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Chapter 2. METRO AREA TRENDS (part 2)

Worker Characteristics

In the year 2000, about 75 million workers (58.5 percent of all workers) live in the 49 large MSAs, 20 million more workers than lived in the same MSAs in 1980 (a 35 percent increase). Exhibit 2.11a shows workers as percent of population for the large MSAs for the period of 1960-1980. This table is reproduced from the 1990 Journey-to-Work Trends Report. Exhibit 2.11b shows workers as percent of population for 1980, 1990,and 2000 using the June 1999 geographic definition of MSAs. Minneapolis, Denver,Austin, and Raleigh, NC all have over 50 percent of their population in the workforce in 2000.

The proportion of the population in the workforce is a function of the age mix, including the retirement population and the proportion of children. New Orleans, Miami, West Palm Beach, and Los Angeles are at the other end of the scale, with less than 43 percent of the population working, generally indicating older, retired populations or a large number of households with children. Exhibit 2.12 shows the total number of workers for 1980, 1990, and 2000, along with percent change in number of workers living in the MSA for each decade.

Exhibit 2.13 shows the change in the average number of workers per household for 1980,1990, and 2000. Workers per household can often be directly related to vehicles and income per household.

Exhibit 2.14 shows the workers by area of residence, whether central county or suburban,for 1980, 1990, and 2000, the number of central county workers for the same time period for each major MSA, and the percent change in workers in the central county. These data show large increases in the percent of workers who live in the suburban counties of major MSAs and large increases in the percent of workers who work outside the county of residence in each of the large metro areas. Because the geographic scale of analysis in this report is limited to counties, we cannot fully explore the development of the suburbs as loci of economic growth, the dispersal of workplaces and households, and suburb-tosuburb commuting.

Exhibit 2.15 shows the number of workers living in central county for 1980, 1990, and 2000, and the percentage of change in workers during each decade. From 1990 to 2000, fast growing areas such as Las Vegas, Phoenix, Austin, and Raleigh experienced more than 40 percent increase in central county workers. During the same time, older MSAs such as Philadelphia, St. Louis, Norfolk, and Washington D.C. lost more than 10 percent of their central county workers.

In addition to the demographic changes in the workforce, there have been changes in the geography of workplaces in the forty years since 1960. The separation between home and work has become greater. In 1960, only 14.5 percent of workers worked outside their county of residence, whereas in 2000, 26.6 percent of workers worked outside the county of residence. More analysis on place of work is presented in Chapter 6.

Exhibit 2.11a Workers as Percent of Population: 1960-1980

Area Workers (Percent of Population)
1960 1970 1980
New York City 38.9 39.3 42.7
Los Angeles 38.0 38.3 45.1
Chicago 38.8 40.0 44.0
San Francisco 38.4 39.4 47.9
Philadelphia 37.4 38.8 41.9
Detroit 34.6 36.4 39.8
Boston   40.4 46.8
Washington, DC 41.0 43.2 51.0
Dallas 39.0 41.5 49.4
Houston 36.3 39.4 48.6
Miami 37.1 38.4 43.6
Atlanta 38.0 41.3 46.8
Cleveland 36.9 38.2 42.5
Seattle 37.3 38.4 46.7
San Diego 39.3 40.1 45.9
Minneapolis 37.8 40.6 49.5
St. Louis 36.5 37.3 42.6
Baltimore 37.5 39.6 44.6
Pittsburgh 33.8 35.5 40.3
Phoenix 35.2 37.8 43.7
Tampa 32.9 33.7 38.8
Denver 38.2 40.2 49.8
Cincinnati 35.6 37.0 41.7
Milwaukee 38.2 39.8 45.9
Kansas City 38.4 41.0 46.7
Sacramento 36.9 36.6 42.9
Portland 37.0 39.0 45.8
Columbus 36.9 38.9 44.7
San Antonio 35.3 37.1 41.9
Indianapolis 38.4 39.2 44.2
New Orleans 34.1 34.8 40.8
Buffalo 35.7 36.7 40.2
Providence   41.2 44.4
Total 37.6 39.0 44.5

Note: Data in the above table is NOT adjusted for geography. The numbers are reproduced from the 1990 Journey-to-Work Trends Report.

Exhibit 2.11b Workers as Percent of Population: 1980-2000

Name of MSA Workers (Percent of Population)
1980 1990 2000
New York 42.8 47.4 44.0
Los Angeles 45.1 46.9 41.3
Chicago 44.1 47.6 46.1
Washington, DC 47.7 53.7 50.5
San Francisco 47.8 51.2 48.8
Philadelphia 41.5 47.3 45.5
Boston 46.3 50.6 49.8
Detroit 39.4 44.2 45.5
Dallas 49.1 50.5 48.4
Houston 48.5 47.4 44.6
Atlanta 46.3 52.1 50.1
Miami 43.5 46.2 42.4
Seattle 46.2 50.5 50.0
Phoenix 43.1 46.3 45.1
Minneapolis 49.2 53.0 53.7
Cleveland 42.3 44.8 46.7
San Diego 45.9 49.3 46.2
St. Louis 42.5 46.8 47.6
Denver 49.4 51.9 52.1
Tampa 38.4 44.2 44.4
Pittsburgh 39.7 42.8 44.8
Portland 44.5 48.0 48.8
Cincinnati 41.5 46.4 48.1
Sacramento 43.0 46.3 44.5
Kansas City 46.0 49.2 49.6
Milwaukee 45.8 48.1 48.3
Orlando 44.8 50.2 47.8
Indianapolis 44.1 49.5 49.5
San Antonio 41.9 43.7 43.9
Norfolk 45.6 49.9 48.4
Las Vegas 47.6 48.8 44.9
Columbus 44.3 49.3 50.5
Charlotte 48.5 52.0 50.1
New Orleans 40.6 41.4 42.6
Salt Lake City 42.2 44.7 48.2
Greensboro 47.9 52.4 49.5
Austin 47.6 51.0 52.0
Nashville 45.6 50.3 50.5
Providence 44.1 47.7 46.7
Raleigh 48.6 53.9 52.0
Hartford 48.5 51.6 48.4
Buffalo 40.3 44.7 44.5
Memphis 41.0 45.5 45.0
West Palm Beach 40.4 44.0 42.0
Jacksonville 43.1 49.0 48.0
Rochester 44.0 48.0 47.1
Grand Rapids 42.5 47.2 48.9
Oklahoma City 46.2 46.9 47.0
Louisville 41.8 46.7 48.1

Exhibit 2.12 Total Workers Living in MSA: 1980-2000

Name of MSA Areawide Decadal Percent Change
1980 1990 2000 1980-90 1990-2000
New York 8,133,936 9,271,089 9,319,218 14.0 0.5
Los Angeles 5,184,393 6,809,043 6,767,619 31.3 -0.6
Chicago 3,575,803 3,922,295 4,218,108 9.7 7.5
Washington, DC 2,760,794 3,611,094 3,839,052 30.8 6.3
San Francisco 2,563,329 3,200,833 3,432,157 24.9 7.2
Philadelphia 2,347,072 2,784,581 2,815,405 18.6 1.1
Boston 2,471,832 2,760,435 2,898,680 11.7 5.0
Detroit 2,085,116 2,294,108 2,482,457 10.0 8.2
Dallas 1,494,568 2,038,398 2,527,648 36.4 24.0
Houston 1,512,080 1,768,567 2,081,607 17.0 17.7
Atlanta 1,033,088 1,542,948 2,060,632 49.4 33.6
Miami 1,150,471 1,476,085 1,642,866 28.3 11.3
Seattle 1,113,261 1,499,734 1,776,224 34.7 18.4
Phoenix 688,912 1,036,017 1,466,434 50.4 41.5
Minneapolis 1,081,772 1,344,797 1,595,550 24.3 18.6
Cleveland 1,242,438 1,282,092 1,375,774 3.2 7.3
San Diego 854,600 1,230,446 1,299,503 44.0 5.6
St. Louis 1,026,288 1,166,023 1,238,964 12.9 6.3
Denver 859,989 1,026,847 1,346,025 19.4 31.1
Tampa 619,119 914,711 1,063,957 47.7 16.3
Pittsburgh 1,021,047 1,023,825 1,057,354 0.3 3.3
Portland 704,392 861,141 1,105,133 22.3 28.3
Cincinnati 716,583 844,125 951,709 17.8 12.7
Sacramento 472,640 685,945 799,989 45.1 16.6
Kansas City 666,940 778,624 881,258 16.7 13.2
Milwaukee 719,555 772,752 816,880 7.4 5.7
Orlando 360,312 614,382 786,243 70.5 28.0
Indianapolis 575,905 683,007 795,755 18.6 16.5
San Antonio 456,656 578,529 698,685 26.7 20.8
Norfolk 547,803 720,890 760,401 31.6 5.5
Las Vegas 251,501 416,025 702,535 65.4 68.9
Columbus 537,727 663,006 777,922 23.3 17.3
Charlotte 470,708 604,856 751,629 28.5 24.3
New Orleans 528,868 531,697 570,423 0.5 7.3
Salt Lake City 383,938 479,338 642,688 24.8 34.1
Greensboro 455,515 550,325 618,921 20.8 12.5
Austin 278,251 431,345 649,645 55.0 50.6
Nashville 387,660 495,717 621,221 27.9 25.3
Providence 381,643 540,872 555,540 41.7 2.7
Raleigh 323,005 461,516 617,475 42.9 33.8
Hartford 510,174 597,831 573,114 17.2 -4.1
Buffalo 500,364 531,122 520,350 6.1 -2.0
Memphis 384,793 458,534 511,111 19.2 11.5
West Palm Beach 233,303 380,260 475,572 63.0 25.1
Jacksonville 311,207 443,882 527,718 42.6 18.9
Rochester 453,387 509,733 516,814 12.4 1.4
Grand Rapids 357,673 442,228 531,924 23.6 20.3
Oklahoma City 397,394 450,122 509,262 13.3 13.1
Louisville 398,355 442,933 492,821 11.2 11.3

Exhibit 2.13 Ratio of Workers and Households: 1980-2000

Name 1980 1990 2000
New York 1.19 1.30 1.20
Los Angeles 1.25 1.39 1.27
Chicago 1.26 1.32 1.28
Washington, DC 1.34 1.45 1.34
San Francisco 1.25 1.37 1.34
Philadelphia 1.19 1.29 1.21
Boston 1.31 1.36 1.31
Detroit 1.14 1.20 1.19
Dallas 1.35 1.35 1.33
Houston 1.37 1.32 1.27
Atlanta 1.31 1.40 1.37
Miami 1.12 1.21 1.15
Seattle 1.23 1.30 1.28
Phoenix 1.20 1.22 1.23
Minneapolis 1.37 1.40 1.40
Cleveland 1.18 1.17 1.18
San Diego 1.27 1.39 1.31
St. Louis 1.20 1.24 1.22
Denver 1.32 1.31 1.34
Tampa 0.94 1.05 1.05
Pittsburgh 1.09 1.08 1.09
Portland 1.17 1.25 1.28
Cincinnati 1.18 1.24 1.24
Sacramento 1.13 1.23 1.20
Kansas City 1.25 1.28 1.27
Milwaukee 1.28 1.28 1.24
Orlando 1.22 1.32 1.26
Indianapolis 1.23 1.29 1.26
San Antonio 1.29 1.26 1.25
Norfolk 1.36 1.41 1.32
Las Vegas 1.26 1.26 1.19
Columbus 1.22 1.29 1.27
Charlotte 1.37 1.37 1.31
New Orleans 1.17 1.13 1.13
Salt Lake City 1.32 1.38 1.49
Greensboro 1.33 1.33 1.24
Austin 1.31 1.32 1.38
Nashville 1.28 1.32 1.30
Providence 1.23 1.27 1.20
Raleigh 1.37 1.38 1.34
Hartford 1.37 1.37 1.25
Buffalo 1.12 1.15 1.11
Memphis 1.21 1.25 1.20
West Palm Beach 1.00 1.04 1.00
Jacksonville 1.20 1.29 1.24
Rochester 1.25 1.29 1.23
Grand Rapids 1.24 1.32 1.34
Oklahoma City 1.23 1.22 1.20
Louisville 1.17 1.21 1.20

Exhibit 2.14 Workers by Area of Residence: 1980-2000

Name 1980 1990 2000
Area wide % CC %SC Area wide % CC %SC Area wide % CC %SC
New York 8,133,936 8.3 91.7 9,271,089 8.1 91.9 9,319,218 8.1 91.9
Los Angeles 5,184,393 65.1 34.9 6,809,043 60.4 39.6 6,767,619 57.0 43.0
Chicago 3,575,803 63.8 36.2 3,922,295 60.4 39.6 4,218,108 56.2 43.8
Washington, DC 2,760,794 10.7 89.3 3,611,094 8.4 91.6 3,839,052 6.8 93.2
San Francisco 2,563,329 13.1 86.9 3,200,833 11.9 88.1 3,432,157 12.2 87.8
Philadelphia 2,347,072 25.9 74.1 2,784,581 23.0 77.0 2,815,405 20.2 79.8
Boston 2,471,832 11.7 88.3 2,760,435 11.7 88.3 2,898,680 11.1 88.9
Detroit 2,085,116 40.5 59.5 2,294,108 35.9 64.1 2,482,457 33.3 66.7
Dallas 1,494,568 52.9 47.1 2,038,398 46.3 53.7 2,527,648 41.1 58.9
Houston 1,512,080 79.1 20.9 1,768,567 76.7 23.3 2,081,607 72.8 27.2
Atlanta 1,033,088 24.4 75.6 1,542,948 20.4 79.6 2,060,632 18.7 81.3
Miami 1,150,471 63.1 36.9 1,476,085 60.2 39.8 1,642,866 54.7 45.3
Seattle 1,113,261 56.2 43.8 1,499,734 53.7 46.3 1,776,224 51.3 48.7
Phoenix 688,912 95.6 4.4 1,036,017 96.2 3.8 1,466,434 95.9 4.1
Minneapolis 1,081,772 45.0 55.0 1,344,797 41.7 58.3 1,595,550 38.1 61.9
Cleveland 1,242,438 51.5 48.5 1,282,092 48.2 51.8 1,375,774 45.3 54.7
San Diego 854,600 100.0 0.0 1,230,446 100.0 0.0 1,299,503 100.0 0.0
St. Louis 1,026,288 16.4 83.6 1,166,023 13.6 86.4 1,238,964 11.4 88.6
Denver 859,989 28.2 71.8 1,026,847 22.5 77.5 1,346,025 20.7 79.3
Tampa 619,119 45.3 54.7 914,711 44.9 55.1 1,063,957 44.2 55.8
Pittsburgh 1,021,047 58.8 41.2 1,023,825 58.2 41.8 1,057,354 55.1 44.9
Portland 704,392 37.1 62.9 861,141 33.3 66.7 1,105,133 30.3 69.7
Cincinnati 716,583 51.8 48.2 844,125 47.3 52.7 951,709 41.9 58.1
Sacramento 472,640 72.0 28.0 685,945 70.3 29.7 799,989 67.0 33.0
Kansas City 666,940 43.4 56.6 778,624 39.2 60.8 881,258 35.3 64.7
Milwaukee 719,555 60.9 39.1 772,752 56.9 43.1 816,880 52.3 47.7
Orlando 360,312 61.9 38.1 614,382 58.0 42.0 786,243 55.9 44.1
Indianapolis 575,905 60.3 39.7 683,007 58.1 41.9 795,755 53.4 46.6
San Antonio 456,656 90.8 9.2 578,529 89.3 10.7 698,685 87.0 13.0
Norfolk 547,803 23.3 76.7 720,890 18.1 81.9 760,401 14.7 85.3
Las Vegas 251,501 90.4 9.6 416,025 89.2 10.8 702,535 89.9 10.1
Columbus 537,727 73.6 26.4 663,006 73.5 26.5 777,922 70.5 29.5
Charlotte 470,708 43.1 56.9 604,856 45.8 54.2 751,629 48.3 51.7
New Orleans 528,868 40.4 59.6 531,697 35.2 64.8 570,423 33.1 66.9
Salt Lake City 383,938 69.4 30.6 479,338 68.7 31.3 642,688 68.2 31.8
Greensboro 455,515 33.6 66.4 550,325 33.8 66.2 618,921 34.4 65.6
Austin 278,251 75.3 24.7 431,345 70.2 29.8 649,645 66.7 33.3
Nashville 387,660 58.1 41.9 495,717 52.8 47.2 621,221 46.0 54.0
Providence 381,643 65.2 34.8 540,872 51.1 48.9 555,540 49.7 50.3
Raleigh 323,005 47.1 52.9 461,516 51.4 48.6 617,475 54.8 45.2
Hartford 510,174 76.8 23.2 597,831 72.4 27.6 573,114 70.5 29.5
Buffalo 500,364 81.7 18.3 531,122 81.5 18.5 520,350 81.1 18.9
Memphis 384,793 84.7 15.3 458,534 82.8 17.2 511,111 78.8 21.2
West Palm Beach 233,303 100.0 0.0 380,260 100.0 0.0 475,572 100.0 0.0
Jacksonville 311,207 80.4 19.6 443,882 75.1 24.9 527,718 70.9 29.1
Rochester 453,387 69.8 30.2 509,733 68.1 31.9 516,814 66.8 33.2
Grand Rapids 357,673 54.8 45.2 442,228 54.9 45.1 531,924 53.4 46.6
Oklahoma City 397,394 67.6 32.4 450,122 62.5 37.5 509,262 59.9 40.1
Louisville 398,355 73.0 27.0 442,933 70.3 29.7 492,821 66.8 33.2

Exhibit 2.15 Number of Workers Living in Central County (Workers): 1980-2000

Name of MSA Central County Workers Percent Change
1980 1990 2000 1980-90 1990-2000
New York 677,228 754,148 753,114 11.4 -0.1
Los Angeles 3,373,977 4,115,248 3,858,750 22.0 -6.2
Chicago 2,281,356 2,369,624 2,371,161 3.9 0.1
Washington, DC 295,131 304,428 260,884 3.2 -14.3
San Francisco 336,627 382,309 418,553 13.6 9.5
Philadelphia 608,391 640,577 569,761 5.3 -11.1
Boston 287,984 324,109 320,979 12.5 -1.0
Detroit 843,481 822,620 827,311 -2.5 0.6
Dallas 790,120 943,146 1,038,779 19.4 10.1
Houston 1,196,293 1,356,196 1,515,593 13.4 11.8
Atlanta 252,028 315,366 385,442 25.1 22.2
Miami 726,152 887,996 899,323 22.3 1.3
Seattle 626,076 805,782 911,677 28.7 13.1
Phoenix 658,834 996,495 1,406,442 51.3 41.1
Minneapolis 486,820 561,081 607,567 15.3 8.3
Cleveland 639,901 617,552 622,876 -3.5 0.9
San Diego 854,600 1,230,446 1,299,503 44.0 5.6
St. Louis 168,199 158,499 140,747 -5.8 -11.2
Denver 242,856 231,503 278,715 -4.7 20.4
Tampa 280,154 410,950 470,753 46.7 14.6
Pittsburgh 600,456 595,405 582,362 -0.8 -2.2
Portland 261,334 286,600 335,182 9.7 17.0
Cincinnati 371,368 399,406 398,465 7.5 -0.2
Sacramento 340,105 482,321 536,310 41.8 11.2
Kansas City 289,506 304,852 310,789 5.3 1.9
Milwaukee 438,003 439,449 427,620 0.3 -2.7
Orlando 222,907 356,271 439,323 59.8 23.3
Indianapolis 347,080 396,584 424,598 14.3 7.1
San Antonio 414,720 516,606 607,860 24.6 17.7
Norfolk 127,689 130,549 112,083 2.2 -14.1
Las Vegas 227,263 371,128 631,236 63.3 70.1
Columbus 395,783 487,305 548,655 23.1 12.6
Charlotte 202,915 277,227 362,991 36.6 30.9
New Orleans 213,918 186,926 188,703 -12.6 1.0
Salt Lake City 266,384 329,238 438,627 23.6 33.2
Greensboro 153,243 185,853 213,079 21.3 14.6
Austin 209,396 302,909 433,064 44.7 43.0
Nashville 225,262 261,683 285,980 16.2 9.3
Providence 249,009 276,405 276,324 11.0 0.0
Raleigh 152,194 237,181 338,602 55.8 42.8
Hartford 392,068 432,836 403,863 10.4 -6.7
Buffalo 408,836 432,883 421,809 5.9 -2.6
Memphis 325,852 379,633 402,560 16.5 6.0
West Palm Beach 233,303 380,260 475,572 63.0 25.1
Jacksonville 250,332 333,152 374,292 33.1 12.3
Rochester 316,287 347,088 345,019 9.7 -0.6
Grand Rapids 196,123 242,899 284,236 23.9 17.0
Oklahoma City 268,507 281,207 305,058 4.7 8.5
Louisville 290,785 311,336 329,091 7.1 5.7

 

Updated: 04/28/2011
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