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Bastrop (Morehouse Parish, LA) Corridor Initiative

map of Louisiana showing Morehouse Parish in the northeast. Project Type: Access to employment or production or distribution centers within a generally rural area

Project Objectives: Retain current economic base, increase market reach, improved travel safety

Outcomes Metric: Expected job gains, tax base effects, new businesses established, fewer accidents

Economic Environment: Rural

Economic History: Shrinking population, high jobless and poverty rate

Distinguishing Features: Struggling mill town surrounded by sparsely populated hinterland.

The map shows that the Bastrop corridor stretches from the northern boundary of Bastrop to the Louisiana-Arkansas line. Morehouse Parish is located in northeastern Louisiana.


I. Existing Conditions

The Morehouse Parish economy is struggling, even in the context of the broader impoverished and chronically lagging Delta economy [1] . There are numerous barometers of the parish's economic distress. Over one quarter of the parish's population lives on an income at or below the poverty line. This is over twice the rate of poverty experienced in the U.S. on average. Not only is the incidence of poverty great, it is persistent. The poverty rate has remained above 20% continuously since 1960 when poverty first began to be measured in the U.S.

Coincident with high poverty are low incomes. The per capita income in the parish is $13,197 according to the 2000 Census, equivalent to just 61% of the U.S. average. Fully one third of the parish population lacks a high school degree; the equivalent figure for the U.S. is one fifth. College educational attainment is similarly low. Just 10% of the parish population aged 25 or more has a college degree. The U.S. rate is two and one-half times greater.

The parish's chronic economic distress is evident in its population trends, as well. The population of the parish shrunk over the last decade, declining by three percent, even as the neighboring Louisiana parishes, the state and the U.S. posted positive gains. Two factors contribute to the parish's population losses: an older-than-average population and domestic out-migration. The population of those aged 39 and younger shrank; these are the people most likely to form households and have children. Similarly, the parish is losing more migrants than it is gaining, as people leave the economy for opportunities elsewhere.

Exhibit 1: Population is Contracting in the City of Bastrop and Morehouse Parish

bar chart. See following table for text version.

Source: Bureau of the Census, 2000

Exhibit 1: Population by Percentage

City of Bastrop Balance of Morehouse Morehouse Parish Louisiana U.S
-6.7 0.1 -2.9 5.9 13.2

Source: Bureau of the Census, 2000

Contributing to the decision to leave the Parish, as well as the poverty of those who remain, is the high rate of unemployment in the Parish. The jobless rate has held in the double-digits through the 1990s, a period of strong expansion and low joblessness elsewhere in the U.S. In recent years, roughly one in ten Morehouse residents who would like to work does not have a job.

Exhibit 2: Persistent and High Rate of Joblessness in Morehouse Parish

line graph. See following table for text version.

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

redMorehouse Parish

9.38

10.5

10.8

10.4

13.3

9.98

11.9

13.4

12.2

10.6

11.4

12.3

11.4

green Louisiana

6.35

7.2

8.17

7.49

8.05

6.89

6.74

6.12

5.69

5.07

5.43

5.93

6.1

blue United States

5.62

6.85

7.49

6.91

6.1

5.59

5.41

4.94

4.51

4.23

4.02

4.79

5.8

Sources: Louisiana and U.S. Departments of Labor

Manufacturing is the economic anchor of Morehouse Parish; one of the largest industrial employers in the Parish. Furthermore, the average manufacturing wage in Morehouse Parish exceeds the state average. However, the manufacturing industry's large presence in Morehouse Parish is mainly composed of one International Paper plant with over 1,000 workers. If the mill were to relocate or close down, it would have a significant adverse impact on the Morehouse economy. Not only would Morehouse Parish lose the jobs at the mill, but also other parish industries would suffer as well due to supplier linkages with the plant. The IP mill is a client for both transportation and other manufacturing companies, so parish firms in those sectors would probably shut down or scale back operations if the IP plant closed. Since International Paper has been consolidating its U.S. operations in the last few years, this is a possibility.

Exhibit 3: Major Employers in Morehouse Parish

Employer

Number of Employees

International Paper Company

1,100

Morehouse Parish School Board

806

Morehouse General Hospital

350

Wal-Mart

225

City of Bastrop

220

Vernon Sawyer, Inc. (Trucking)

120

Southern Plug & Manufacturing, Inc.

81

Seapac (Paper converting)

60

Industrial Valve

46

Rimcor (Refractories)

40

Jarrell Transport (Liquid Carrier)

40

Source: Entergy New Orleans, 1998

Morehouse Parish's industrial base serves two types of demand: local and export. In terms of industries that might drive future growth, the critical existing components of Morehouse Parish's industrial base are those industries that produce goods or services to be exported out of the Parish, either elsewhere in the U.S. or to foreign locations. These industries help bring money into the Parish and provide the Parish the income to import goods from outside the region. The location quotient is a useful tool for identifying the Parish's export industries. A location quotient measures an industry's concentration in a local economy relative to the national concentration. For example, a value of 1.1 indicates that the industry is 10% more concentrated in the local economy compared to the U.S. The 1.1 value is generally used as the threshold to identify whether the industry is producing more than is needed for local consumption and thus is exporting outside the local economy. As shown below, paper manufacturing, led by International Paper, has the largest location quotient and most of what it produces is exported out of the Parish. Natural resource-based industries, such as agriculture & forestry support activities, oil & gas extraction, and forestry & logging (which may also be tied to the International Paper plant) also have high location quotients.

Summing all industries with a location quotient equal or greater than 1.1 indicates that 55.8% of Morehouse Parish's employment is in industries that have some export component to their market. Not all of that employment is used in production of goods and services for export, however, as even exporting industries produce some output that is consumed locally. Thus, to isolate the share of employment attributable to export production, the amount of employment that raises the relative concentration above the 1.1 location quotient threshold is defined as non-basic employment devoted to export production. Just less than one-third of Morehouse Parish's employment is geared to export production.

Exhibit 4: Employment in Export Industries, 2000

NAICS Code

Export Industries

Location Quotient

Employment

Basic Employment

Non-Basic Employment

322

Paper Manufacturing

22.53

750

33

717

115

Agriculture & Forestry Support Activities

11.04

60

5

55

484

Truck Transportation

8.82

750

85

665

486

Pipeline Transportation

3.14

10

3

7

623

Nursing & Residential Care Facilities

2.41

375

156

219

221

Utilities

2.16

85

39

46

211

Oil & Gas Extraction

2.00

10

5

5

113

Forestry & Logging

2,00

10

5

5

452

General Merchandise Stores

1.93

2.93

152

141

-

Local

1.87

86

46

40

447

Gasoline Stations

1.79

101

56

45

444

Building Material & Garden Equipment and Supplies Dealers

1.78

132

74

58

441

Motor Vehicle & Parts Dealers

1.75

196

112

84

321

Wood Product Manufacturing

1.67

60

36

24

451

Sporting goods, hobby, & music stores

1.62

60

37

23

235

Special Trade Contractors

1.53

375

244

131

712

Museums, Historical Sites & Similar Institutions

1.51

10

7

3

624

Social Assistance

1.50

175

116

59

-

Military

1.29

161

125

36

622

Hospitals

1.24

375

301

74

446

Health & Personal Care Stores

1.24

68

55

13

323

Printing & Related Support Activities

1.23

60

49

11

493

Warehousing & Storage

1.22

10

8

2

325

Chemical Manufacturing

1.13

60

53

7

532

Rental & Leasing Services

1.13

43

38

5

813

Religious/Grant-making/Civic/Professional & Other Organization

1.12

180

160

20

234

Heavy Construction

1.11

60

54

6

-

Total Employment in Export Industries

 

4,555

2,057

2,498

-

Total {Parish Employment (Export and Non-Export Industries)

 

 

  8,152
-

Export Share = (Non Basic Employment/Total Parish Employment

 

 

  30.6%

Source: AECOM Consult calculations from County Business Patterns and BEA data.

Although paper manufacturing is a critical part of the Parish's economy because of its size and high wages, there are other industries in Morehouse Parish that are more competitive. Competitive industries in Morehouse Parish are industries that are outperforming their counterpart at the national level. Shift-share analysis can determine in which industries Morehouse Parish is competitive by separating out the three components that contribute to local economic growth: national share, industry mix, and regional shift. The total change in employment, or shift-share is: Shift-Share = National Share + Industry Mix + Regional Shift.

National share measures by how much the total employment in a local area increased because of growth in the national economy. For example, all else being equal, if employment in the U.S. economy grew by 10%, then total employment in Morehouse Parish would have grown at the same rate. Industry mix identifies fast or slow growing industrial sectors nationwide and determines how the economy would have grown if it had the same mix as the U.S. The regional shift, or the competitive effect, highlights the leading or lagging industries in the parish. Specifically, the competitive effect compares a local area's growth rate in an industry sector with the growth rate for that same sector at the U.S. level. A leading industry is one where that industry's local area growth rate is greater than its U.S. growth rate. A lagging industry is one where the industry's local area growth rate is less than its U.S. growth rate.

Underscoring the need to develop new industries and sources of growth, the largest lagging industry in the 1998-2000 period is Bastrop's anchor industry, paper manufacturing. Health related industries rank second, although the declines in nursing and residential care facilities are likely influenced by a temporary slowdown in the growth of the older population and changes in Medicare.

Exhibit 5: Morehouse Parish Lagging Industries, 1998-2000

NAICS Code

Sector

Regional Shift

322

Paper manufacturing

-410

623

Nursing & residential care facilities

-200

----

Localgovernment

-72

621

Ambulatory health care services

-47

445

Food & beverage stores

-28

Source: AECOM calculations from County Business Patterns and BEA data

The collective assessment of current economic conditions (major employers, export base, and competitive industries) has highlighted the economic transition facing the Morehouse Parish economy. Its anchor industry is no longer a source of growth and is likely to contract significantly over the forecast horizon. At the same time, retailing-supported by Simmons and Wal-Mart-has made gains, suggesting that Bastrop (the parish's commercial center) has the potential to serve as a sub-regional retail and service center.

Exhibit 6: Morehouse Parish Leading Industries, 1998-2000

NAICS Code

Sector

Regional Shift

484

Truck transportation

455

323

Printing & related support activities

302

451

Sporting goods, hobby, book, & music stores

296

233

Building, developing, & general contracting

133

235

Special trade contractors

132

Source: AECOM calculations from County Business Patterns and BEA data

The transportation investment considered for Morehouse Parish facilitates this transformation. Rather than invest in retaining industries that are no longer competitive, the highway investment described in this report expands Bastrop's market area and in doing so, opens up opportunities for growth in new industries that are less well represented in the parish's existing industrial base. Such an approach diversifies the industrial base of the local economy away from reliance on one industry and employer and the economic risk that such reliance implies, and changes the competitive landscape to create economic opportunities that did not previously exist.

II. Highway Project

The proposed project will improve a 15.5-mile stretch of LA-U.S. 425 by widening the existing highway. Selected curves and road segments will be rebuilt, bringing them up to current design specifications.

Beginning at the Bastrop border and extending north, the project would widen LA-U.S. 425 to five lanes, linking directly to the five-lane section of the road immediately south. The five-lane section will have four travel lanes (two in each direction) and a continuous left turn lane.

As LA-U.S. 425 moves from urban to rural area, the road will transition to a four-lane road (two lanes in each direction) with full shoulders and a 60 ft median. This represents a widening from the existing road capacity. The Project will rebuild the existing two lanes and the roadbed under these lanes and construct two new additional lanes. Appropriate turn lanes and deceleration lanes will be provided.

The estimated cost for construction along all segments of the study corridor is $29,560,000 in 1997 dollars ($31,405,303 in 2001 dollars using ENR's Building Cost Index).

Exhibit 7: Map of the Bastrop Corridor

map showing the project location of Route 425 and existing roads 142, 140, 165, and 139 going to Bastrop.

The map shows that the study corridor extends along LA-U.S. 425, from the northern border of the City of Bastrop to the Louisiana-Arkansas state line.

III. Objectives of the Projects

The objectives of the Bastrop Corridor project are threefold: retain the existing business base, expand market access to enable Bastrop to become a sub-regional retail and service center, and improve safety along the corridor. Bastrop's economic base is heavily concentrated in one industry and focused around one employer. New development in this economy will be a gradual process; thus retention of the existing base is essential as new industry and business begins to take hold. Bastrop endured the loss of a similar facility and it took a decade for the economy to regain its previous level of employment.

Market expansion would serve two purposes. First, it would provide additional employment and income as hiring took place to meet the new demand created by the larger market. Second, the larger market would increase the market's attractiveness to new establishments, diversifying the economy's reliance on one industry and employer, and allowing it to grow into a sub-regional retail and service center. Finally, improved safety would reduce accident-related costs and improve the quality of life in the community.

IV. Economic Development Efforts and Activities in the Bastrop-Morehouse Parish Corridor

Morehouse Parish is the potential beneficiary of two concurrent economic development initiatives initiated by the city and parish itself and higher levels of government. These are noted briefly below.

Public-private lake development. The Morehouse Economic Development Corporation (MEDCO) is working with Bastrop authorities to develop a mixed use, artificial lake community that would combine residential, recreational and commercial development. While the highway project under consideration would not determine the lake project's success, improvement of the highway would support the project's objective of attracting more visitors to the parish.

Delta Regional Authority. Morehouse Parish is located within the newly established Delta Regional Authority (DRA), a federal-state partnership serving a 236-county area in the eight-state Lower Mississippi River region. The DRA is charged with stimulating economic development in order to remedy the severe and chronic economic distress that is symptomatic of the region's economy. By law, 50% of DRA's project funds are to be spent on transportation and basic infrastructure improvements.

V. Methodology

The benefits of the highway project previously described are divided into three types: those derived through construction of the new infrastructure or from commercial building associated with the new employment, jobs and income associated with the hiring needed to meet the demand created by a larger market, and those benefits associated with the improved degree of safety. The association between road quality and industrial diversity of an economy was also quantitatively tested to demonstrate that this was a reasonable expectation for the economy's long-term outlook.

Because of the variety of benefits under consideration, several techniques were applied in order to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the project's value to the community. The jobs and income associated with construction activity were estimated using RIMS II multipliers developed by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Derived from an accounting framework that shows the distribution of inputs purchased in the production of a particular good or service, the RIMS II system is widely used in both the public and private sector for impact analyses. These are temporary impacts that last for the duration of the construction activity.

The expansion of the market area was estimated using Louisiana DOTD's estimate of traffic growth following completion of the project, estimated travel time savings, and Census data describing the population size and distribution of the area. Information from the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey provided the share of overall trips that are shopping related. The Consultant team searched the literature to identify the typical expenditure per visit for grocery stores and similar shopping likely to take place in Bastrop. Based on this information, a value of additional retail spending likely to occur in Bastrop was made. Using information from the Census of Retail Trade for the local economy, as well as for Wal-Mart, the town's largest retailer, estimates of the jobs and wages required to meet that additional retail demand were obtained.

Safety benefits are estimated from accident rates provided in the engineering section of the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development's Transportation Improvement Plan. The Consultant team searched the literature to identify the typical reduction in the accident rate obtain in similar projects around the U.S. These potential rate reductions were applied to the current accident rate in the corridor, to obtain the number and type of accidents that would be avoided once the roads were improved, adjusting for the vehicle occupancy rate and traffic volumes. The value of these avoided accidents was estimated using information from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration on the average accident cost.

VI. Impact Results

The estimated impacts are modest, but sufficient to provide some support to the Bastrop economy over the long-term outlook. The size of the gains is limited by several factors including: the sparse existing population north of the city, the expectation of slow population growth in this region over the forecast horizon, and the fact that the project is improving an existing connection, not tapping an entirely new market.

Construction Impacts. Based on industry averages and the $29 million project value, expanding the highway will require 114 one-year full-time equivalent (FTE) construction workers directly. These workers' additional spending in the economy will create additional demand for a range of goods and services. Adding in the 43 workers hired to meet the secondary impact, the total employment impact is 157 jobs. The average annual wage in Morehouse Parish was $24,610 and the average construction wage was $23,621 in 2001, according to the Louisiana Department of Economic Development. The 157 total jobs created by the highway construction will therefore add over $3.75 million of income to the parish's economy. It is, however, worth noting that these jobs are not recurring and this increase in income will end once the construction of the project is complete.

Exhibit 8: Income from FTE Jobs Created by Road Construction

FTE Jobs Created by Construction Average Wage Per Construction Job(2001 $) Highway and Street Construction Multiplier Total FTE Jobs Average Wage Per Job (2001 $) Income from FTE Jobs
114 $23,621 1.3798 157 $24,610 $3,751,024

Source: Louisiana Department of Economic Development, AECOM calculations

Market Expansion Effect. More traffic means more consumers for the goods and services provided by Bastrop's economy. The three main beneficiaries of this expanded market reach are the retail industry, the health service industry, and other services that exclude health-related activities. While the City has a significant manufacturing base, this is largely concentrated in one resource-related industry with limited growth prospects (and a potential for reductions in employment) and one major employer. While the improved road may reduce the existing industry's cost of doing business and help retain the industry over the long term, these jobs cannot be attributed to the road improvements, as these jobs are already in place in the economy. Thus, expansion of the manufacturing and related trucking and warehouse industry is not an expected outcome of the road project. Rather, the expanded market reach is expected to help Bastrop expand its role as a sub-regional retail and service center, second to the nearby Monroe metropolitan area.

Retail. Of the three main industrial beneficiaries, the retail impacts can be estimated with the greatest certainty. According to the 2001 Federal Highway Administration National Household Travel Survey, 19.4% of trips were for shopping purposes. As the retail impact analysis developed here is restricted to the segment of the consumer market that fulfills the day-to-day needs of households, such as groceries, it is assumed that 90% of the shopping trips attributable to the road improvement will be made to Bastrop. As the majority of these goods are essentially "consumer commodity purchases," such as eggs, milk and gasoline, consumers are expected to shop at the closest location that can fill those needs [2] .

Using these assumptions and industry research that indicates that the typical household makes two to three trips per week for groceries and other basics and spends $65 per trip, this translates to an expansion of Bastrop's 2020 retail market by $13 million.

Exhibit 9: Market Increase Attributable to Road Improvements (2001 $)

 

Average Daily Traffic

Number of Shopping Trips to Bastrop

Expenditure Per Shopping Trip

Daily Retail Sales

Annual Retail Sales

Increase due to road widening (2020)

3,151

550

$65

$35,766

$13,054,505

Source: AECOM calculations based on data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey for rural areas, the National Household Travel Survey, The Food Marketing Institute, and Inman, J. Jeffrey and Russell Winer, "Where the Rubber Meets the Road: A Model of In-store Consumer Decision Making," summarized in MSI Insights, Winter 1999,www.msi.org/msi/publication_summary.cfm?publication=502.

Services, excluding health. The retail market is not the only market expected to expand, however. Demand for a host of services, such as plumbers, insurance agents and car mechanics, will increase with the expanded market reach. If the 85 new retail jobs were filled with Bastrop residents, it would reflect a 16% increase from the City's retail base in 2000. Applying that same market expansion to the number of non-health related service jobs yields a service job expansion of 94 jobs. The spending these additional 94 workers, in turn, creates demand for additional goods and services, leading to hiring. In total, 113 new workers are expected due to the service market reach.

Health services. Morehouse Parish already is the site of five nursing homes with a total of slightly less than 500 residents. The road widening would further expand the potential of the local nursing home market. The Census Bureau projects that 18.5% of the population will be 65 or over by 2025. This, in turn, implies 237 potential households or 356 potential residents for the industry. If one third eventually need nursing home care, this implies 117 new nursing care residents attributable to the larger market. Based on a survey conducted in April 2002 of the five nursing homes in Morehouse Parish, about 80% of nursing home patients in Morehouse Parish were parish residents before moving to the nursing home. About 10% of the patients were non-parish residents who had family in the parish. The remaining 10% come from neighboring parishes. The maximum driving times from these patients' homes is about an hour.

Based on industry averages, the 117 new nursing home residents would require 76 workers to care for them. The spending by these new workers would require additional hiring to meet the new increment of demand, bringing the total employment impact to 92 workers.

In total, the market expansion driven by the road improvement would lead to 305 more workers than the Bastrop economy would have otherwise. This reflects a 7.2 percent increase from the 2000 residential employment base. Over a 17-year span, this implies an average percentage gain of 0.4 percent. The estimated jobs and income associated with this total market expansion is summarized in the table below. While impacts presented above do not represent dramatic gains, they do represent a turning point for the economy. The Bastrop market is currently enduring a long-term decline. The market expansion created by the road improvement is sufficient to stabilize the economy, holding all other factors constant.

Exhibit 10: Labor Market Expansion Attributable to Bastrop's Market Growth

  Jobs Average Wage (2001$) Total Income

Retail

85

$14,658

$1,245,957

Service

94

$20,001

$1,880,070

Nursing Home

76

$16,228

$1,233,293

All Industries (Multiplier Effect)

50

$24,610

$1,230,492

Total

305

 

$5,589,812

Source: Louisiana Department of Development, AECOM calculations

The fiscal impacts will stem primarily from the income, sales, and property tax revenue generated from this new economic activity. The revenue estimates presented below exclude any incentives that might be offered to induce the business to relocate in Bastrop.

Exhibit 11: Summary of Fiscal Impacts (2001 $)

Tax on Personal Income

Total Sales Tax

Louisiana Sales Tax

Parish Sales Tax

City Sales Tax

Total Property Tax

Parish Property Tax

City Property Tax

$213,389

$166,017

$73,786

$36,893

$55,339

$79,242

$44,704

$34,539

Source: Louisiana Department of Revenue, Morehouse Parish Tax Assessor's Office, AECOM calculations

Safety Benefits. Safety issues a concern for LA-US 425 in the study area. The existing roadway was constructed between 1966 and 1981, and many areas of the highway are below current design standards due to geometrics or construction. The proposal to widen the highway is expected to have beneficial effects on the highway's safety. In a study published by the Federal Highway Administration [3] , it was found that a conversion from a two-lane to a four-line divided road would result in a crash per kilometer reduction of between 40% and 60%. Using the midpoint of the FHWA study, the accident rate could be divided by half if the road was converted to a four-lane highway.

The safety savings of the project will come into effect only after it is complete. By this time, traffic volumes will have increased, raising the number of accidents from that reported from 1998 to 2000 and also increasing potential savings from reducing the accident rate. Therefore, in order to estimate the safety savings, traffic volumes were forecasted for the year 2020 and savings were calculated from those traffic volumes. Because the base accident data are three-year averages, the projected outcomes are also three-year averages.

If the accident rate stays the same, then the total number of accidents will increase to 288 for the three-year period ending in June 2020. With no road widening, the cost of accidents will increase from $81.8 million to $192.8 million. Decreasing the accident rate by 50% would result in substantial cost savings, as shown in the Exhibit below. A 50 % reduction in the accident rate would result in 144 fewer accidents over a three-year period and a cost savings of over $96 million.

Accident Type Number of Accidents No Change (Baseline Number of Vehicles Damaged/Injuries/Fatalities Total Cost (2001 $) Number of Accidents 50% Reduction (Project Implemented) Number of Vehicles Damaged/Injuries/Fatalities Total Cost (2001 $)

Property Damage Only

137

239

$622,866

68

120

$311,433

Injury

144

257

$159,548,386

72

128

$79,774,193

Fatality

7

9

$32,635,411

4

5

$16,317,706

Total

288

 

$192,806,663

144

 

$96,403,332

Savings over Baseline      

144

 

$96,403,332

Source: Environmental Assessment for State Project No. 700-29-0024, The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes 2000 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), AECOM calculations and FHWA report as described in Footnote 3 and assumptions explained in text

Conclusion. The improvement of LA-US 425 will not guarantee the retention of manufacturing jobs in the study area. However, it will provide a substantial one time boost in construction and construction-related jobs (about 150 short term), provide an increment in retail jobs based on the increased access (about 100 long term), will increase themarket potential of other existingindustries (probably about another 50 jobslong term). The investment will alsosupport the Parish's economic development initiatives. The combined effect of these economic impactswillexpand the tax base, increasing revenues generated fromexisting state and local taxes. The highway improvements will also reduce travelers'fatalities andinjuries, as well as property damage to vehicles using the improved section of highway.


[1] As outlined in FHWA's 1995 report, "Linking the Delta Region with the Nation and the World," the Delta region is defined as 219 counties and parishes located within the seven states of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, which are all bound together by the Mississippi river.

[2] The consumer purchases included in this retail analysis include food, alcohol, housekeeping supplies, household furnishings and equipment, apparel, gasoline and motor oil, personal care products, and tobacco products.

[3] "Safety Effects of the Conversion of Rural Two-Lane Roadways to Four-Lane Roadways." Federal Highway Administration, November 1999.

Updated: 05/04/2012
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