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Chapter 5. VEHICLE AVAILABILITY

In 2000, the Census Bureau collected household vehicle data in eight categories--the lowest category was zero and the highest category was seven or more vehicles.The analysis of total vehicles and changes in relative household shares of vehicle availability is useful in understanding mode choice decisions.Between 1990 and 2000, 13.5 million new households and 13.2 million new workers were added in the U.S. but twice as many household vehicles were added (26 million vehicles). Overall, the growth in vehicles has been in the households with multiple vehicles available. In 2000, 40.5 percent of households had two vehicles available, and 18 percent of households had three or more vehicles available compared to just 10.0 and 1.3 percent in 1960 respectively.

Large MSAs vs Rest of Country

Although the percent has changed, the total number of zero-vehicle households remained nearly the same over the last 40 years-11.3 million households had no vehicle in 1960,and 10.9 million households had no vehicle in 2000. Large MSAs have always had more zero-vehicle households than the remainder of the country-in the 2000 Census,12 percent of households in large MSAs were without a vehicle versus just 8 percent in the remainder of the country (see Exhibit 5.1).

Exhibit 5.1 Added Population per Decade (millions): 1960-2000

Exhibit 5-1: Large MSAs have always had more zero-vehicle households than the remainder of the country-in the 2000 Census, 12 percent of households in large MSAs were without a vehicle versus just 8 percent in the remainder of the country.

Vehicle Growth vs Population Growth

Seven of the large MSAs added more than one and one-half vehicle for every person 16 and over added to the population in the 1990s (see Exhibit 5.2). Hartford and Cleveland added more than 2 vehicles for every added driving-age person. The growth in the number of vehicles exceeded the growth in driving-age adults in twenty-one of the large MSAs. Two areas, Buffalo and Pittsburgh, added vehicles even though they lost population.

Exhibit 5.2 Growth in Vehicles Compared to Population: 1990-2000

MSAAdded People (Age 16 and Over)Added VehiclesRatio of Vehicles added for Every Person Added: 1990-2000
Hartford1,99215,7577.9
Cleveland60,724150,1992.5
Detroit186,132354,0841.9
St. Louis92,552150,5081.6
Philadelphia183,914293,2981.6
Boston218,709330,5271.5
Milwaukee67,06698,5791.5

Exhibit 5.3 shows the metropolitan areas with the highest and lowest values for zero, one,two, and three or more vehicles per household. New York stands out with 28.7 percent of the households with no vehicle-in fact, one- fifth of the country's zero-vehicle households are in New York. Salt Lake City, with a large average household size and large number of workers per household is the metro area with the lowest percent of it's households having no vehicle.

Exhibit 5.3 Areas with Highest and Lowest Vehicle Availability: 2000

Households withMSAHighest
Zero-vehiclesNew York28.7
One VehicleTampa44.2
Two VehiclesNew York28
Three or more vehiclesSalt Lake City24.4
MSALowest
Salt Lake City5.8
Salt Lake City28.1
Grand Rapids43.6
West Palm Beach9.6

Exhibit 5.4 shows the number of households in three vehicle ownership categories (zero,one, two, and three and more) for 1980, 1990 and 2000, and Exhibit 5.5 shows the average vehicle availability for 1990 and 2000 for the major MSAs. Exhibit 5.6 shows the percent of households in each of the vehicle availability categories. Within the large MSAs there is a difference between households located in the central county and those in suburban counties. Exhibits 5.6 and 5.7 show the percent of households in the central or in suburban counties by vehicle availability category. Exhibit 5.8 shows the percent change in relative shares between 1990 and 2000 in central and suburban counties.

Exhibit 5.4 Number of Households by Vehicles Available: 1980 - 2000

MSA0 Vehicle Households1 Vehicle Households
198019902000198019902000
New York2,590,3672,074,0322,216,2172,348,8952,279,2122,506,498
Los Angeles710,171436,773537,8851,521,7371,649,5941,863,807
Chicago708,001486,693450,5471,099,7151,051,2281,192,183
Washington, DC437,980329,327343,841747,539805,066974,281
San Francisco346,455241,975253,425730,311754,819842,057
Philadelphia567,943368,303355,220744,681755,717826,723
Boston433,929279,997272,748774,725717,044797,053
Detroit311,861229,668181,816646,692630,551723,222
Dallas178,33995,893115,724367,029525,586678,023
Houston231,092110,952127,166388,897495,581598,310
Atlanta140,95197,661110,401251,895328,864478,587
Miami275,895165,276172,514450,209490,145587,659
Seattle151,01887,916107,574300,090362,043455,180
Phoenix106,39360,91382,820216,553332,371463,686
Minneapolis120,68986,44891,562276,270299,963359,475
Cleveland193,396134,639117,223389,208374,946412,898
San Diego112,30770,33779,978244,886302,648346,500
St. Louis173,713101,62891,446307,130315,397348,086
Denver98,62660,02570,291213,726259,600328,956
Tampa180,36879,32481,670312,043385,903446,199
Pittsburgh214,207151,751125,087375,351353,498357,546
Portland97,74358,64768,456206,318223,332286,801
Cincinnati120,18478,14073,712207,902214,373248,409
Sacramento84,67142,53351,715143,422181,569229,814
Kansas City94,55652,21550,455181,754200,952232,951
Milwaukee103,27680,63675,838212,603203,803233,306
Orlando56,58430,99338,938118,815173,307236,263
Indianapolis80,61746,56944,834163,697179,626214,288
San Antonio66,22945,74650,367126,287167,614202,271
Norfolk77,72450,26250,009147,293170,586191,713
Las Vegas38,12125,83952,76675,345129,800233,733
Columbus76,14146,03446,043160,258173,080212,774
Charlotte55,04438,13237,877109,273133,933186,381
New Orleans125,03884,96277,462169,464174,478195,432
Salt Lake City36,57521,09624,86088,160102,370121,257
Greensboro56,09036,43235,707105,901123,975159,797
Austin40,07123,35228,04875,607124,374168,160
Nashville48,17031,04331,345101,569121,005157,625
Providence72,55248,80252,755125,064148,765167,821
Raleigh38,57126,88129,25478,526107,882150,826
Hartford57,69845,12844,777131,580135,625152,303
Buffalo103,47975,28267,219187,121171,729179,320
Memphis68,29148,40044,073114,990127,408156,601
West Palm Beach83,64229,87537,659111,499161,277209,426
Jacksonville60,27132,79232,60699,078122,538154,319
Rochester67,50243,44441,819144,051134,403147,077
Grand Rapids42,67523,65824,206101,200104,864124,259
Oklahoma City52,17225,12828,278108,202128,427153,880
Louisville62,65342,46039,079116,507120,819142,898
All areas10,250,0416,984,0127,265,31216,419,06817,731,69020,836,634

MSA2 Vehicle Households3+ Vehicle Households
198019902000198019902000
New York1,687,9241,936,0532,162,171626,768869,289850,378
Los Angeles1,355,4431,835,0831,987,151838,323979,270958,264
Chicago886,7821,033,5991,203,511308,648397,579455,970
Washington, DC690,643914,0021,061,279308,938442,646492,460
San Francisco666,773853,276953,053398,667479,738508,623
Philadelphia616,995750,380838,550234,168285,742300,226
Boston587,359742,105855,329208,420286,280295,398
Detroit662,989720,534825,177313,480335,656351,582
Dallas410,879628,964809,893252,667257,588303,124
Houston408,472537,950670,166226,395194,292243,759
Atlanta286,166439,390625,438165,013236,663290,445
Miami309,337412,991502,341116,079152,385168,705
Seattle312,042451,179545,646209,955254,223283,993
Phoenix196,556329,710476,459125,350123,720171,285
Minneapolis287,140398,387485,428141,473175,372200,150
Cleveland376,585403,092448,177159,298181,736188,501
San Diego221,374343,476391,670141,779170,942176,529
St. Louis316,189369,001402,654135,108156,093170,233
Denver230,102306,092404,028156,263159,559199,943
Tampa194,192303,924372,60377,455100,330108,844
Pittsburgh295,460325,816356,954104,189116,183126,913
Portland203,345273,528347,046129,885135,595164,172
Cincinnati219,641261,301301,232101,508125,323144,777
Sacramento141,501219,222262,68196,714113,124121,088
Kansas City198,946247,916288,323100,959107,376122,739
Milwaukee194,731226,481253,67173,46090,53895,661
Orlando103,958189,243259,47247,88071,73290,575
Indianapolis178,470210,028257,86781,89693,591112,666
San Antonio122,832173,590220,31769,66671,55286,991
Norfolk145,624204,720231,53260,05885,568104,405
Las Vegas67,058122,157223,08443,19352,69478,788
Columbus163,143205,491248,03171,88988,893103,909
Charlotte131,169174,108241,35468,58194,497109,681
New Orleans144,109159,112175,86455,79951,27156,821
Salt Lake City104,304146,243180,48077,60077,822105,443
Greensboro128,800159,053195,90176,56395,333107,346
Austin76,653130,764201,86544,32247,50573,782
Nashville111,654153,180198,45258,51470,60392,147
Providence102,563159,222176,05039,59570,48065,438
Raleigh89,003133,225193,46546,35566,51887,552
Hartford139,853173,470186,72660,81180,90773,601
Buffalo136,917156,952168,28546,73057,84053,895
Memphis107,644134,363159,58849,30655,27963,940
West Palm Beach71,960133,938181,45728,56340,46845,633
Jacksonville89,139136,736176,85739,08151,46061,802
Rochester127,706154,888169,23847,86463,35461,939
Grand Rapids111,131142,750172,66454,34162,63974,918
Oklahoma City118,991150,633171,53072,95663,58771,076
Louisville124,927139,436160,69357,30963,64969,380
All areas14,655,17418,906,75422,381,4037,049,8348,504,4849,345,490

Exhibit 5.5 Average Vehicles Available in Households: 1990-2000

MSA19902000
New York1.281.26
Los Angeles1.771.71
Chicago1.501.56
Washington, DC1.661.66
San Francisco1.761.76
Philadelphia1.491.51
Boston1.571.58
Detroit1.681.71
Dallas1.751.74
Houston1.651.68
Atlanta1.831.80
Miami1.501.51
Seattle1.851.81
Phoenix1.661.67
Minneapolis1.761.77
Cleveland1.641.67
San Diego1.781.75
St. Louis1.681.71
Denver1.801.81
Tampa1.521.54
Pittsburgh1.471.55
Portland1.781.78
Cincinnati1.721.75
Sacramento1.801.75
Kansas City1.731.76
Milwaukee1.601.61
Orlando1.701.69
Indianapolis1.731.77
San Antonio1.641.67
Norfolk1.691.74
Las Vegas1.671.61
Columbus1.721.74
Charlotte1.821.80
New Orleans1.411.45
Salt Lake City1.901.97
Greensboro1.851.84
Austin1.671.73
Nashville1.771.80
Providence1.661.60
Raleigh1.791.80
Hartford1.741.69
Buffalo1.481.48
Memphis1.581.63
West Palm Beach1.541.52
Jacksonville1.651.68
Rochester1.661.65
Grand Rapids1.801.84
Oklahoma City1.741.73
Louisville1.681.69

Exhibit 5.6 Vehicle Ownership in Central County: 2000

MSATotal HouseholdsPercent of Total Households
No Vehicle1 Vehicle2 Vehicles3 or more
New York738,64477.520.21.80.5
Los Angeles3,133,77412.637.034.516.0
Chicago1,974,18119.140.430.310.2
Washington, DC248,33836.943.515.54.1
San Francisco329,70028.642.022.17.3
Philadelphia590,07135.742.018.04.2
Boston278,72233.244.717.74.4
Detroit768,44013.839.034.013.2
Dallas807,6218.140.338.113.6
Houston1,205,5168.738.938.813.6
Atlanta321,24215.238.234.012.6
Miami776,77414.338.833.913.0
Seattle710,9169.335.437.517.8
Phoenix1,132,8867.038.740.114.3
Minneapolis456,12910.736.539.213.6
Cleveland571,45713.740.034.511.8
San Diego994,6778.034.839.417.7
St. Louis147,07625.245.822.66.5
Denver239,23513.943.131.511.5
Tampa391,3578.139.939.712.3
Pittsburgh537,15016.239.434.310.0
Portland272,09812.738.435.213.7
Cincinnati346,79013.536.934.814.8
Sacramento453,6028.737.138.216.0
Kansas City266,29410.838.336.814.1
Milwaukee377,72916.341.532.49.8
Orlando336,2867.337.741.313.7
Indianapolis352,1649.740.036.813.6
San Antonio488,9429.637.238.614.6
Norfolk86,21017.041.431.010.6
Las Vegas512,2539.540.237.612.7
Columbus438,7788.638.439.213.8
Charlotte273,4166.936.242.014.9
New Orleans188,25127.342.324.26.2
Salt Lake City295,1416.329.441.323.0
Greensboro168,6677.834.939.218.1
Austin320,7666.839.340.313.5
Nashville237,4058.740.536.913.8
Providence239,93614.139.034.712.2
Raleigh242,0404.932.144.718.4
Hartford335,09811.234.739.514.5
Buffalo380,87315.138.635.311.0
Memphis338,36611.238.636.313.9
West Palm Beach474,1757.944.238.39.6
Jacksonville303,7479.138.439.513.0
Rochester286,51211.536.239.313.0
Grand Rapids212,8907.033.742.516.8
Oklahoma City266,8347.839.738.414.0
Louisville287,01211.337.537.713.5

Exhibit 5.7 Vehicle Ownership in Suburban Counties: 2000

MSATotal HouseholdsPercent of Total Households
No Vehicle1 Vehicle2 Vehicles3 or more
New York6,996,62023.533.730.712.1
Los Angeles2,213,3336.531.941.020.6
Chicago1,328,0305.529.745.619.2
Washington, DC2,623,5239.633.039.018.4
San Francisco2,227,4587.131.639.521.8
Philadelphia1,730,6488.333.442.315.9
Boston1,941,8069.334.641.514.6
Detroit1,313,3575.832.342.919.1
Dallas1,099,1434.632.145.717.6
Houston433,8855.229.746.718.4
Atlanta1,183,6295.230.143.621.1
Miami654,4459.443.736.510.4
Seattle681,4776.129.940.923.1
Phoenix61,3646.641.036.515.8
Minneapolis680,4866.328.445.020.3
Cleveland595,3426.630.942.120.4
San Diego0    
St. Louis865,3436.332.442.718.6
Denver763,9834.929.543.022.6
Tampa617,9598.146.935.19.8
Pittsburgh429,3508.833.940.317.0
Portland594,3775.730.742.321.4
Cincinnati421,3406.428.642.922.2
Sacramento211,6965.829.142.222.9
Kansas City428,1745.130.644.419.9
Milwaukee280,7475.127.346.820.8
Orlando288,9625.037.941.815.4
Indianapolis277,4913.926.546.223.4
San Antonio71,0044.828.444.722.0
Norfolk491,4497.231.741.719.4
Las Vegas76,1185.436.340.118.2
Columbus171,9794.925.744.325.1
Charlotte301,8776.328.941.922.9
New Orleans317,3288.236.541.114.2
Salt Lake City136,8994.625.142.927.4
Greensboro330,0846.830.639.323.3
Austin151,0894.127.948.020.1
Nashville242,1644.425.445.724.5
Providence222,1288.533.441.816.3
Raleigh219,0578.033.439.019.7
Hartford122,3095.929.444.420.3
Buffalo87,84611.136.838.613.5
Memphis85,8367.130.143.019.8
West Palm Beach0    
Jacksonville121,8374.131.046.618.3
Rochester133,5616.732.442.518.4
Grand Rapids183,1575.028.744.921.4
Oklahoma City157,9304.730.343.721.3
Louisville125,0385.328.242.024.5

Exhibit 5.8 Change in Percent of Households by Vehicle Availability: 1990-2000

Name of MSACentral CountySuburban Counties
0 VEH1 VEH2 VEH3+ VEH0 VEH1 VEH2 VEH3+ VEH
New York-0.40.00.10.20.00.60.8-1.4
Los Angeles1.41.2-0.5-2.11.11.5-0.4-2.2
Chicago-3.11.71.20.2-0.8-0.10.9-0.1
Washington, DC-0.52.2-1.0-0.7-0.91.70.0-0.8
San Francisco-2.10.41.10.7-0.20.60.5-0.9
Philadelphia-2.41.50.40.4-0.60.60.9-1.0
Boston-3.32.70.60.0-1.10.21.9-1.0
Detroit-6.23.32.9-0.1-0.71.20.8-1.4
Dallas-0.12.0-0.5-1.4-0.20.21.3-1.3
Houston-0.20.1-0.10.2-1.1-1.32.20.2
Atlanta-4.22.83.3-1.9-0.51.91.0-2.5
Miami-1.71.60.7-0.6-1.0-0.21.8-0.6
Seattle0.32.6-0.4-2.50.00.20.6-0.8
Phoenix-0.2-0.61.0-0.3-1.82.20.3-0.8
Minneapolis-1.12.40.1-1.4-0.5-0.61.7-0.5
Cleveland-3.22.41.3-0.5-0.90.21.5-0.8
San Diego0.10.70.7-1.5    
St. Louis-4.02.80.80.4-0.61.0-0.2-0.2
Denver-2.20.71.6-0.20.3-0.10.7-0.9
Tampa-0.61.40.6-1.4-1.3-1.02.7-0.4
Pittsburgh-3.10.52.70.0-2.7-1.22.21.8
Portland-1.01.10.1-0.30.01.00.3-1.3
Cincinnati-2.02.3-0.30.0-1.20.11.00.1
Sacramento0.32.5-0.6-2.20.01.21.5-2.7
Kansas City-1.91.50.7-0.4-0.60.20.40.0
Milwaukee-2.22.7-0.1-0.30.01.50.7-2.2
Orlando-0.20.80.4-1.0-0.70.21.4-0.8
Indianapolis-1.51.4-0.30.4-1.3-0.32.7-1.0
San Antonio-0.8-0.11.2-0.3-1.6-2.03.20.5
Norfolk-0.7-0.20.30.6-1.00.1-0.41.2
Las Vegas1.20.31.2-2.70.81.1-0.7-1.3
Columbus-1.62.40.1-0.9-0.8-1.41.60.5
Charlotte-2.02.81.9-2.7-2.11.12.9-1.8
New Orleans-4.22.61.60.0-0.91.1-0.30.2
Salt Lake City-0.4-1.70.12.10.0-0.4-1.31.8
Greensboro-1.83.00.8-2.0-1.51.71.0-1.2
Austin-1.0-1.81.80.9-1.5-3.03.80.7
Nashville-1.72.6-0.6-0.3-1.20.21.00.0
Providence0.61.60.0-2.3-0.61.51.6-2.5
Raleigh-1.40.42.5-1.4-1.80.61.4-0.3
Hartford-0.72.31.0-2.60.01.90.6-2.5
Buffalo-1.91.41.7-1.1-2.0-0.33.0-0.7
Memphis-2.72.60.1-0.1-3.01.23.1-1.2
West Palm Beach-0.20.01.6-1.4    
Jacksonville-1.81.41.0-0.5-1.4-0.73.1-1.1
Rochester-1.21.61.3-1.7-0.4-0.10.9-0.4
Grand Rapids-0.90.70.20.1-1.0-0.81.60.1
Oklahoma City0.02.1-1.2-0.9-0.40.30.3-0.2
Louisville-2.12.41.0-1.3-1.50.70.40.4
Updated: 04/28/2011
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