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Transit

Transit

Analysis of Transit Quality of Service and Employment Accessibility for the Greater Chicago, Illinois, Region

Authors: Minocha, Inshu; Sriraj, P S; Metaxatos, Paul; Thakuriah, Piyushimita

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2008

Abstract:

A variety of transit decision support tools have been developed in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area in recent years, including the Regional Transportation Asset Management System of the Regional Transit Authority and the Spatial Decision Support System of the Urban Transportation Center at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Although the Chicago metropolitan area has a variety of public transportation services, the quality of service available in an area and the extent to which transit allows area residents to access employment opportunities spread out across the six-county region vary substantially. This paper focuses on a spatial analysis of the variations of local transit service quality indicators as well as a composite regional employment accessibility measure. It explores the quality of the transit system in the Chicago region through a set of supply- and demand-side indicators at the census tract level. The supply-side indicators include a composite index of transit availability and frequency and transit station asset information. The demand-side measures include the computation of the regional employment accessibility index using a gravity model and transit travel times from travel demand models. A series of these indicators is mapped over the Chicago region at the census tract level. The paper also ranks census tracts on the local transit measures, as well as on the regional transit-based employment accessibility measures, and identifies those areas that are well off and worst off in regard to both types of indexes. The paper draws policy conclusions emanating from each of these categories.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Administration and Management; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society

Accessibility; Commuting; Employment; Metropolitan areas; Public transit; Quality of service; Social factors; Supply; Travel demand; Travel time; Urban transportation policy; Chicago (Illinois); Chicago Metropolitan Area; Job access

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9399

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309113090

Transit

Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Metropolitan Areas of the United States by County-level Commuting Time to Work and Use of Public Transportation, 2004 and 2006

Authors: Coughlin, Steven S; King, Jessica

BMC Public Health

Publication Date: Mar 2010

Abstract:

Commuting times and behaviors have been associated with a variety of chronic disease outcomes and health behaviors. This work examined the relationships between ecologic measures of commuting time and use of public transportation in relation to breast and cervical cancer screening among women in U.S. metropolitan areas who participated in the 2004 and 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. Self-reported county of residence was used to classify respondents as residents of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Only BRFSS respondents who resided in the 39 MSAs with a population of $ 1.5 million in 2007--representing a total of 337 counties--were included in this analysis. 76,453 women aged 40 years were included in analyses on mammography. Analyses on Pap testing were limited to women aged 18 years with no history of hysterectomy (n = 80,959). Area-based measures of socioeconomic status were obtained by utilizing county-level information from the 2000 U.S. Census. With adjustment for age, no important associations were observed between receipt of a recent mammogram and either a county-level measure of commute time or residence in an area where more residents had access to a car. Similarly, women living in counties where at least 4% of the residents used public transportation were as likely to have had a recent mammogram or Pap test compared with women in areas where less than 4% of residents used public transportation. However, women living in counties where < 2% of residents had no access to a car were somewhat more likely to have had a Pap test in the past 3 years than women in areas where 3% of the residents had no access to a car (87.3% vs. 84.5%; p-value for test for trend < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, living in a county with a median commute time of at least 30 minutes was not significantly associated with having had a Pap test in the past 3 years (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.2, p = .50), or with having had a mammogram in the past 2 years (adjusted OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = .28). A weak positive association was observed between residence in a county with less use of public transportation and having had a Pap test in the past 3 years, which was of borderline significance (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4, p = .05). In large U.S. metropolitan areas, transportation issues may play a role in whether a woman obtains cancer screening along with other factors (e.g., Hispanic ethnicity, low income, and no physician visit in the past year). In this contextual analysis, a longer commute time was not associated with breast and cervical cancer screening.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Public Transportation; Safety and Human Factors; I84: Personal Injuries

Commuting; Health hazards; Medical examinations and tests; Metropolitan areas; Public transit; Work trips; United States; Breast cancer; Cervical cancer; Health screenings

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/issn/14712458

Transit

Buzzards Bay Commuter Rail Extension Feasibility Study

Authors: Humphrey, Thomas J Central Transportation Planning Staff-10 Park Plaza Suite 2150 Boston, MA 02116

Monograph

Publication Date: Jan 2007

Abstract:

At present, the nearest commuter rail service to points in Barnstable County is provided at the outer terminals of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) Kingston and Middleborough/Lakeville lines. These are each about 20 miles north of the Cape Cod Canal. In the past, rail passenger service to Buzzards Bay and points beyond has been provided via a rail line that continues beyond the end of the Middleborough/Lakeville Line, but is currently used only for freight service. U.S. census figures from the year 2000 indicate that more than 4,000 people each day were then commuting to work in Boston or Cambridge from Barnstable County or from intermediate points along the rail corridor between Middleborough/Lakeville and Buzzards Bay. However, the existing commuter rail service captured less than 10% of this traffic. This study has been prepared by the Central Transportation Planning Staff (CTPS) of the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization in response to a request from the Massachusetts Executive Office of Transportation (EOT) to examine the feasibility of reestablishing commuter rail service as far as Buzzards Bay.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Railroads

Feasibility analysis; Railroad commuter service; Transportation planning; Buzzards Bay (Massachusetts)

Transit

Explaining Variation in Transit Ridership in U.S. Metropolitan Areas Between 1990 and 2000: Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Thompson, Gregory Lee; Brown, Jeffrey R

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

Between 1990 and 2000, transit patronage increased by around 7% in the United States, but there has been wide variation around this mean. Most research attributes variation in ridership change to a combination of socioeconomic and land use factors, which are beyond a transit agency's control, and service and fare policy decisions, which are within an agency's control. A study built on this earlier work by examining ridership change at the metropolitan scale for all metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States that had more than 500,000 people at the time of the 2000 census. The study incorporates several measures of service quality in order to evaluate the relative efficacy of policy decisions about service coverage, frequency, and orientation (central business district radial versus multidestination system orientation). The multivariate analysis shows that transit is growing most rapidly in the nontraditional markets of the West but that much of the regional variation is a function of the particular service coverage, frequency, and orientation decisions made by transit agencies in this region. Service coverage and frequency are the most powerful explanatory variables for variation in ridership change among MSAs with 1 million to 5 million people, whereas a multidestination service orientation is the most important explanation for variation in ridership change among MSAs with 500,000 to 1 million people.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Economics; Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society

Fares; Metropolitan areas; Multivariate analysis; Public transit; Quality of service; Ridership; Socioeconomic factors; United States; Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Multiple destinations; Service coverage; Service frequency

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=7773; Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/030909996X

Transit

Growing the Immigrant Transit Market: Public Transit Use and California Immigrants

Authors: Blumenberg, Evelyn; Evans, Alexandra Elizabeth Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2007

Abstract:

Relatively little academic scholarship has examined the effects of immigration on public transit. This is surprising considering that immigrants, particularly recent immigrants, are more reliant on public transit than non-immigrants and that in many states immigrants comprise a large share of transit riders. In California, eight percent of immigrants commute by public transit and nearly 50 percent of transit commuters are foreign-born. In this study, we use data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Public Use Microdata Sample of the U.S. Census to examine trends in transit commuting in California and the role of immigrants in bolstering transit ridership. We then use census-tract level data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Censuses to examine the role of immigrants in predicting geographic variation in transit commuting controlling for other factors that influence transit use. Combined these analyses highlight the critical role of immigrants in maintaining transit ridership as well as in more accurately predicting rates of transit use. We conclude by offering policy suggestions for better serving the transportation needs of California's rising immigrant population and growing the immigrant transit market.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Passenger Transportation; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society

Census; Commuters; Market development; Market research; Markets; Public transit; Transit authorities; Transit operating agencies; Transit riders; California; Immigrants; 2000 Census

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://gulliver.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=7286

Transit

Individual and Neighborhood Determinants of Perceptions of Bus and Train Safety in Chicago, Illinois: Application of Hierarchical Linear Modeling

Authors: Yavuz, Nilay; Welch, Eric; Sriraj, P S

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2007

Abstract:

Individuals decide to use public transit in part on the basis of their perception of transit safety, which is determined by various individual and environmental factors. This paper adopts a multilevel approach to analyze how perceptions of bus and train safety in Chicago, Illinois, vary as a function of person-level characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity, income, and frequency of transit ridership) and neighborhood-level characteristics (perceived neighborhood disorder, population density, and level of poverty). Hierarchical linear modeling is applied to a unique data set that combines data from three different sources: Chicago Transit Authority data on individual-level perceptions of transit safety and individual demographics, Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy data on perceptions of neighborhood disorder at the zip code level, and U.S. Census zip code-level demographic data. Findings show that the individual- and zip code-level effects differ depending on whether the estimation predicts bus or train safety perceptions. Additionally, while higher-income individuals and African Americans report lower levels of perceived bus safety, there is an additional zip code effect: low-density and high-poverty areas and neighborhoods with high levels of disorder have significantly lower levels of perceived bus safety. Management and policy implications of the study for both the transit agency and the community in which service is being offered are discussed.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Highways; Public Transportation; Safety and Human Factors; Society

Bus transit; Census; Demographics; Neighborhoods; Public transit; Rail transit; Transit safety; Chicago (Illinois); Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy; Chicago Transit Authority; Hierarchical models; User perceptions

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=8903

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309104616

Transit

Relationship Between Transit's Usual and Actual Mode Shares

Authors: Chu, Xuehao; Polzin, Steven E

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2008

Abstract:

One major source of transit mode share at the national level is the journey-to-work data from the U.S. Census Bureau's Decennial Census surveys conducted since 1960. These data can be used to determine transit's usual mode share, that is, the share of workers who state that they usually use transit for commuting. The relation of transit's usual mode share to its actual mode share, that is, the share of work trips made by transit as revealed by respondents to daily travel surveys, was studied. Theoretically, a simple aggregate model of workers who commute to work by transit or by nontransit means is built to establish a theoretical relationship between transit's usual and actual mode shares. This model establishes a necessary and sufficient condition for transit's usual share to be greater than its actual share. Empirically, the FHWA's 2001 National Household Travel Survey is used to measure transit's usual and actual mode shares for 34 transit market segments defined by 14 personal, household, and geographical characteristics. For each of the 34 transit market segments, the empirical results show that the necessary and sufficient condition is met and that transit's usual mode share is greater than its actual mode share. Furthermore, the degree to which transit's usual mode share is greater than its actual share is significant, ranging from 14.7% to 87.3%. Differences of such magnitude are too large to be ignored.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation

Census; Market segmented groups; Modal split; Public transit; Travel surveys; Work trips; 2001 National Household Travel Survey

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office Order URL: http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9551

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309113229

Transit

Sketch Model to Forecast Heavy-Rail Ridership

Authors: Usvyat, Len; Meckel, Linda; DiCarlantonio, Mary; Lane, Clayton Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2009

Abstract:

Ridership potential is a critical attribute in the feasibility stage of a transit project development. While general guidance exists to determine the transit mode most appropriate for various employment and residential densities, no simple sketch-level tool is available to predict the range of ridership values for a heavy-rail alignment. Sketch-level light and commuter rail ridership models occur in Transportation Research Record, No. 1986, titled "Sketch Models to Forecast Commuter and Light Rail Ridership, Update to TCRP Report 16." Current publication provides the third rail-based mode ridership estimation tool. This analysis develops a sketch-level ridership forecasting tool for heavy-rail for medium and smaller size cities (those with population less than three million). It uses current ridership, demographic and transportation-system data from ten U.S. cities, including 32 heavy-rail corridors, and 474 stations, while it tests 186 possible explanatory variables. The efforts yield a linear multivariate regression equation that show close relationships between actual and predicted values with an adjusted R-squared value of 0.612. The new sketch model for heavy rail can be used in place of a full-blown four-step modeling approach and requires only ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel. The data required for this model is readily available from Metropolitan Planning Organizations and/or the U.S. Census Bureau. Combining this heavy-rail model with the existing light rail and commuter rail models opens a wealth of opportunities for inexpensive methods to predict the ridership potential for rail-based development as well as the impacts on station ridership by new residential and commercial development close to stations.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Railroads; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Light rail transit; Metropolitan planning organizations; Public transit; Railroad commuter service; Railroad transportation; Rapid transit; Ridership; Systems analysis; Transit operating agencies

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Transit

Sketch Transit Modeling Based on 2000 Census Data

Authors: Marshall, Norman; Grady, Brian

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

Transit planners need cost-effective ways to evaluate a wide range of alternatives relatively quickly to identify potential transit systems that are likely to offer the greatest benefits for a given cost. A sketch transit planning model is described for the Washington, D.C., region that is based on the metropolitan planning organization's travel demand model structure and model networks but is estimated from more recent 2000 census data, better matches suburban transit ridership, is sensitive to land use effects, and is less costly to use. Similar transit sketch models could be developed and applied in other regions.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation

Alternatives analysis; Cost effectiveness; Land use planning; Public transit; Ridership; Sketch planning; Transportation planning; Travel demand; Washington (District of Columbia); 2000 Census; Sketch planning models

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=7773

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/030909996X

Transit

Study: 4.7% of U.S. Commuters Use Public Transportation

Authors:

Metro

Publication Date: Aug 2007

Abstract:

This article provides statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau on how commuters get to work. Only 4.7 percent of U.S. commuters used public transportation in 2005, while 87.7 percent drove to work. Still, 4.7 percent represents an increase of about 0.1 percent above 2000 levels. Of those who drove, 77 percent drove alone. The figures show that half of the nation's public transportation users can be found in 10 of the country's 50 cities. Canadians, however, have increased their ridership on public transport in 2006 by 3.2 percent.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Passenger Transportation; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society

Commuters; Commuting; Mode choice; Public transit; Travel surveys

Availability: Available from UC Berkeley Transportation Library through interlibrary loan or document delivery Order URL: http://library.its.berkeley.edu

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/oclc/32522860

Transit

Subregional Transit Ridership Models Based on Geographically Weighted Regression

Authors: Chow, Lee-Fang; Zhao, Fang; Chi, Hongbo; Chen, Zhenmin Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2010

Abstract:

Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is a local regression model that calibrates model coefficients based on local observations. Compared to ordinary least square regression models, in which model coefficients depict a global relationship between a dependent variable and a set of independent variables, the coefficients in a GWR model are local and vary from location to location. These locally varying coefficients provide an opportunity for investigating the strength of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables and identifying variables that may not be significant for certain areas. This paper examines the significance of variables in a GWR model to identify new model structures for subregions. A GWR model is first estimated using the 2000 CTPP data for Broward County, Florida to investigate potential variables that affected public transit use for home-based work trip purpose, which included demographic, socioeconomic, land use, transit supply quality, and pedestrian environment variables. Based on the local significance of the independent variables, two subregional GWR models are then calibrated to include variables that are locally significant. A comparison between the subregional GWR models and the original GWR model showed that the subregional GWR models performed better than the regional GWR models in terms of model accuracy.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Public Transportation

Demographics; Land use; Least squares method; Location; Multiple regression analysis; Public transit; Ridership; Socioeconomic factors; Spatial analysis; Broward County (Florida); Census Transportation Planning Package

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Transit

Transit Ridership Model Based on Geographically Weighted Regression

Authors: Chow, Lee-Fang; Zhao, Fang; Liu M.S., Xuemei; Li, Min-Tang; Ubaka, Ike

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to explore the spatial variability in the strength of the relationship between public transit use for home-based work (HBW) trip purposes and an array of potential transit use predictors. The transit use predictors considered include demographics and socioeconomics, land use, transit supply and quality, and pedestrian environment. The best predictors identified through model estimation include two global variables (regional accessibility of employment and percentage of households with no car) and three local variables (employment density, average number of cars in households with children, and percentage of the population who are black). The models were estimated on the basis of the 2000 Census Transportation Planning Package data for Broward County, Florida. Model testing indicates the GWR model has improved accuracy in predicting transit use for HBW purposes over linear regression models. The GWR model also indicates that the effects of the independent variables on transit use vary across space. The research points to future research to explore different model structures within a geographic area.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Economics; Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society

Accessibility; Automobile ownership; Demographics; Employment; Households; Land use; Public transit; Regression analysis; Ridership; Socioeconomic factors; Work trips; Broward County (Florida); 2000 Census; Census Transportation Planning Package; Employme

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/0309099811

Transit

Using Quantitative Methods in Equity and Demographic Analysis to Inform Transit Fare Restructuring Decisions

Authors: Hickey, Robert L; Lu, Alex; Reddy, Alla

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2010

Abstract:

New York City Transit (NYCT) and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority have integrated race and income equity considerations into their extensive public outreach processes for fare changes. Responding to FTA civil rights, Title VI, and environmental justice requirements, NYCT developed two quantitative and analytical approaches for forecasting equity impacts of fare restructuring decisions, in place of more traditional origin-destination surveys. The first approach uses standard aggregate fare elasticity models to estimate diversions between different fare classes and ridership losses resulting from fare adjustments. Average fare changes by fare media type are disaggregated with historical farecard usage patterns (consumption data) by subway station and bus route and translated into demographic variables (minority or nonminority and at, below, or above poverty) on the basis of census data. Overall average fare changes are used to analyze equity impacts. A second, more experimental approach identifies user demographics by daily first swipe locations and estimates daily average fares as actually experienced by each passenger by using sequential transactions on discrete farecards. To meet ongoing requirements, methods were developed to analyze impacts separately for peak and off-peak time periods and to demonstrate equity by using statistical tests. Impact analyses results and historical ridership, revenue, and market share data collected by the MetroCard automated fare collection system all inform fare structure design processes, with particular attention devoted to distributing fare increase burdens equitably.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Administration and Management; Finance; Public Transportation; Society; I10: Economics and Administration

Automatic fare collection; Data collection; Decision making; Demographics; Elasticity (Economics); Equity (Justice); Fares; Income; Off peak periods; Peak periods; Public transit; New York (New York); Civil Rights Act Title VI; New York City Transit Autho

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/Transit_2010_Volume_2_164768.aspx

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309160469

Transit

Where Transit Use Is Growing: Surprising Results

Authors: Thompson, Gregory L; Brown, Jeffrey R; Sharma, Rupa; Scheib, Samuel

Journal of Public Transportation

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

This article investigates whether transit's fate is tied to the last vestiges of old urban forms or whether transit is finding niches in the new, largely suburban urban forms that increasingly have manifested themselves since the 1920s. The hypothesis is that most growth is in census regions with the strongest vestiges of older urban forms centered on CBDs. The hypothesis was tested by documenting how transit performance changed between 1990 and 2000 in U.S. metropolitan areas with more than 500,000 people in the year 2000. Results show that, for MSAs with fewer than 5 million people, transit use has been growing faster than very rapid population growth in the West region, but not elsewhere in the country. The conclusion is that transit growth is not tied to old urban forms. A future article will explore causality of transit use growth and service productivity change.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation

Medium sized cities; Metropolitan areas; Performance measurement; Public transit; Ridership; Suburbs; Urban growth; Urban transit; Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Increase; Transit growth

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/oclc/30755822

Transit

Who Gets a Train Station? Toward Understanding Racial Equity in FTA New Starts Program Using Buffer Analysis

Authors: Rodriguez, Miguel Angel Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2009

Abstract:

Environmental Justice and racial issues an increasing area of concern for transit agencies, public advocates, and planners. Most transit investments in rail and bus rapid transit (BRT) are completed using Federal funds under the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) New Starts Program. To date, there has been very little scholarly study of this program, especially in terms of environmental justice. While the FTA New Starts application process considers low-income households and employment areas served by a proposed system, it has no consideration for race. However, there is a common perception that rail programs in particular provide investment in suburban White areas of cities. This analysis proposes a buffer analysis method using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in order to evaluate four randomly selected FTA New Starts projects receiving full funding grant agreements in 2007 on the basis of race. This analysis uses Census 2000 data and focuses on home-based racial demographics. The conclusions of this study find no consistent pattern of New Starts projects exhibiting a bias of serving areas that are primarily White. In fact, many of the projects served proportionally strong minority areas. The results vary depending on the buffer from the transit stations (walking, biking or driving distance), and they also varied depending on which race in particular was served. This analysis serves as an example of how buffer analysis can be used to evaluate many environmental justice elements in the FTA New Starts and offers the FTA should consider including such racial categories in its application process for Federal Dollars.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Administration and Management; Economics; Public Transportation; Railroads; Society; I10: Economics and Administration

Accessibility; Bus rapid transit; Demographics; Equity (Justice); Government agencies; Government funding; Low income groups; Minorities; Planning; Public transit; Race; Railroad transportation; Social factors; Suburbs; Trip length; New Starts Program; U.

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Updated: 06/06/2011
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