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Uses of Census Data in Transportation

Descriptive Analysis

American Community Survey 2005: San Francisco Bay Area Data Summary

Authors: Metropolitan Transportation Commission-101 Eighth Street Oakland, CA 94607-4700

Monograph

Publication Date: July 2007

Abstract:

This report contains selected tabular summaries of data for the San Francisco Bay Area from the American Community Survey (ACS) 2005. Focus of the report is on the ACS 2005 data and on the comparisons of the ACS 2005 data with that of data from the Census 2000. Tables in the data summary are tabulated according to the following themes: 1) household and population characteristics; 2) race and ethnic characteristics; 3) social/economic characteristics; 4) labor force characteristics; and, 5) commute/journey to work characteristics.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Economics; Highways; Society; I10: Economics and Administration

Census; Commuting; Demographics; Ethnic groups; Households; Income; Labor force; Occupations; Population; Race; Statistics; Tables (Data); Work trips

Availability: Available from UC Berkeley Transportation Library through interlibrary loan or document delivery Order URL: http://library.its.berkeley.edu; Metropolitan Transportation Commission

Descriptive Analysis

Computing Job Accessibility with Integrated GIS and DBMS

Authors: Yang, Jiawen American Society of Civil Engineers-1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, VA 20191-4400

Seventh International Conference of Chinese Transportation Professionals (ICCTP)

Publication Date: 2008

Abstract:

Accessibility is the key concept for transportation and land use planning. However, the difficulty in computing accessibility measures has prevented it from playing a more central role in planning decision making. This paper explores the possibility to compute several kinds of job-accessibility measures with a coupling of user-friendly geographical information systems (GIS) and high performance database management systems (DBMS). The selected case is the Boston Metropolitan Region. The gigantic dataset, Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP) for the metropolitan area, is stored in the Oracle sever. Both the database server and the GIS client are programmed to streamline the computation and the interaction with the user. This customized system can provide useful experiences for the public who want to know the accessibility impacts of various transportation and land use decisions.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Accessibility; Database management systems; Geographic information systems; Industrial location; Land use planning; Location; Transportation planning; Boston (Massachusetts); Job access

Availability: American Society of Civil Engineers

Order URL: http://www.asce.org/bookstore/book.cfm?book=8402;

Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780784409527

Descriptive Analysis

Emerging Commuting Trends: Evidence from the Chicago Area

Authors: Soot, Siim; Berman, Joost Gideon; DiJohn, Joseph

Journal of the Transportation Research Forum

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

This study uses Census data to investigate changes in economic activity and traffic in the 6 counties making up the Chicago area. The analysis shows that show intercounty commuting has increased substantially. In the Chicago six-county region, data indicate that 3 of the 6 counties are now (2000) net importers of workers. In the past, only Cook County had a net positive balance of workers. In contrast to past trends, demographic changes now contribute to lower increases in the growth in the number of workers. Specifically, in the 1990s, average household size stopped decreasing for the first time in 100 years. This was partially responsible for a decline in the portion of the population that was commuting, a statistic that had been steadily increasing. In previous decades there was a larger growth in the number of workers than in people, thereby adding substantially to peak period traffic when population growth was modest. This has changed. Furthermore, in past decades, large increases in homeownership rates contributed to the growth of urbanized areas. This suggests that workers made housing choices that added to commuting distances. Employers are now able to attract employees from a larger geographic region due to this willingness to increase commuting distances.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Economics; Highways; Operations and Traffic Management; Passenger Transportation; Planning and Forecasting; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Case studies; Census; Commuters; Commuting; Counties; Demographics; Economic factors; Households; Labor market; Traffic; Travel behavior; Trend (Statistics); Chicago Metropolitan Area

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/10461469

Descriptive Analysis

Employment and Earnings in California's Trade-Dependent Industries

Authors: Monaco, Kristen; Ritter, Kimberly Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2011

Abstract:

Using data from the 2005 American Community Survey, the earnings of Southern Californians employed in trade-dependent industries (transportation and warehousing, retail trade and wholesale trade) are analyzed. Contrary to prior research, these labor markets show evidence of limited job ladders without substantial educational investment. This leads to questions regarding the community benefits of attracting low-wage jobs with little potential for advancement given the accompanying negative externalities of congestion and pollution.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Economics; I10: Economics and Administration

Earnings; Economic factors; Education; Employment; Externalities; Retail trade; Transportation; Warehousing and storage businesses; Wholesale trade; Southern California

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Descriptive Analysis

Employment and Earnings in Southern California Trade-Dependent Industries

Authors: Monaco, Kristen; Ritter, Kimberly METRANS Transportation Center-University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-0626 ; California State University, Long Beach-Department of Economics Long Beach, CA 90840 ; California Department of Transportation-1120 N Street Sacramento,

Publication Date: Feb 2009

Abstract:

In this report, the authors examine the earnings and employment in manufacturing, retail trade, transportation, and wholesale trade in Southern California. Data sources included the decennial Census and the American Community Survey. The authors determine that the labor markets show evidence of limited job ladders without significant education investment. They also find that clear patterns emerge in the types of jobs held by residents of communities where new logistics facilities are being built. Findings indicate that low skill/low pay jobs are typically held by individuals living and working in the Inland Empire, while high skill/high pay jobs are typically held by workers who live in Los Angeles and Orange Counties.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Economics; Highways; Society

Earnings; Employment; Job opportunities; Logistics; Occupations; Trade; Travel time; Wages; Inland Empire (California); Los Angeles County (California); Orange County (California); Southern California

Availability: Available from UC Berkeley Transportation Library through interlibrary loan or document delivery

Order URL: http://library.its.berkeley.edu

METRANS Transportation Center; National Technical Information Service;

Find a library where document is available

Descriptive Analysis

Geographic and Demographic Profiles of Morning Peak-Hour Commuters on Highways in North Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia

Authors: Nelson, Jennifer Indech; Guensler, Randall L; Li, Hainan

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2008

Abstract:

During the summer of 2006, license plate data on morning peak-hour commuters were collected to assist with the creation of a potential participant pool for the congestion pricing phase of the Commute Atlanta (Atlanta, Georgia) instrumented-vehicle study. The Commute Atlanta study needed to identify census block groups with the highest probability of yielding study participants eligible for recruitment. Approximately 17,000 unique vehicle registration addresses in a six-county area were obtained from the license plates of vehicles observed traveling on several metropolitan Atlanta highways. The data collection enabled further geographic and demographic analyses of peak-hour commuters at the census block group level, providing new insight on limited-access highway commutersheds and demographic characteristics, such as the census block group income distribution, the travel modes, and the travel times of the highway-based commuters who contributed substantially to the region's traffic congestion and worsening air quality. Observation sites were located near the intersections of radial highways and a perimeter highway encircling Atlanta at a 10- to 12-mi radius from the downtown central business district. On average, commuters registered their vehicles (and presumably lived) 13 mi from the observation sites. The registration addresses were located a mean straight-line distance of 4.2 mi from the centerlines of the highways on which they were spotted. Demographically, highway commuter households had incomes 14.4% higher than the average household income, although this percentage varied by observation site. They were less likely to carpool or use nonautomobile forms of transportation on their journey to work, but they were more likely to work at home. Highway commuters were also more likely to report longer travel times to work than their neighbors in the census survey. These findings have implications for congestion pricing and related equity concerns.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Commuters; Congestion pricing; Demographics; Equity (Justice); Peak hour traffic; Transportation policy; Atlanta (Georgia); Atlanta Metropolitan Area

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9856; Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309113397

Descriptive Analysis

GIS Models for Analyzing Intercity Commute Patterns: A Case Study of the Austin-San Antonio Corridor in Texas

Authors: Zhan, F Benjamin; Chen, Xuwei Texas State University, San Marcos-Center for Geographic Information Science San Marcos, TX 78666 ; Texas Department of Transportation-Research and Technology Implementation Office, P.O. Box 5080 Austin, TX 78763-5080 ; Federal Highway Administratio

Monograph

Publication Date: Oct 2008

Abstract:

The Texas Department of Transportation funded Project 0-5345 to reach a better understanding of intercity commute patterns in Texas and to find regional public transportation solutions for intercity commuting problems. The project's interdisciplinary research team came from Texas Southern University, Texas State University-San Marcos, Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), and Prairie View A&M University. This report summarizes the research activities and accomplishments of the project regarding travel corridors and geographic information system (GIS) commute models, including: development of a set of GIS-based analysis models for the identification of intercity commuting patterns and travel corridors in central Texas; examination of commuting patterns between rural communities and urban areas as well as commuting flows between different counties (cities) in a five-county study area in central Texas based on U.S. 2000 Census Journey-to-Work data; identification of traffic corridors that carry a significant amount of intercity and rural-to-urban traffic in the study area based on U.S. 2000 Census Journey-to-Work data and 2005 TTI external travel survey data; and identification of rural communities that generated the largest numbers of commuting traffic and road segments that carried a high volume of traffic. The research team found that the GIS-based analysis models are effective for analyzing commuting patterns and travel corridors. Commute flows between urban and rural areas account for about 20 percent of the total commute traffic in the study area, and inter-county commute accounts for 13 percent of the total commute traffic.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Case studies; Census; Commuting; Geographic information systems; Intercity travel; Mathematical models; Network analysis (Planning); Rural areas; Transportation corridors; Travel demand; Travel patterns; Travel surveys; Urban areas; Work trips; Austin (Texas)

Availability: National Technical Information Service

Order URL: http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2009103206

Descriptive Analysis

Job accessibility and the modal mismatch in Detroit

Authors: Grengs, Joe

Journal of Transport Geography

Publication Date: Jan 2010

Abstract:

Transportation scholars are challenging traditional formulations of the spatial mismatch hypothesis because previous studies have disregarded the considerable difference between travel modes. This case study of the Detroit metropolitan region uses 2000 census data and a gravity-based model of transportation accessibility to test differences in access to jobs among places and people, and provides support for recent calls for reconceptualizing spatial mismatch. It shows that even though Detroit experiences the greatest distance between African Americans and jobs of any region in the country, most central city neighborhoods offer an advantage in accessibility to jobs compared to most other places in the metropolitan region-as long as a resident has a car. Policies aimed at helping carless people gain access to automobiles may be an effective means of improving the employment outcomes of inner-city residents.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Public Transportation; Society

Accessibility; Automobile ownership; Case studies; Central business districts; Employment; Gravity models; Job opportunities; Spatial analysis; Transportation disadvantaged persons; Detroit (Michigan)

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/09666923

Descriptive Analysis

New NCHRP-TCRP Report: Commuting in America III: The Third National Report on Commuting Patterns and Trends

Authors: Pisarski, Alan E

TR News

Publication Date: Nov 2006

Abstract:

This third report on commuting in America offers analyses and findings from tabulations of data from the 2000 census. The data emphasize that work travel is an economic and a social phenomenon, as well as a transportation issue. The author identifies a new stage in commuting patterns, as the baby boom era recedes, and points out patterns to watch in the next decade--such as long-distance commuting and working from home.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Commuting; Telecommuting; Travel patterns; Trend (Statistics); Work trips; United States; 2000 Census; Data analysis

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office;

Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/07386826

Descriptive Analysis

Optimal Accessibility Landscapes? New Methodology for Simulating and Assessing Jobs-Housing Relationships in Urban Regions

Authors: Horner, Mark W Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 87th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2008

Abstract:

Research into land use-transportation relationships through the lens of the 'jobs-housing balance' and the closely-related 'excess commuting' framework continues to draw substantial interdisciplinary attention. There have been several recent research efforts aimed at extending the excess commuting framework and its GIS-based spatial models to more prescriptive, policy-relevant situations. This paper puts forward the idea of a theoretical 'optimal' urban jobs-housing balance and proposes a new spatial model for finding it. The developed model treats the region's theoretical minimum commute as a baseline indicator of jobs-housing balance. Alternative patterns of workers and jobs are simulated in order to improve this indicator. The model is demonstrated in several scenarios using data from the decennial U.S. Census (2000). Results demonstrate the model's capability for finding 'optimal' spatial distributions of jobs and housing, as well as pointing out the inefficiencies in existing urban structure. Summary remarks and suggestions for future research are provided.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Planning and Forecasting; Society; Transportation (General); I10: Economics and Administration; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Commuting; Employment; Geographic information systems; Housing; Land use; Residential areas; Transportation; Urban areas

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Descriptive Analysis

Urban Form and Commuting Change in Small Metropolitan Areas: GIS-Based Analysis Using Census Transportation Planning Package (1990-2000)

Authors: Horner, Mark W Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting, 2006

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

Understanding issues of growth, especially the spatial nature of recent urban development and its implications for travel patterns has received a great deal of attention. This paper investigates changes in measures of jobs-housing balance, commuting statistics and other indicators for a small MSA based on spatial data obtained from the Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP) 1990 and 2000. The Tallahassee, FL urban area is analyzed and the key research questions probe whether there were substantial changes in urban form and commuting over the period. A two-tiered approach is taken where change is explored at the regional and local scale using GIS, optimization procedures, and inferential statistical techniques. The results reveal the extent of changes in Tallahassee over the time period and they suggest some stability in its urban structure. These findings are discussed and directions for future work are identified.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; I10: Economics and Administration

Commuting; Geographic information systems; Railroad commuter service; Travel patterns; Urban growth; Tallahassee (Florida); Census Transportation Planning Package; Data analysis; Jobs-housing balance

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1121

Descriptive Analysis

Workers Who Drove Alone to Work: 2007 and 2008 American Community Surveys. American Community Survey Reports

Authors: Fields, A; Jiles, M E Bureau of the Census-14th Between E Street and Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20231

Publication Date: Sep 2009

Abstract:

This report presents data on the percentage of workers who drove alone at the national and state levels based on the 2007 ACS and 2008 ACS. Workers are civilians and members of the Armed Forces, 16 years and older, who were at work the previous week and self-report that they drove alone to work. People on vacation or not at work the prior week are not included. Respondents were to report their usual transportation method for the previous week, whether or not the information was consistent with their commuting activities for the majority of the year. Data are restricted to the residence-based population as opposed to the workplace-based population.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Operations and Traffic Management; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Commuters; Commuting; Single occupant vehicles; Statistical analysis; Traffic flow; Travel surveys; Work trips

Availability: National Technical Information Service

Order URL: http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2010101223

Updated: 06/06/2011
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