, P.E., "Evaluation of the Chinese Accelerated Test for Alkali–Carbonate Reaction," Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Alkali–Aggregate Reaction in Concrete, Beijing (China), International Academic Publishes, World Publishing Corporation, ISBN 7–5062–7033–1, Tang, M.S. and Deng, M. Editors, Vol. 1, pp. 386–392, Oct 15–19 2004.

  • Nixon, P.J., and Sims, I., "Alkali–reactivity and Prevention – Assessment, Specification, and Diagnosis of Alkali–reactivity," International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures (RILEM), International Specification to Minimise Damage from Alkali Reactions in Concrete: Part 1 Alkali–Silica Reaction, RILEM TC 191–ARP AAR–7.1, 2006.

  • Ozol, M.A., "Alkali–carbonate Rock Reaction," Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete, STP 169D, Chapter 23, American Society of Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 410–424, 2006.

  • Rogers, C.A., "Evaluation for the Potential for Expansion and Cracking of Concrete Caused by the Alkali–carbonate Reaction," Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 13–23, 1986.

  • Thomas, M.D.A., Fournier, B., Folliard, K., Ideker, J. and Shehata, M., "Test Methods for Evaluating Preventive Measures for Controlling Expansion due to Alkali–silica Reaction in Concrete," Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36 (10), pp. 1842–1856, 2006.

  • Tremblay, C., Berube, M–A., Fournier, B., Thomas, M.D.A. and Folliard, K.J., "Use of the Accelerated Mortar Test to Evaluate the Effectiveness of LiNO3 Against Alkali–silica Reaction Part 2: Comparison With Results from the Concrete Prism Test," Accepted for publication, Cement and Concrete Research, March 2008.

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Updated: 06/13/2012