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Travel Behavior

Commuting in America III: The Third National Report on Commuting Patterns and Trends

Authors: Pisarski, Alan E Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Monograph

Publication Date: 2006

Abstract:

This report provides a snapshot view of commuting patterns and trends derived principally from an analysis of the 2000 decennial U.S. census and will be a valuable resource for those interested in public policy, planning, research, and education. This is the third report in this series authored by Alan E. Pisarski, transportation consultant, over the last 20 years. His first two reports, published in 1989 and 1996 along with decennial census data dating back to 1960, also have afforded Mr. Pisarski the opportunity for evaluations of patterns and trends over time. A full appreciation of commuting (the journey-to-work trip) requires an understanding of population and worker trends, the demographics of a changing population and households, vehicle availability, modal usage, travel times, congestion, and work locations--all covered by "Commuting in America III." Previous "Commuting in America" reports presented an objective base for policy discussions of commuting-related issues. This third edition is expected to do the same.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Policy; Public Transportation; Research; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Census; Commuting; Demographics; Education; Households; Operations research; Public policy; Research; Traffic congestion; Transportation planning; Travel patterns; Travel time; Trend (Statistics); Work trips; 2000 Census; Modal usage; Travel trends; Vehic

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=6699

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309098533

Travel Behavior

Comparison of Socioeconomic and Demographic Profiles of Extreme Commuters in Several U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas

Authors: Marion, Bernadette M; Horner, Mark W

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Publication Date: 2007

Abstract:

Extreme commuting denotes a one-way commute time of 90 min or more to work. Research into why individuals make such unusually long commutes is limited. In this paper, regression analyses by the use of Microdata files from the Bureau of the Census reveal the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics that increase an individual's odds of extreme commuting. Commuters in four metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Georgia; Baltimore, Maryland; Houston, Texas; and Tampa, Florida) were examined. The model results are consistent with the findings in the literature that define lengthy commutes as a constrained, rather than optimized, choice behavior.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Economics; Highways; Passenger Transportation; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Behavior; Choice models; Commuters; Demographics; Metropolitan areas; Regression analysis; Socioeconomic factors; Atlanta (Georgia); Baltimore (Maryland); Houston (Texas); Tampa (Florida); Extreme commuters

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=8631

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780309104395

Travel Behavior

First Look at Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Travel Characteristics of Extreme Commuters: A Disaggregate Analysis of Journey-to-Work Travel in Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area

Authors: Horner, Mark W; Marion, Bernadette M; Lair, Sharla Transportation Research Board-500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting

Publication Date: 2007

Abstract:

'Extreme commuting' is a term routinely used by the popular press and Census specialists to describe a class of workers who undertake long journeys to reach their places of employment. Operationally, the census defines extreme commuters as those who travel more than 90 minutes each way to work. Data show these workers represent a small, but rapidly growing percentage of total commuters. Furthermore, there is evidence suggesting that the motivation for non-extreme commuting differs from extreme commuting. However, issues surrounding these commuters have not yet been explored in the literature. This paper takes a first look at the prevailing characteristics of extreme commuters, focusing on Atlanta, GA. Specifically, the analysis employs a disaggregated dataset, the Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS), and inferential statistics to examine demographic and socioeconomic attributes of extreme commuters and how they contrast with non-extreme commuters (those commuting 90 minutes or less). Finally, the implications of these findings for commuting research are discussed.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Economics; Highways; Passenger Transportation; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Commuters; Data files; Demographics; Socioeconomic areas; Socioeconomic development; Socioeconomic factors; Statistical analysis; Traffic forecasting; Travel; Travel time; Atlanta (Georgia); Commute travel

Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office

Order URL: http://gulliver.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=7286

Travel Behavior

Men, Women, Job Sprawl, and Journey to Work in the Philadelphia Region

Authors: Weinberger, Rachel

Public Works Management & Policy

Publication Date: Jan 2007

Abstract:

This paper examines Census-reported journey-to-work travel time for the greater Philadelphia region to investigate how an increased dispersion of employment opportunities affects travel time. Findings showed that more people are commuting by automobile, a mode usually associated with shorter journey times, but are reporting longer trip times. This finding is counterintuitive as it coincides with a period when new jobs were established in outlying areas and the region experienced a net loss in jobs. The authors conclude that as job opportunities disperse into lower density areas, Philadelphia's existing high-capacity systems are underutilized, and transportation systems throughout the region that were designed for relatively low demand are becoming overwhelmed in time. The net effect is a breakdown of both the urban mass transit systems, which are being underused, and the suburban and rural highway networks, which are being overused. The analysis also shows that the shorter travel time traditionally enjoyed by women is being eroded. This may because there is an overall greater distribution of job opportunities for men and women as jobs move out of Philadelphia into a more dispersed area. Men are increasingly finding work near their residences while women continue to make inroads into employment sectors that were previously closed to them. This brings travel time by sex into closer alignment.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Data and Information Technology; Highways; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; Society; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Automobile travel; Case studies; Census; Gender; Mode choice; Population density; Public transit; Ridership; Travel time; Urban sprawl; Work trips; Workplaces; Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/oclc/34383369

Travel Behavior

The Impact of Sprawl on Commuting in Alabama

Authors: Weber, Joe; Sultana, Selima University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa-Department of Geography, 202 Farrah Hall Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0322 ; University of North Carolina, Greensboro-Department of Geography Greensboro, NC ; University Transportation Center for Alabama-University of Al

Monograph

Publication Date: Jun 2005

Abstract:

This research examines the influence and importance of urban sprawl on commuting patterns within Birmingham and Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodologies were used to define and map urban sprawl, with the 2000 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP) as the primary dataset. The results confirmed that workers living in sprawl areas commute farther to work in both mileage and travel time than those living in older, higher density areas of the city. Workers who commute into urban areas from outlying sprawl zones have the longest commutes, while those who commute entirely within the city have the shortest. This suggests that as residences continue to move to sprawl areas commuting times can be expected to greatly increase as workers journey to urban jobs. However, as jobs continue to move to sprawling areas, commuting times may decrease due to an increase of shorter within-sprawl commuting. Increasing sprawl could therefore lead to an equalization of commuting times.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Highways; Society; I10: Economics and Administration

Commuting; Geographic information systems; Impacts; Jobs; Location; Suburbs; Travel patterns; Travel time; Urban areas; Urban sprawl; Vehicle miles of travel; Work trips; Birmingham (Alabama); Tuscaloosa (Alabama)

Availability: University Transportation Center for Alabama

Travel Behavior

The Quiet Success: Telecommuting Impact on Transportation and Beyond

Authors: Balaker, Ted Reason Foundation-3415 S Sepulveda Boulevard, Suite 400 Los Angeles, CA 90034

Monograph

Publication Date: Nov 2005

Abstract:

The decision to forego the daily commute and work from home might not seem particularly revolutionary, but telecommuting has a positive impact on a surprisingly wide range of issues. Telecommuting may be the most cost effective way to reduce rush-hour traffic and it can even improve how a weary nation copes with disasters, from hurricanes to terrorist attacks. Telecommuting helps improve air quality, highway safety, and even health care as new technology allows top-notch physicians to be (virtually) anywhere. It expands opportunities for the handicapped, conserves energy, and "when used as a substitute for offshore outsourcing" it can help allay globalization fears. It can even make companies more profitable, which is good news for our nation's managers, many of whom have long been suspicious of telecommuting. Other than driving alone, telecommuting is the only commute mode that has gained market share since 1980. The Census Bureau notes that from 1990 to 2000 the number of those who usually worked at home grew by 23 percent, more than twice the rate of growth of the total labor market. Since 2000, telecommuting has continued to grow in popularity with roughly 4.5 million Americans telecommuting most work days, and roughly 20 million telecommuting for some period at least once per month, and nearly 45 million telecommute at least once per year. And telecommuters drive less than office workers. During the days they telecommute, workers reduce their daily trips by 27 to 51 percent and driving (vehicle miles traveled) by 53 to 77 percent. Although they effectively receive no public subsidies, telecommuters actually outnumber transit commuters in a majority (27 out of 50) of major metropolitan areas (those with populations over 1 million). Telecommuters outnumber transit commuters in places like San Diego, Dallas, and Phoenix. They outnumber transit commuters by more than two to one in places like Raleigh-Durham, Tampa-St. Petersburg, and Nashville. In Oklahoma City telecommuters outnumber transit commuters by nearly five to one. Telecommuters tend to be highly educated and financially well-off. Most of the top telecommuting metropolitan areas tend to be fast-growing regions with high concentrations of technologically savvy workers who feel comfortable using the Internet and other tools common to remote work. Denver, Portland, and San Diego are the top three telecommuting metropolitan areas (as measured by percentage of workforce that telecommutes). Atlanta and Washington, D.C. lead the nation in telecommuting growth, yet every major metropolitan area has experienced strong growth. Many strong social trends suggest that telecommuting will become even more prevalent in the future.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Energy; Environment; Highways; Operations and Traffic Management; Passenger Transportation; Planning and Forecasting; Public Transportation; I72: Traffic and Transport Planning

Air quality; City planning; Commuters; Energy conservation; Environmental impacts; Internet; Peak hour traffic; Public transit; Technological innovations; Telecommuting; Traffic congestion; Transportation planning; Vehicle miles of travel

Availability: Reason Foundation

Travel Behavior

Time to Work: Commuting Times and Modes of Transportation of California Workers

Authors: Barbour, Elisa

California Counts: Population Trends and Profile

Publication Date: Feb 2006

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of commuting behavior in California and provides insight into how workers adapt to economic growth and development. It also looks at the interaction between public and private choices regarding transportation and housing. Using data from the decennial U.S. Census, the paper evaluates how commute times and choice of transportation have varied over time and location and among workers in California.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Economics; Highways; Operations and Traffic Management; Passenger Transportation; Society; I70: Traffic and Transport

Commuters; Commuting; Mode choice; Transportation modes; Travel behavior; Travel time; Work trips; California

Availability: Available from UC Berkeley Transportation Library through interlibrary loan or document delivery

Order URL: http://library.its.berkeley.edu

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Order URL: http://worldcat.org/oclc/67185590

Travel Behavior

Travel Behavior of Immigrant Groups in California

Authors: Handy, Susan L University of California, Berkeley-Institute of Transportation Studies Berkeley, CA 94720-1720 ; University of California, Berkeley-California PATH Program, Institute of Transportation Studies Richmond Field Station, 1357 South 46th Street Richmond,

Monograph

Publication Date: May 2009

Abstract:

This report presents the findings from a study examining the travel behavior of immigrant groups in California. The first phase of the study involved analyzing Census data on commute travel of California immigrants from 1980, 1990, and 2000. Phase two of the study involved focus groups with recent Mexican immigrants in six California regions regarding transportation experiences and needs. The third phase of the study involved interviews conducted with community-based organization in nine California regions regarding the transportation needs and desires of these immigrants. Key findings are reported regarding commute mode, auto assimilation, attitudes towards public transit and carpooling, and the role of walking and bicycling.

Subject Areas and Index Terms

Economics; Highways; Public Transportation; Society; I10: Economics and Administration

Commuters; Commuting; Travel behavior; Travel patterns; California; Mexico; Immigrants

Availability: Available from UC Berkeley Transportation Library through interlibrary loan or document delivery; Order URL: http://library.its.berkeley.edu; University of California, Berkeley

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Updated: 06/06/2011
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