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Chapter 4. MEANS OF TRAVEL TO WORK

The private vehicle, especially driven alone to work, is the mode of choice for most Americans living in the large metropolitan areas. In every major metro area, workers who drove alone to work increased in numbers and share in the last 40 years. However, transit as a commute mode is critical in the large metro areas. Nearly 7.5 percent of commuters in large metro areas use transit, compared to less than one percent in the rest of the country. Workers are less likely to drive alone to work in the large MSAs (73 percent compared to 79 percent in the rest of the country), but the percent of workers carpooling is about the same (12 percent). Exhibits 4.10 and 4.11 show percent of workers using different modes of transportation for 1990 and 2000.

Ninety-two percent of the nation's commuters who use public transit live in the large metropolitan areas. In most areas, the travel time by public transportation is almost twice the travel time by driving alone. For 2000, the average travel time by workers who drove alone was 24.1 minutes, while transit travel time was 47.7 minutes. Carpool travel times are close to drove alone at 28.5 minutes, on average. Exhibit 4.2 shows the mean travel time by mode for the 6 large MSAs with the highest number of transit commuters

Exhibit 4.1 Mode to work - United States, Large MSAs, and Rest of the Country: 2000

Exhibit 4-1: Workers are less likely to drive alone to work in the large MSAs (73 percent compared to 79 percent in the rest of the country), but the percent of workers carpooling is about the same (12 percent).

Exhibit 4.2 Mode of Travel by Average Travel Time to Work - 6 MSAs with the Largest Percent of Transit Commuters: 2000

ModeWorkers who did not work at homeTravel time to work (minutes)Mode to work (Percent of Workers)
All ModesDrove aloneCarpoolTransit (including taxicab)Drove aloneCarpoolTransit (including taxicab)
New York9,042,068342833.152.256.39.424.9
Chicago4,096,4373128.631.649.770.51111.5
San Francisco3,292,67729.327.331.84668.112.99.5
Washington, DC3,704,99331.729.734.847.170.412.89.4
Boston2,807,06327.726.428.343.973.98.89
Philadelphia2,735,58827.926.228.247.473.310.38.7

Driving Alone and Carpooling

Continuing a trend seen in previous decades, drove alone gained as the mode of choice for commuters in most of the 49 large metro areas (See Exhibit 4.12) with five exceptions: San Francisco, Seattle, Atlanta, Phoenix, and Portland, OR. Detroit has the highest drove alone share, 84.2 percent, and New York the lowest, with 56.3 percent (see Exhibit 4.3). Some of the trend to single occupant vehicles can be explained by the greater vehicle availability and by the smaller household size (many carpools include people from the same household).

Carpools, in most areas, lost market share to drove alone. In 1990, Las Vegas, Washington, D.C. and Los Angeles were the only metro areas with carpooling rates exceeding 15 percent. In 2000, the carpooling rate in Washington, D.C. declined significantly, from 15.5 percent to 12.8 percent, while drove alone increased from 66.1 percent to 70.4 percent. Over 15 percent of the workers in Los Angeles and Las Vegas used carpool to work, about the same as 1990. Atlanta, Seattle, and Phoenix were the only large MSAs to see significant increases in carpool use between 1990 and 2000. Phoenix had the highest percent of commuters using carpool in 2000 (15.3 percent) whereas Cleveland had the lowest multi- occupant commutes with 8.7 percent of workers using carpools.

Exhibit 4.3 Areas with Highest and Lowest Percent of Workers by Mode: 2000

Mode Metropolitan AreaHighest
Drove AloneDetroit84.2
CarpoolPhoenix15.3
Public TransitNew York24.9
WalkNew York5.6
Work at homeDenver4.7
OtherPhoenix2.3
 
Metropolitan AreaLowest
New York56.3
Cleveland8.7
Oklahoma City0.6
Charlotte1.2
Providence2.1
Buffalo0.6

Transit

New York/Northern New Jersey metro area had the largest transit share (24.9%). Nearly 40 percent (2.3 million of 6 million) of the country's transit commuters live in the New York metropolitan area. Other metros with large transit shares include Chicago (11.5 percent) San Francisco (9.5 percent), Washington, D.C. (9.4 percent), and Boston (9.0 percent). All of the metro areas whose worker population exceeded 2.5 million, with the exception of Los Angeles, had a transit mode share of 8 percent or above (See Exhibit 4.13). Of the remaining large metros, only Seattle, Portland, Pittsburgh and New Orleans exceeded 5 percent transit mode share for the journey-to-work. Oklahoma City had the lowest share of workers using transit with 0.6 percent.

In 28 of the 49 largest metro areas the proportion of transit riders declined. Transit had its sharpest decline in Atlanta (4.5% to 3.7%), Chicago (13.4% to 11.5%), and Philadelphia (10.2% to 8.7%). On the other hand, a few areas saw an increase in the proportion of workers who take transit, such as Portland (4.8 percent to 5.7 percent), Seattle (6.1 percent to 6.8 percent) and Las Vegas (2.0 percent to 4.1 percent).

In terms of number of workers using transit, Exhibit 4.4 displays five of the metro areas that experienced the largest increase, and Exhibit 4.5 five metro areas that experienced the greatest decrease in the numbers of workers using transit.

Exhibit 4.4 Areas with Greatest Increase in Number of Workers Using Transit: 1990-2000

MSA19902000Change
Seattle91,391119,91928,528
San Francisco297,363325,21227,849
Boston237,483261,86224,379
New York2,297,4452,320,15522,710
Portland41,02363,12622,103

Exhibit 4.5 Areas with Greatest Decline in Number of Workers Using Transit: 1990-2000

MSA19902000Change
Chicago526,085484,835-41,250
Philadelphia283,312245,909-37,403
Washington, DC396,466361,877-34,589
Pittsburgh76,19965,345-10,854
Cleveland56,94147,111-9,830

The likelihood of using transit as a commute mode continues to vary by income, auto ownership, and race/ethnicity. Exhibit 4.6 shows the percent transit use and zero-vehicle households in the 49 largest MSAs by race and ethnicity.

Exhibit 4.6 Transit Use and Vehicle Availability by Race/Ethnicity: 2000

Exhibit 4.6: Exhibit shows the percent transit use and zero-vehicle households in the 49 largest MSAs by race and ethnicity.

Walk, Bike and Work at Home

In most large metro areas in 2000, the proportion of workers walking to work hovered between two and three percent. Between 1990 and 2000, every large MSA experienced a decline in the proportion of workers who walked to work. New York has the highest percentage of people who walk to work, 5.6 percent, whereas Charlotte, NC has the lowest proportion of workers who walk, only 1.2 percent. Seven areas had over 100,000 workers who usually walked to their place of employment (Exhibit 4.7).

Exhibit 4.7 Areas with 100,000 or more Walking Commuters: 2000

MSAWalkPercent
New York517,2905.6
Los Angeles173,4972.6
Chicago131,8963.1
Boston119,2944.1
Washington,DC114,4253.0
San Francisco111,6623.3
Philadelphia109,2643.9

Bicycling to work is still a rare occurrence anywhere in the United States, whether in large metro areas or not. Only in two metro areas, both in California, does bicycle commuting exceed one percent: Sacramento and San Francisco. However, eight areas had more than 10,000 workers who usually biked to work (Exhibit 4.8).

Exhibit 4.8 Areas with 10,000 or more Bicycle Commuters: 2000

MSABicyclePercent
Los Angeles42,8870.6
San Francisco38,5881.1
New York27,8270.3
Phoenix13,8550.9
Chicago13,0770.3
Boston11,1410.4
Sacramento10,9091.4
Seattle10,7120.6

The percent of workers who usually worked at home increased in every large MSA except three: San Diego, Norfolk, and Jacksonville. Only in six MSAs did work at home exceed 4 percent: San Francisco, Seattle, Denver, Portland, Sacramento and West Palm Beach. Exhibit 4.9 shows the MSAs with four percent or more of workers working at home.

Exhibit 4.9 Areas with Four Percent or More Workers Working at Home: 2000

MSATotal Workers Worked at HomePercent
Portland1,105,13350,8394.6
San Diego1,299,50357,1824.4
Seattle1,776,22474,6054.2
West Palm Beach475,57219,4544.1
San Francisco3,432,157139,4804.1
Sacramento799,98932,2794

Exhibit 4.10 Means of Transportation to Work: 1990

MSATotal Workers% Drove Alone% Car-pool % Bus/ Street car% Sub-way /Rail% Walk% Taxi% Motor- cycle% Bike% Other% Work at Home
New York9,271,08955.410.47.216.76.20.70.10.20.72.4
Los Angeles6,809,04372.315.54.50.02.90.00.50.70.82.7
Chicago3,922,29567.612.06.76.44.10.30.10.20.62.1
Washington, DC3,611,09466.115.56.24.53.90.30.10.20.62.7
San Francisco3,200,83368.313.06.32.83.60.10.51.10.83.5
Philadelphia2,784,58169.112.16.14.05.30.10.10.30.62.2
Boston2,760,43571.910.84.14.35.20.20.10.40.62.5
Detroit2,294,10882.810.12.10.02.40.10.00.20.41.8
Dallas2,038,39878.613.92.20.01.90.10.20.10.72.3
Houston1,768,56776.114.63.60.02.30.10.20.30.82.1
Atlanta1,542,94877.913.03.41.01.50.10.10.10.72.2
Miami1,476,08575.314.53.60.62.30.10.20.50.92.0
Seattle1,499,73473.112.15.60.03.60.10.40.51.03.6
Phoenix1,036,01774.914.51.90.02.70.10.71.40.82.9
Minneapolis1,344,79775.911.35.10.03.30.10.10.40.43.5
Cleveland1,282,09279.510.34.10.33.00.10.10.10.52.0
San Diego1,230,44670.913.83.20.04.50.10.70.91.05.0
St. Louis1,166,02379.612.22.80.02.10.10.10.10.52.4
Denver1,026,84775.012.53.90.03.40.10.20.70.63.7
Tampa914,71178.813.31.30.02.30.10.40.70.82.3
Pittsburgh1,023,82572.012.77.20.25.00.10.10.10.52.1
Portland861,14173.812.74.60.13.40.10.30.60.63.8
Cincinnati844,12579.011.73.40.03.00.10.10.10.52.2
Sacramento685,94575.213.72.10.22.70.00.51.80.63.1
Kansas City778,62479.812.62.00.01.90.10.10.10.62.8
Milwaukee772,75277.210.94.80.04.00.10.10.30.42.2
Orlando614,38278.013.41.30.03.40.10.40.60.72.0
Indianapolis683,00779.712.91.80.02.30.10.10.10.52.4
San Antonio578,52974.514.93.60.03.60.00.20.20.82.4
Norfolk720,89072.714.32.00.03.60.10.30.51.25.3
Las Vegas416,02574.315.81.80.03.70.20.80.81.21.6
Columbus663,00679.511.42.70.03.30.10.10.20.52.3
Charlotte604,85678.814.51.70.02.10.10.10.10.71.9
New Orleans531,69770.915.46.70.03.10.30.20.51.21.7
Salt Lake City479,33876.314.02.90.02.30.00.30.50.53.1
Greensboro550,32579.314.50.90.02.30.10.10.10.62.0
Austin431,34574.914.53.00.02.90.10.40.50.63.0
Nashville495,71779.113.81.60.01.90.10.10.10.62.6
Providence540,87278.612.32.00.53.90.10.10.20.61.7
Raleigh461,51677.414.21.60.03.00.10.20.40.72.3
Hartford597,83178.911.43.40.03.40.00.10.20.52.0
Buffalo531,12277.111.24.10.44.40.20.10.20.51.8
Memphis458,53478.113.72.70.02.90.10.10.10.81.5
West Palm Beach380,26079.412.80.90.22.00.20.40.60.92.7
Jacksonville443,88276.214.31.90.02.60.20.30.71.22.6
Rochester509,73377.711.73.00.04.40.10.00.20.42.5
Grand Rapids442,22882.610.20.90.02.60.10.10.20.52.8
Oklahoma City450,12280.313.30.50.02.10.10.20.20.72.5
Louisville442,93379.412.83.20.02.00.10.10.10.51.9

Exhibit 4.11 Means of Transportation to Work: 2000

MSATotal Workers% Drove Alone% Car-pool % Bus/ Streetcar% Subway /Rail% Walk% Taxi% Motor- cycle% Bike% Other% Work at Home 
New York9,319,21856.39.46.817.15.60.80.00.30.73.0100.0
Los Angeles6,767,61972.415.24.30.32.60.10.20.60.83.6100.0
Chicago4,218,10870.511.04.66.63.10.30.00.30.72.9100.0
Washington, DC3,839,05270.412.84.15.03.00.30.10.30.63.5100.0
San Francisco3,432,15768.112.95.73.53.30.10.41.10.94.1100.0
Philadelphia2,815,40573.310.35.33.33.90.10.10.30.62.8100.0
Boston2,898,68073.98.83.25.54.10.20.10.40.63.2100.0
Detroit2,482,45784.29.31.70.01.80.10.00.20.42.3100.0
Dallas2,527,64878.814.01.60.11.50.10.10.10.83.0100.0
Houston2,081,60777.014.23.10.01.60.10.10.30.92.5100.0
Atlanta2,060,63277.013.62.41.11.30.20.10.10.83.5100.0
Miami1,642,86676.613.43.20.51.80.10.10.50.92.8100.0
Seattle1,776,22471.612.86.20.03.20.10.20.61.14.2100.0
Phoenix1,466,43474.615.31.90.02.10.10.40.90.93.7100.0
Minneapolis1,595,55078.310.04.40.02.40.10.10.40.43.8100.0
Cleveland1,375,77482.38.73.10.32.10.10.00.20.52.7100.0
San Diego1,299,50373.913.03.10.23.40.10.30.61.04.4100.0
St. Louis1,238,96482.69.92.10.21.60.10.10.10.52.8100.0
Denver1,346,02575.611.54.20.12.40.10.10.70.64.7100.0
Tampa1,063,95779.712.41.20.01.70.10.20.60.83.1100.0
Pittsburgh1,057,35477.49.76.00.13.60.10.00.10.52.4100.0
Portland1,105,13373.112.15.10.53.00.00.10.80.64.6100.0
Cincinnati951,70981.410.02.80.02.30.10.10.10.52.7100.0
Sacramento799,98975.313.52.40.32.20.10.21.40.74.0100.0
Kansas City881,25882.810.41.20.01.40.10.10.10.63.4100.0
Milwaukee816,88080.19.93.90.02.80.10.10.20.42.5100.0
Orlando786,24380.612.11.60.01.30.10.20.40.82.9100.0
Indianapolis795,75582.810.51.20.01.70.10.10.20.62.9100.0
San Antonio698,68576.214.72.80.02.40.10.10.11.02.6100.0
Norfolk760,40178.912.11.70.02.70.10.10.31.42.7100.0
Las Vegas702,53574.515.03.90.02.40.10.40.50.92.3100.0
Columbus777,92282.09.62.20.02.40.10.00.20.43.0100.0
Charlotte751,62980.912.91.30.01.20.10.10.10.62.8100.0
New Orleans570,42373.014.65.20.02.70.30.10.61.02.4100.0
Salt Lake City642,68877.213.12.70.31.80.00.10.40.63.8100.0
Greensboro618,92181.213.10.70.11.60.10.10.10.72.4100.0
Austin649,64576.513.72.50.02.10.10.20.60.83.6100.0
Nashville621,22180.712.80.90.01.50.10.10.10.73.2100.0
Providence555,54080.710.61.70.73.30.10.00.20.62.1100.0
Raleigh617,47578.512.91.50.02.30.20.10.40.73.5100.0
Hartford573,11482.59.02.70.12.50.00.00.20.52.5100.0
Buffalo520,35081.79.43.10.32.70.20.00.20.32.1100.0
Memphis511,11180.913.01.60.01.30.10.10.10.72.2100.0
West Palm Beach475,57279.611.91.10.21.40.20.10.50.94.1100.0
Jacksonville527,71880.312.61.30.01.70.20.20.51.02.3100.0
Rochester516,81481.89.11.90.03.50.10.00.20.52.9100.0
Grand Rapids531,92484.09.20.70.02.10.10.00.20.63.1100.0
Oklahoma City509,26281.812.00.50.01.70.10.10.20.82.8100.0
Louisville492,82182.010.92.20.01.70.00.00.20.62.4100.0

Exhibit 4.12 Commutes by Private Vehicle: 1980-2000

MSA 1980 (Percent of all workers) 1990 (Percent of all workers) 2000 (Percent of all workers)
Area Total Workers Drove Alone Carpool Total Workers Drove Alone Carpool Total Workers Drove Alone Carpool
New York 8,133,936 48.7 15.2 9,271,089 55.4 10.4 9,319,218 56.3 9.4
Los Angeles 5,184,393 70.2 17.1 6,809,043 72.3 15.5 6,767,619 72.4 15.2
Chicago 3,575,803 59.1 17.0 3,922,295 67.6 12.0 4,218,108 70.5 11.0
Washington, DC 2,760,794 56.5 23.0 3,611,094 66.1 15.5 3,839,052 70.4 12.8
San Francisco 2,563,329 62.9 16.4 3,200,833 68.3 13.0 3,432,157 68.1 12.9
Philadelphia 2,347,072 60.2 18.2 2,784,581 69.1 12.1 2,815,405 73.3 10.3
Boston 2,471,832 60.6 19.7 2,760,435 71.9 10.8 2,898,680 73.9 8.8
Detroit 2,085,116 74.7 16.9 2,294,108 82.8 10.1 2,482,457 84.2 9.3
Dallas 1,494,568 71.1 20.7 2,038,398 78.6 13.9 2,527,648 78.8 14.0
Houston 1,512,080 69.4 22.5 1,768,567 76.1 14.6 2,081,607 77.0 14.2
Atlanta 1,033,088 68.5 20.3 1,542,948 77.9 13.0 2,060,632 77.0 13.6
Miami 1,150,471 69.7 19.1 1,476,085 75.3 14.5 1,642,866 76.6 13.4
Seattle 1,113,261 64.0 18.9 1,499,734 73.1 12.1 1,776,224 71.6 12.8
Phoenix 688,912 69.8 19.3 1,036,017 74.9 14.5 1,466,434 74.6 15.3
Minneapolis 1,081,772 62.9 20.1 1,344,797 75.9 11.3 1,595,550 78.3 10.0
Cleveland 1,242,438 70.5 16.2 1,282,092 79.5 10.3 1,375,774 82.3 8.7
San Diego 854,600 63.8 17.4 1,230,446 70.9 13.8 1,299,503 73.9 13.0
St. Louis 1,026,288 67.2 21.4 1,166,023 79.6 12.2 1,238,964 82.6 9.9
Denver 859,989 65.3 20.2 1,026,847 75.0 12.5 1,346,025 75.6 11.5
Tampa 619,119 71.9 18.5 914,711 78.8 13.3 1,063,957 79.7 12.4
Pittsburgh 1,021,047 61.4 19.7 1,023,825 72.0 12.7 1,057,354 77.4 9.7
Portland 704,392 65.4 18.4 861,141 73.8 12.7 1,105,133 73.1 12.1
Cincinnati 716,583 69.4 18.7 844,125 79.0 11.7 951,709 81.4 10.0
Sacramento 472,640 68.9 17.8 685,945 75.2 13.7 799,989 75.3 13.5
Kansas City 666,940 68.9 21.6 778,624 79.8 12.6 881,258 82.8 10.4
Milwaukee 719,555 65.5 19.1 772,752 77.2 10.9 816,880 80.1 9.9
Orlando 360,312 69.5 20.0 614,382 78.0 13.4 786,243 80.6 12.1
Indianapolis 575,905 70.6 20.9 683,007 79.7 12.9 795,755 82.8 10.5
San Antonio 456,656 66.8 20.0 578,529 74.5 14.9 698,685 76.2 14.7
Norfolk 547,803 60.3 23.2 720,890 72.7 14.3 760,401 78.9 12.1
Las Vegas 251,501 71.1 18.9 416,025 74.3 15.8 702,535 74.5 15.0
Columbus 537,727 70.7 18.2 663,006 79.5 11.4 777,922 82.0 9.6
Charlotte 470,708 68.9 23.3 604,856 78.8 14.5 751,629 80.9 12.9
New Orleans 528,868 61.9 21.1 531,697 70.9 15.4 570,423 73.0 14.6
Salt Lake City 383,938 66.1 22.2 479,338 76.3 14.0 642,688 77.2 13.1
Greensboro 455,515 70.8 22.5 550,325 79.3 14.5 618,921 81.2 13.1
Austin 278,251 67.6 21.1 431,345 74.9 14.5 649,645 76.5 13.7
Nashville 387,660 68.8 22.3 495,717 79.1 13.8 621,221 80.7 12.8
Providence 381,643 65.6 21.6 540,872 78.6 12.3 555,540 80.7 10.6
Raleigh 323,005 65.6 24.1 461,516 77.4 14.2 617,475 78.5 12.9
Hartford 510,174 67.1 20.6 597,831 78.9 11.4 573,114 82.5 9.0
Buffalo 500,364 66.6 18.6 531,122 77.1 11.2 520,350 81.7 9.4
Memphis 384,793 69.2 19.9 458,534 78.1 13.7 511,111 80.9 13.0
West Palm Beach 233,303 70.7 20.0 380,260 79.4 12.8 475,572 79.6 11.9
Jacksonville 311,207 66.2 21.9 443,882 76.2 14.3 527,718 80.3 12.6
Rochester 453,387 64.9 21.1 509,733 77.7 11.7 516,814 81.8 9.1
Grand Rapids 357,673 73.1 18.2 442,228 82.6 10.2 531,924 84.0 9.2
Oklahoma City 397,394 72.6 20.3 450,122 80.3 13.3 509,262 81.8 12.0
Louisville 398,355 69.0 21.5 442,933 79.4 12.8 492,821 82.0 10.9

Exhibit 4.13 Transit and Walk Commutes: 1980-2000

MSA 1980 (Percent of all workers) 1990 (Percent of all workers) 2000 (Percent of all workers)
Area Total Workers Transit Walk Total Workers Transit Walk Total Workers Transit Walk
New York 8,133,936 26.2 7.4 9,271,089 23.9 6.2 9,319,218 24.9 5.6
Los Angeles 5,184,393 5.1 3.5 6,809,043 4.5 2.9 6,767,619 4.7 2.6
Chicago 3,575,803 16.2 5.7 3,922,295 13.1 4.1 4,218,108 11.5 3.1
Washington, DC 2,760,794 12.5 5.1 3,611,094 10.7 3.9 3,839,052 9.4 3.0
San Francisco 2,563,329 11.2 4.4 3,200,833 9.1 3.6 3,432,157 9.5 3.3
Philadelphia 2,347,072 12.4 6.5 2,784,581 10.1 5.3 2,815,405 8.7 3.9
Boston 2,471,832 9.4 7.7 2,760,435 8.3 5.2 2,898,680 9.0 4.1
Detroit 2,085,116 3.4 3.3 2,294,108 2.2 2.4 2,482,457 1.8 1.8
Dallas 1,494,568 3.4 2.2 2,038,398 2.2 1.9 2,527,648 1.8 1.5
Houston 1,512,080 2.9 2.7 1,768,567 3.7 2.3 2,081,607 3.3 1.6
Atlanta 1,033,088 7.0 2.0 1,542,948 4.4 1.5 2,060,632 3.7 1.3
Miami 1,150,471 4.9 3.2 1,476,085 4.2 2.3 1,642,866 3.9 1.8
Seattle 1,113,261 7.5 4.9 1,499,734 5.6 3.6 1,776,224 6.8 3.2
Phoenix 688,912 1.9 3.4 1,036,017 2.0 2.7 1,466,434 2.0 2.1
Minneapolis 1,081,772 8.4 5.1 1,344,797 5.1 3.3 1,595,550 4.5 2.4
Cleveland 1,242,438 7.6 3.7 1,282,092 4.4 3.0 1,375,774 3.4 2.1
San Diego 854,600 3.3 9.9 1,230,446 3.2 4.5 1,299,503 3.4 3.4
St. Louis 1,026,288 5.6 3.3 1,166,023 2.8 2.1 1,238,964 2.4 1.6
Denver 859,989 5.8 4.7 1,026,847 4.0 3.4 1,346,025 4.3 2.4
Tampa 619,119 1.7 3.4 914,711 1.3 2.3 1,063,957 1.4 1.7
Pittsburgh 1,021,047 10.4 6.6 1,023,825 7.4 5.0 1,057,354 6.2 3.6
Portland 704,392 7.2 4.5 861,141 4.7 3.4 1,105,133 5.7 3.0
Cincinnati 716,583 5.6 4.0 844,125 3.4 3.0 951,709 2.9 2.3
Sacramento 472,640 3.4 3.6 685,945 2.4 2.7 799,989 2.7 2.2
Kansas City 666,940 3.8 2.8 778,624 2.0 1.9 881,258 1.3 1.4
Milwaukee 719,555 7.1 5.7 772,752 4.8 4.0 816,880 4.0 2.8
Orlando 360,312 1.6 4.7 614,382 1.3 3.4 786,243 1.7 1.3
Indianapolis 575,905 3.0 3.1 683,007 1.8 2.3 795,755 1.3 1.7
San Antonio 456,656 4.5 5.4 578,529 3.6 3.6 698,685 2.9 2.4
Norfolk 547,803 4.5 6.6 720,890 2.0 3.6 760,401 1.9 2.7
Las Vegas 251,501 2.0 3.9 416,025 1.8 3.7 702,535 4.1 2.4
Columbus 537,727 4.2 4.3 663,006 2.7 3.3 777,922 2.3 2.4
Charlotte 470,708 2.6 3.1 604,856 1.7 2.1 751,629 1.4 1.2
New Orleans 528,868 10.1 3.9 531,697 6.7 3.1 570,423 5.6 2.7
Salt Lake City 383,938 4.9 3.5 479,338 3.0 2.3 642,688 3.0 1.8
Greensboro 455,515 1.6 2.6 550,325 1.0 2.3 618,921 0.9 1.6
Austin 278,251 2.9 4.1 431,345 3.0 2.9 649,645 2.6 2.1
Nashville 387,660 3.5 2.8 495,717 1.6 1.9 621,221 1.0 1.5
Providence 381,643 4.5 6.3 540,872 2.5 3.9 555,540 2.5 3.3
Raleigh 323,005 2.7 4.3 461,516 1.6 3.0 617,475 1.7 2.3
Hartford 510,174 5.3 4.8 597,831 3.5 3.4 573,114 2.8 2.5
Buffalo 500,364 6.6 5.9 531,122 4.4 4.4 520,350 3.5 2.7
Memphis 384,793 4.6 4.3 458,534 2.7 2.9 511,111 1.7 1.3
West Palm Beach 233,303 1.9 3.2 380,260 1.1 2.0 475,572 1.4 1.4
Jacksonville 311,207 4.5 3.8 443,882 2.0 2.6 527,718 1.5 1.7
Rochester 453,387 4.9 6.3 509,733 3.0 4.4 516,814 2.0 3.5
Grand Rapids 357,673 1.5 4.1 442,228 0.9 2.6 531,924 0.8 2.1
Oklahoma City 397,394 1.1 2.8 450,122 0.5 2.1 509,262 0.6 1.7
Louisville 398,355 4.5 2.7 442,933 3.2 2.0 492,821 2.2 1.7
Updated: 04/28/2011
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