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Uses of Census Data in Transportation

Housing Location

Built Environment Predictors of Active Travel to School Among Rural Adolescents

Authors: Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Gibson, Lucinda; Adachi-Meija, Anna M; Swain, Karin; Owens, Peter M

American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Publication Date: Mar 2011

Abstract:

Most studies of active travel to school (ATS) have been conducted in urban or suburban areas and focused on young children. Little is known about ATS among rural adolescents. The aim of this article is to describe adolescent ATS in 2 predominantly rural states and determine if school neighborhood built environment characteristics (BECs) predict ATS after adjusting for school and individual characteristics. 16 BECs were assessed through census data and onsite observations of 45 school neighborhoods in 2007. ATS and individual characteristics were assessed through telephone surveys with 1,552 adolescents and their parents between 2007 and 2008. Active travelers were defined as those who walked/cycled to/from school @ 1 day/week. Hierarchic linear modeling was used for analysis, conducted in 2009. Slightly less than half (n=735) of the sample lived within 3 miles of school, of whom 388 (52.8%) were active travelers. ATS frequency varied by season, ranging from a mean of 1.7 (SD=2.0) days/week in the winter to 3.7 (SD=1.6) in the spring. Adolescents who attended schools in highly dense residential neighborhoods with sidewalks were most likely to be active travelers. ATS frequency was greater in school neighborhoods with high residential and intersection densities, on-street parking, food outlets, and taller and continuous buildings with small setbacks. The BECs that support safe travel may be necessary to allow for ATS, whereas ATS frequency among adolescents may be influenced by a wider variety of design characteristics. Additional strategies to promote ATS and physical activity are needed in rural areas because of long commuting distances for many students.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Activity choices; Adolescents; Commuting; Mode choice; Pedestrians; Rural areas; School children; School trips; Travel behavior; Walking

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/07493797

Housing location

Do physical neighborhood characteristics matter in predicting traffic stress and health outcomes?

Authors: Song, Yan; Gee, Gilbert C; Fan, Yingling; Takeuchi, David T

Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour

Publication Date: Mar 2007

Abstract:

This study examines whether social, and physical environment characteristics related to urban design interact with individual perceptions of traffic stress to influence individual well-being. The Chinese American Psychiatric Epidemiologic Study data, the US census data, and geographic information system data are employed. Analyses used hierarchical linear modeling. The results indicate that perceived traffic stress was associated with lower health status and higher depression. More importantly, higher density of major streets and greater vehicular burden in the neighborhood pose potential harm to health by reinforcing the negative impacts of perceived traffic stress. On the other hand, more park land in the neighborhood could alleviate the damage of traffic stress on individual's well-being. The implications of the results for future research are discussed.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Highways; Operations and Traffic Management; Planning and Forecasting; Safety and Human Factors; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning; I83: Accidents and the Human Factor

Census; Environment; Epidemiology; Geographic information systems; Health; Linear equations; Neighborhoods; Psychological aspects; Social factors; Stress (Psychology); Traffic; Urban design

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/13698478

Housing location

Finding Exurbia: America's Fast-Growing Communities at the Metropolitan Fringe

Authors: Berube, Alan; Singer, Audry; Wilson, Jill H; Frey, William H Brookings Institution-Metropolitan Policy Program, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036-2188 ; Living Cities: National Community Development Initiative-55 West 125th Street, 11th Floor New York, NY 10027

Monograph

Publication Date: Oct 2006

Abstract:

Part of the Living Cities Census Series, this publication is a brief for the Brookings Institution in the Cities and Suburbs section. The publication examines the nature, extent and geographical variety of "Exurbs" that are situated in large metropolitan areas in the United States. The publication examines demographic and economic data from 1990 to 2005 and defines exurbs as "communities located on the urban fringe that have at least 20 percent of their workers commuting to jobs in an urbanized area, exhibit low housing density, and have relatively high population growth". Detailed maps and tables are also provided.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society

City planning; Communities; Land use planning; Suburbs; Urban areas; Urban development; Urban growth; Urban population; Urban transportation; Community development; Community transportation; Exurban areas

Availability: Brookings Institution

Housing location

Immigration, Residential Location, Car Ownership, and Commuting Behavior: A Multivariate Latent Class Analysis from California

Authors: Beckman, Jarad D; Goulias, Konstadinos G

Transportation: Planning, Policy, Research, Practice

Publication Date: Aug 2007

Abstract:

This study uses data from the 2000 Census long form for California to investigate the spatial, social, demographic, and economic determinants of immigrants' joint distribution among travel time, mode choice, and departure time for work. A latent tree structure was used in the analysis. Age, residential location, immigration stage, gender, personal income, and race are found to be the primary determinants in the workplace commute decision-making process. By defining several relatively homogeneous population segments, the likelihood of falling into each segment is found to differ across age groups and geography, with different indicators affecting each group differentially. This analysis complements past studies that used regression models to investigate socio-demographic indicators and their impact on travel behavior in two distinct ways: (a) analysis is done by considering travel time, mode choice, and departure time for work simultaneously, and (b) heterogeneity in behavior is accounted for using methods that identify different groups of behavior and then their determinants. These findings suggest that immigrants are as diverse as the non-immigrant population in their travel behavior. The method used in this study demonstrates that the addition of geographic location and latent segment identification can greatly improve understanding of specific behaviors.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Economics; Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Automobile ownership; Census; Commuting; Demographics; Economic factors; Mode choice; Multivariate analysis; Residential location; Social factors; Spatial analysis; Travel behavior; Travel time; California; Immigrants

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/00494488

Housing location

Impact of Information on Housing Relocation using Analytical Hierarchy Process and Interactive GIS

Authors: Sriraj, P S; Minor, Mark; Thakuriah, Piyushimita American Society of Civil Engineers-1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, VA 20191-4400

Applications of Advanced Technology in Transportation. The Ninth International Conference, 2006

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

The problems of the urban poor, especially that of housing/shelter, have been studied and documented by many researchers and social scientists. The state of affordable housing has been a cause for concern in the state of Illinois and especially in the six-county Chicago region. This concern stems from various factors. While studies have show that a significant portion of a household's expenditure is dedicated to housing/shelter, it has also been documented that low-income families that make minimum-wage struggle to cope in the more expensive urban housing markets such as Chicago. This coupled with the inadequate affordable owner-occupied and renter homes is contributing to the complexity of the situation. In such a situation where both the supply and demand are not adequate, one needs to maximize the supply with a judicious reallocation of resources (demand). Knowledge about the location of affordable housing, travel time to job destination, along with familial factors such as quality of local transit access, proximity to daycare centers, schools, crime in a neighborhood are all vies as important attributes in the relocation decision of a household. The lack of clear, transparent, and timely information at a disaggregate geography makes this task daunting. The research team at the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at UIC, developed a spatial decision support system to facilitate individuals to rank census tracts and in turn neighborhood based on their personal preferences about the various criteria mentioned in the before. This paper extends the concept of this spatial decision support system, by describing the template for a web-enabled interactive spatial decision support system (web-SDDD). The objective of this web-SDSS is to facilitate the housing relocation process for mobility counselors using decision criteria such as transit access, affordable housing, daycare, schools, crime and jobs. These various criteria and sub-criteria are used in a hierarchical manner framed by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The web-SDSS is intended for the primary use of mobility counselors assisting individual/families seeking to relocate within the six-county metropolitan Chicago region. The web-SDSS will be designed using Mapserver 4.0 and linked with the decision-support system and the database housed at UTC.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Economics; Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Decision support systems; Geographic information systems; Households; Housing; Mobility; Urban transportation; Chicago (Illinois); Affordable housing; Analytical hierarchy process; Interactive systems; Relocation; Supply and demand

Availability: American Society of Civil Engineers;

Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/0784407991

Housing location

Neighborhood Representation in Residential Location Choice Analysis

Authors: Bhat, Chandra R; Guo, Jessica Y Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting, 2006

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

In this paper, we explore different conceptualizations for representing neighborhoods in residential location choice models, and describe three alternative ways for constructing operational units to represent neighborhoods. In particular, we examine the possibility of using the census units to represent the hierarchical ‘fixed neighborhood' definition, and the circular units and network bands to represent the hierarchical ‘sliding neighborhood' definition. Overall, the network band definition is conceptually appealing. It also is marginally superior to the other two operation representations from a model fit standpoint.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Economics; Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society; I21: Planning of Transport Infrastructure

Location; Mobility; Neighborhoods; Residential areas; Residential location; Transportation planning; Residential choice

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1121

Housing location

The Effectiveness of Job-housing Balance as a Congestion Relief Strategy

Authors: Ferreira Jr, Joseph Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Department of Urban Studies and Planning, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 ; New England University Transportation Center-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 0

Monograph

Publication Date: Apr 2009

Abstract:

In this research, the author hypothesizes that the selection of job-housing proximity measures can bring about different quantitative relationships between job-housing proximity and commuting. He constructs job-housing proximity measures for sub-regions of Atlanta and Boston using ‘journey to work' data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 censuses as reported (at the census tract level of aggregation) in the corresponding U.S. Census Transportation Planning Packages (CTPP). He then compares the spatial patterns of job-housing proximity, represented by different measures, as well as their relationship to commuting distances. Since different observations about the commuting impacts of job-housing proximity might stem from the selection of different regions or the selection of different years for the same region, the author examines consistent journey-to-work data for 1980, 1990, and 2000 for both metro areas.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Commuting; Housing; Jobs; Traffic congestion; Trip length; Work trips; Atlanta (Georgia); Boston (Massachusetts); 1980 Census; 1990 Census; 2000 Census; Spatial patterns

Availability: New England University Transportation Center

Housing location

What Neighborhood Are You In? Empirical Findings of Relationships Between Household Travel and Neighborhood Characteristics

Authors: Lin, Jie; Long, Liang

Transportation: Planning, Policy, Research, Practice

Publication Date: Nov 2008

Abstract:

Although there have been several studies regarding the influence of neighborhood characteristics on residential location choice and household travel behavior, to date there has been no uniform, concrete definition of neighborhood in the literature. This paper seeks to fill this gap in the literature by using public data sources to present an alternative way of defining neighborhood and neighborhood type. The paper also investigates the interaction between neighborhood environment and household travel in the United States. A neighborhood here is spatially identical to a census tract. A neighborhood type identifies a group of neighborhoods with similar neighborhood socioeconomic, demographic, and land use characteristics. This is accomplished by performing log-likelihood clustering on the Census Transportation Planning Package 2000 data. Five household travel measures (number of trips per household, mode share, average travel distance and time per trip, and vehicle miles of travel), are then compared across the resulting 10 neighborhood types, using the 2001 National Household Travel Survey household and trip files. Results show that household life cycle status and residential location are positively interdependent. Transit availability at place of residence tends to increase the transit mode share regardless of household automobile ownership and income level. Job/housing trade-offs are evident when mobility is not of concern. The study also reveals racial preference in residential location and contrasting travel characteristics among ethnic groups. There is evidence of significant effects of living environment on household travel and vehicle use. Urban households have comparable vehicle ownership to their suburban and rural counterparts, but higher vehicle miles of travel takes place in rural and suburban areas.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Census; Cluster analysis; Definitions; Empirical methods; Households; Mode choice; Neighborhoods; Travel behavior; Travel surveys

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/00494488

Housing location

Work and home location: Possible role of social networks

Authors: Tilahun, Nebiyou; Levinson, David

Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice

Publication Date: May 2011

Abstract:

This research explores to what extent people's work locations are similar to that of those who live around them. Using the Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics data set and the 2000 decennial census, the authors investigate the home and work locations of different census block residents in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis-St. Paul) metropolitan area. The study aim is to investigate if people who share a residence neighborhood also share work locations to a degree beyond what would be explained by distance and opportunities around them. Using quadratic assignment procedure the authors find a significantly higher joint home and work location choice among residents in eight areas selected for this investigation. Further, using data for the entire metropolitan area, the authors show what socio-demographic variables are associated with higher levels of home-work co-locations. The author hypothesize that a possible reason for the observed patterns is the role neighborhood level and work place social networks play in locating jobs and residences respectively.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Society

Neighborhoods; Quadratic equations; Residential location; Workplaces; Minneapolis (Minnesota); Saint Paul (Minnesota); Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (Minnesota); Social networking; Sociodemographics

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/09658564

Updated: 06/06/2011
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