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Uses of Census Data in Transportation

Non-Motorized Travel

Bridging the Gaps: How Quality and Quantity of a Connected Bikeway Network Correlates with Increasing Bicycle Use

Authors: Birk, Mia; Geller, Roger Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

This paper describes how, since the mid-1990s, Portland, Oregon has pursued a "build it and they will come" strategy by developing its bikeway network to promote increased bicycle use. Between 1992 and 2005 Portland increased its developed bikeway network by 215%, from 83 miles to 260 miles. During this same period, bicycle use in Portland soared. A comparison of 1990 and 2000 census data shows a doubling of bicycle commute trips citywide, with more dramatic increases in close-in neighborhoods. Annual bicycle counts on Portland's central city bridges, which connect close-in residential neighborhoods across the Willamette River to the city's primary commercial and employment center, show a 210% increase in bicycle trips between 1991 and 2004. This dramatic increase in bicycling occurred primarily in those corridors where the city has made significant investment to: improve bicycling conditions on the river bridges; create connected bicycle facilities leading to the bridges; and mitigate for traffic designs that are not particularly bicycle-friendly. The corridors where the network is most connected, and where the quality of the facilities is the highest, display the largest growth in bicycle trips. Data collected by Portland demonstrates a strong correlation between a connected, bikeway system constructed to the highest standards, and increases in bicycle use. The authors believe that the City's investments in specific facility improvements to its downtown Willamette River bridges, as well as to key bridge access routes and connections, have been the primary impetus behind increasing bicycle use.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Design; Highways; Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; Safety and Human Factors; Terminals and Facilities; I21: Planning of Transport Infrastructure

Access control (Transportation); Bicycle facilities; Bicycle lanes; Bicycle travel; Bicycling; Bikeways; Cyclists; Data collection; Portland (Oregon); Bicycle bridges

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1121

Non-Motorized Travel

Development of a Pedestrian Walkability Database of Northern Kentucky Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Authors: Hansen, William; Kalapasev, Ned; Gillespie, Amy; Singler, Mary; Ball, Marsha

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Publication Date: May 2009

Abstract:

Rising obesity rates in the United States have spurred efforts by health advocates to encourage more active lifestyles including walking. Ensuring the availability, quality, and safety of pedestrian walkways has become an important issue for government at all levels. Pedestrian paths in Campbell County Kentucky were evaluated using a ranking criteria developed by the Walking and Bicycling Suitability Assessment project at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health. A pedestrian path Geographic Information System (GIS) data-layer was created and mobile GIS units were used to assess the sidewalk segments using the ranking. Data from sidewalk surveys were compared with Census 2000 blockgroup information on age of housing, population density, and household transportation characteristics to examine the correlation between these factors and sidewalk presence and quality. The analysis explored to use of census data to predict walkability factors and looked for trends in quality and availability of pedestrian paths over time. Results showed higher overall scores for older urban areas adjacent to the Ohio River and Cincinnati. Housing built in the 1970s and 1980s showed the lowest scores while more recent housing showed improvement over earlier decades. Age of housing was determined to be a useful predictor while economic and population density attributes showed no correlation with walkability factors. Census housing age data is the most useful predictor of walkability demonstrating clear trends over time. The study shows improvements in walkways availability over the past few decades. However infrastructure improvements are needed to provide more extensive pedestrian walkways and linkages between existing walkways in Campbell County.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Databases; Geographic information systems; Pedestrian areas; Pedestrians; Walkways; Kentucky

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/15433080

Non-Motorized Travel

Estimating Nonmotorized Travel Demand

Authors: An, Meiwu; Chen, Mei

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2007

Abstract:

The modeling of nonmotorized travel demand has mostly been conducted at the large spatial level (e.g., city, county, or census tract level) by using data from the Bureau of the Census and the National Household Travel Survey. This paper introduces a modeling approach for estimating the mode share of nonmotorized trips by using data from multiple sources at a finer spatial scale. The correlations between a number of socioeconomic, environmental, and infrastructural factors and the nonmotorized share of the daily commute are analyzed at the level of the census block group. A neighborhood analysis concept is developed to take the length of nonmotorized trips into consideration. Multiple regression analysis shows that employment density, the percentage of the student population, median household income, and average sidewalk length together provide the strongest power for prediction of the nonmotorized mode share. The potential applications of the methodology and the implications for data collection are also discussed.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Economics; Education and Training; Highways; Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Data collection; Employment; Income; Modal split; Mode choice; Multiple regression analysis; Neighborhoods; Nonmotorized transportation; Socioeconomic factors; Students; Travel demand; Travel surveys; Trip length

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=8488

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309104289

Non-Motorized Travel

Longitudinal Analysis of Effect of Bicycle Facilities on Commute Mode Share

Authors: Barnes, Gary R; Thompson, Kristin Bethany Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting, 2006

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

This paper uses census data to describe changes in bicycle commute mode shares between 1990 and 2000 in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN area. It specifically describes the impact of new bicycle facilities that were created during this decade. Previous efforts to understand the impact of facilities on bicycling rates have compared different locations; however, with this method it is not possible to determine the extent to which differences may have already existed before the facilities were built. This study addresses this problem by comparing the same locations before and after facilities were built, using a number of different ways of measuring facility impact. We find that the locations where facilities were built did in fact already have very high bicycle commute mode shares relative to the rest of the region; but also that these differences became even larger after the facilities were built. The areas within our facility buffers showed mode share increasing from 1.7% to 2.0%, while the remainder of the region remained constant at 0.2%. All individual facilities showed statistically significant increases in bicycle mode share. Central city trips crossing the Mississippi River showed a much larger increase than trips that did not; this reflects a number of significant improvements to bicycle accommodation on bridges during this decade. Finally, downtown Minneapolis and the University of Minnesota, where most of the facilities were concentrated, showed large increases in bicycle mode share, while downtown St. Paul, which had few improvements, had no increase.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Design; Highways; Operations and Traffic Management; Passenger Transportation; Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Terminals and Facilities; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Bicycle commuting; Bicycle facilities; Bicycle travel; Bicycling; Commuters; Design of specific facilities; Improvements; Mode choice; Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (Minnesota)

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1121

Non-Motorized Travel

Master Plans for Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation: Community Characteristics

Authors: Steinman, Lesley; Mark, Doescher; David, Levinger; Perry, Cynthia; Louise, Carter; Amy, Eyler; Semra, Aytur; Cradock, Angie L; Evenson, Kelly R; Heinrich, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline; Litt, Jill; Severcan, Yucei; Voorhees PhD, Carolyn C

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Publication Date: Mar 2010

Abstract:

This article will review how recent research demonstrates the importance of targeting the built environment to support individual physical activity, particularly for people experiencing health disparities. Master plans to promote biking and/or pedestrians (BPMPs) are a potential method for environmental change. This article aims to provide a snapshot of plan attributes and a better understanding of demographic, social and transportation characteristics of communities with BPMPs. The authors collected a census sample of BPMPs from 4 states. Population and commuting data were obtained from national statistics. 294 master plans were included, with most plans representing municipalities. 62% of plans targeted biking only, one-fifth targeted biking and walking, and 15% targeted walking only. The sampled locations have a similar demographic profile as the overall U.S. for median age and household income, people of color, high school education, and income inequality. The degree of racial diversity of sampled communities is slightly less than the U.S. average and the percentage of people who walk to work were slightly higher. Given that communities with master plans have a similar profile as the overall U.S., BPMPs could feasibly be spread to communities throughout the country. Further research is planned to describe BPMPs in detail toward informing future plan development.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; Society

Best practices; Bicycle accidents; Bicycle commuting; Bicycle travel; City planning; Master plans; Pedestrian movement; Pedestrian traffic; Physical fitness; Planning and design; Planning methods

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/15433080

Non-Motorized Travel

Neighborhood Design and Walking Trips in Ten U.S. Metropolitan Areas

Authors: Boer, Rob; Zheng, Yuhui; Overton, Adrian; Ridgeway, Gregory K; Cohen, Deborah A

American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Publication Date: Apr 2007

Abstract:

Despite substantial evidence for neighborhood characteristics correlating with walking, there has been to date only limited attention paid to possible practical implications for neighborhood design. This study investigates to what extent design guidelines are likely to stimulate walking. Four of the New Urbanism Smart Scorecard criteria and 2 other measures were tested for their influence on walking. Data was obtained from the 1995 National Personal Transportation Survey, U.S. Census 2000, and InfoUSA. Propensity-score methodology was used to control for potential confounders. Higher levels of business diversity and higher percentages of 4-way intersections were associated with more walking. For example, the odds ratio (OR) for walking in a neighborhood with 4 business types present compared to 3 business types was 1.24 (confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.44) and neighborhoods with 50-74%, 4-way intersections had an OR for walking of 1.4 (CI 1.09-1.78) relative to those with 25-49%, 4-way intersections. The effects of housing density on walking are mixed. Higher parking pressure and older median housing age did not significantly affect walking after covariate adjustment. Block length did not appear to be associated with walking. When considering the New Urbanism Smart Scorecard from the perspective of walking, some, but not all, of its criteria that appear to have a correlation with walking are likely to be useful for designing walkable communities.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Energy; Environment; Highways; Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; I15: Environment; I21: Planning of Transport Infrastructure

Metropolitan areas; Mode choice; Sustainable development; Sustainable transportation; Travel behavior; Travel by mode; Urban design; Walking

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/07493797

Non-Motorized Travel

Non-Motorized Commuting in the US

Authors: Plaut, Pnina

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment

Publication Date: Sep 2005

Abstract:

Bicycling, walking to work and working at home are all non-standard, non-motorized forms of commuting. This paper analyzes these non-motorized modes empirically for the United States using journey to work data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Findings show that higher salary and more expensive housing are associated with greater propensity to work at home, but lower propensity to walk or bicycle. College education is in several cases associated with greater propensity to use non-motorized modes. There are sharp differences in the likelihood of using non-motorized modes across the sub-regions within the metropolitan area. Car ownership, race, gender, and various locational and neighborhood features are shown to affect modal choices regarding non-motorized alternatives, in comparison with car commuting. Living on the West Coast is associated with a greater likelihood of using non-motorized commuting. Findings also show that the majority of non-motorized commuters own at least one car.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Economics; Highways; Passenger Transportation; Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Bicycling; Commuters; Commuting; Demographics; Empirical methods; Socioeconomic factors; Telecommuting; Walking; Work trips; United States

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/13619209

Non-Motorized Travel

Random-Parameter Model to Explain Effects of Built Environment Characteristics on Pedestrian Accident Frequency

Authors: Ukkusuri, Satish V; Hasan, Samiul; Abdul Aziz, Husain M Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2011

Abstract:

Pedestrian safety has been a major concern for a megacity like New York City. Although pedestrian fatalities show a downward trend, these fatalities constitute a high percentage of overall traffic fatalities in New York City. This paper studies the factors influencing the frequency of pedestrian accidents using data from New York City. Specifically, a random-parameter negative binomial model is developed for predicting pedestrian accident frequencies at the census tract level. The advantage of this approach is that it allows the incorporation of unobserved heterogeneity across the spatial zones in the modeling process. This study reports the influences of a comprehensive set of variables describing the socio-demographic and built environment characteristics on pedestrian accidents. The model has found several parameters as random indicating their heterogeneous influences on the numbers of pedestrian accidents. Overall these findings can help towards framing better policies for improving pedestrian safety.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Safety and Human Factors; I81: Accident Statistics

Accident rates; Binomial distributions; Collisions; Demographics; Metropolitan areas; Pedestrian safety; Policy making; Risk assessment; Safety; Social factors; Urban areas; New York (New York); Built environment

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Non-Motorized Travel

Regional Bicycle Planning in Los Angeles County: An Analysis of Bike-Transit Integration in the Metro Bicycle Transportation Strategic Plan

Authors: Barajas, Jesus Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2010

Abstract:

Effectively integrating bicycle transportation with transit enhances the attractiveness of transit by offering an alternative to walking and driving to stops and adding the convenience of door-to-door travel not otherwise available. Understanding the population demographics and the barriers to bicycle access on transit is essential in developing a successful implementation plan. This study examines the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) Bicycle Transportation Strategic Plan. It develops a data profile on bicyclist characteristics in Los Angeles County using US Census demographic data and spatial data available from Metro. The results of the analysis are used to develop a ranking system to identify the top locations where bicycle-to-transit is most likely. The methodology and recommendations presented demonstrate where resources could be most effectively invested and how the bike-transit plan can be strengthened. While the research is specific to Metro, other agencies can use a similar method in developing their own plans.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; I21: Planning of Transport Infrastructure

Bicycle commuting; Bicycle facilities; Bicycling; Bikeways; Hubs; Intermodal transportation; Multimodal transportation; Nonmotorized transportation; Public transit; Transportation planning; Los Angeles County (California); Los Angeles County Metropolitan

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Non-Motorized Travel

The Applicability of Space Syntax to Bicycle Facility Planning

Authors: McCahill, Christopher T; Garrick, Norman

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2008

Abstract:

With the emergence of bicycles as an increasingly viable form of urban transportation comes the need for improved design and planning tools. Existing methods for evaluating bicycle facilities and for prioritizing their construction and maintenance are reviewed. Two components are necessary for such an analysis: one for assessing the quality of the segments that make up the network, and one for assessing the overall network itself. Space syntax analysis is evaluated as a tool for network assessment on the basis of its potential to predict patterns of travel over different network configurations. The theory behind space syntax is evaluated and then tested by using data from the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts. A good model for predicting bicycle volumes within a network can be constructed by using only census data and the space syntax measure "choice." Unlike existing bicycle suitability measures, space syntax describes the importance of segments to the connectivity or completeness of the network.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Bicycle facilities; Bicycle travel; Bikeways; City planning; Land use planning; Nonmotorized transportation; Urban transportation; Cambridge (Massachusetts); Space Syntax (Modeling tool); Connectivity

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9869

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309113489

Non-Motorized Travel

Walking the Walk: The Association Between Community Environmentalism and Green Travel Behavior

Authors: Kahn, Matthew E; Morris, Eric A

Journal of the American Planning Association

Publication Date: 2009

Abstract:

This study investigates whether green beliefs and values are associated with green travel behavior. The authors examine whether residents of communities with environmentalist attributes drive less, consume less gasoline, and are more likely to commute by private vehicle. Demographic, transportation, and built environment data from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey was used. Indicators of green ideology were developed using voting records, political party membership, and data on hybrid auto ownership. Using both individual households and small areas as units of analysis, ordinary least squares regression and linear probability models were estimated. Findings show that green ideology was associated with green travel behavior. People with green values are more likely than others to be located in communities with attributes conducive to environmentally friendly travel, such as high population densities and proximity to city centers and rail transit stations. Residents of green communities also engage in more sustainable travel than residents of other communities. Green ideology may cause green travel behavior because greens derive utility from conservation or because greens locate in areas with characteristics that promote sustainable travel. If greens conserve because they derive utility from it, then environmental education and persuasion may bring about more sustainable travel. It also is possible that green travel behavior can cause green beliefs. If so, it is possible that attracting more travelers to alternate modes and reducing vehicle miles traveled may increase environmental awareness, which may in turn promote other green behavior.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Environment; Highways; Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; I15: Environment; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Communities; Environment; Least squares method; Mode choice; Probability; Social values; Travel behavior; Beliefs

Availability: Find a library where document is available

Order URL: http://worldcat.org/oclc/4626214

Updated: 06/06/2011
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