Publication #: FHWA-HEP-09-015 | JANUARY 2009
Prepared for the
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Wilbur Smith Associates
and S.R. Kale Consulting LLC
On October 1, 2009, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) expires. The USDOT, Congress, and various other groups currently are developing recommendations for the next surface transportation funding legislation.
As noted in Section 3 of this guidebook, SAFETEA-LU and the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) both require that states and metropolitan areas provide freight shippers and providers of freight transportation services with reasonable opportunities to comment on transportation plans and improvement programs. The similarities in SAFETEA-LU and TEA-21 provisions for reasonable comment suggest that it may be reasonable to assume future legislation will retain an emphasis on the need for obtaining private sector input in state and metropolitan freight planning and programming.
State and metropolitan area transportation agencies will need to keep informed of, and provide input as needed into, discussions and proposals for freight shipper, provider, and other stakeholder involvement in transportation planning and programming. Continuing emphasis on obtaining private sector input suggests that freight planners would benefit from further developing their public involvement skills, their awareness of private sector decision-making, and their understanding of the steps required to move an identified need from project scoping and development to inclusion in a transportation plan to inclusion in a transportation improvement program to project implementation.
Materials in this guidebook are intended to provide a basic overview of how to involve the private sector in the planning and programming steps. Planners may want to supplement the materials herein by developing a better understanding of how freight concerns are addressed in various programmatic activities of their agency and agency partners, by increasing their involvement with private sector groups or associations, by obtaining additional training from the FHWA or other vendors, and by networking with other state and MPO planners who are working to engage freight stakeholders in transportation planning and programming.
Code of Federal Regulations Provisions Regarding Freight Participation in Transportation Planning and Programming
SAFETEA-LU identifies requirements for metropolitan and statewide transportation planning in Section 6001: Transportation Planning. Section 6001 includes provisions for participation by interested parties in the development of statewide and metropolitan transportation plans and improvement programs. These provisions subsequently were codified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations as indicated below.
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 23: Highways
Part 450-Planning Assistance and Standards
Subpart B-Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming
450.210 Interested parties, public involvement, and consultation
(a) In carrying out the statewide transportation planning process, including development of the long-range statewide transportation plan and the STIP, the State shall develop and use a documented public involvement process that provides opportunities for public review and comment at key decision points.
(1) The State's public involvement process at a minimum shall:
(i) Establish early and continuous public involvement opportunities that provide timely information about transportation issues and decision making processes to citizens, affected public agencies, representatives of public transportation employees, freight shippers, private providers of transportation, representatives of users of public transportation, representatives of users of pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities, representatives of the disabled, providers of freight transportation services, and other interested parties.
450.214 Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan
(k) In developing and updating the long-range statewide transportation plan, the State shall provide citizens, affected public agencies, representatives of public transportation employees, freight shippers, private providers of transportation, representatives of users of public transportation, representatives of users of pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities, representatives of the disabled, providers of freight transportation services, and other interested parties with a reasonable opportunity to comment on the proposed long-range statewide transportation plan. In carrying out these requirements, the State shall, to the maximum extent practicable, utilize the public involvement process described under §450.210(a).
450.216 Development and content of the statewide transportation improvement program (STIP)
(f) The Governor shall provide all interested parties with a reasonable opportunity to comment on the proposed STIP as required by §450.210(a).
Subpart C-Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming
450.316 Interested parties, participation, and consultation
(a) The MPO shall develop and use a documented participation plan that defines a process for providing citizens, affected public agencies, representatives of public transportation employees, freight shippers, providers of freight transportation services, private providers of transportation, representatives of users of public transportation, representatives of users of pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities, representatives of the disabled, and other interested parties with reasonable opportunities to be involved in the metropolitan transportation planning process.
450.322 Development and content of the metropolitan transportation plan
(i) The MPO shall provide citizens, affected public agencies, representatives of public transportation employees, freight shippers, providers of freight transportation services, private providers of transportation, representatives of users of public transportation, representatives of users of pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities, representatives of the disabled, and other interested parties with a reasonable opportunity to comment on the transportation plan using the participation plan developed under §450.316(a).
450.323 Development and content of the transportation improvement program (TIP)
(b) The MPO shall provide all interested parties with a reasonable opportunity to comment on the proposed TIP as required by §450.316(a). In addition, in nonattainment area TMAs, the MPO shall provide at least one formal public meeting during the TIP development process, which should be addressed through the participation plan described in §450.316(a). In addition, the TIP shall be published or otherwise made readily available by the MPO for public review, including (to the maximum extent practicable) in electronically accessible formats and means, such as the World Wide Web, as described in §450.316(a).
Establish a Congressionally mandated Freight Advisory Board to the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT).
* The Freight Stakeholders Coalition, administered through the American Association of Port Authorities, is a national freight advisory group. The coalition's proposal is not necessarily endorsed by the Federal Highway Administration
Since 1991 with the passage of ISTEA, the concept of an integrated freight transportation system has been recognized as integral to US transportation policy. In particular, freight dynamics are fast-paced, multi-faceted, and institutionally challenging. As USDOT transitions into a more significant role with freight transportation planning and infrastructure integration, it will be necessary to have available to USDOT leadership the opportunity to speak with industry leaders on an on-going basis, about building and maintaining an efficient and secure freight system.
The Freight Advisory Board should consist of 15 members, representing major freight stakeholders including but not limited to carriers, shippers, ports, and state and local transportation officials, with expertise in international trade and freight transportation. The Secretary of Transportation would appoint standing and rotating members. This Freight Advisory Board should be empowered to:
The Freight Advisory Board might be built upon a number of models. For example (ranging from most to least formal):
The model selected will define how funding and staffing will be addressed. The Board should meet at least quarterly and be directly engaged with the USDOT/OST.
Source: Freight Stakeholders Coalition, National Freight Advisory Committee http://www.intermodal.org/stakeholders_files/documents/Freight%20Advisory%20Committee.pdf
Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; Transmanagement, Inc.; TransTech Management, Inc.; and Heanue, K., Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming in Small- and Medium-Sized Metropolitan Areas, NCHRP Report 570, 2007, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
Cambridge Systematics, Inc.: Prime Focus, LLC; and Heanue, K., Guidebook for Integrating Freight into Transportation Planning and Project Selection Processes, NCHRP Report 594, 2007, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; Global Insight; Cohen, H.; Horowitz, A.; and Pendyala, R., Forecasting Statewide Freight Toolkit, NCHRP Report 606, 2008, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
Collings, S., A Guide on How to Set Up and Run Freight Quality Partnerships, Good Practice Guide 335, Prepared for the United Kingdom Department of Transport, 2003, London, UK
Congressional Research Service, Public-private Partnerships in Highway and Transit Infrastructure Provision, July 2008, Washington, D.C.
Des Moines Area Metropolitan Planning Organization, Goods Movement 2006 Update Report, 2006, Des Moines, IA.
Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration. Public Involvement Techniques for Transportation Decision-Making, August 2002, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.
Felsburg Holt & Ullevig, DMJM+Harris, Jacobs Civil, Inc., Cambridge Systematics, Inc., and Infrastructure Management Group, Inc., Eastern Colorado Mobility Study, Prepared for the Colorado Department of Transportation, April 2002, Denver, CO.
Government Accountability Office, Highway Public-private Partnerships: More Rigorous Up-front Analysis Could Better Secure Potential Benefits and Protect the Public Interest, GAO-08-44, February 2008, Washington, D.C.
Harrison, R.; Schofield, M.; Loftus-Otway, L.; Middleton, D.; and West, J., Freight Performance Measures Guide, Report 0-5410-P3, Prepared for the Texas Department of Transportation, December 2006, Austin: Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin.
Moving the Economy, Integration Technologies for Sustainable Urban Goods Movement, Prepared for Transport Canada, 2004, Ottawa, Ontario
National Center for Freight and Infrastructure Research and Education, Best Practices in Freight Planning, 2008, Madison: University of Wisconsin.
O'Connor, R.; Schwartz, M.; Schaad, J.; and Boyd, D. State of the Practice: White Paper on Public Involvement. Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, Committee on Public Involvement in Transportation, no date.
Powell, Fragala & Associates, Public Involvement Handbook, Prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, October 2003.
Strauss-Wieder, A., Integrating Freight Facilities and Operations with Community Goals, NCHRP Synthesis 320, 2003, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
Varma, A., Measurement Sources for Freight Performance Measures and Indicators, Prepared for the Minnesota Department of Transportation, July 2008, St. Paul, MN.
National Center for Freight and Infrastructure Research and Education, Best Practices in Freight Planning, 2008, Madison: University of Wisconsin.
This report provides a framework and ideas on how states and metropolitan areas can begin freight planning. The guidebook is based on a review of state and MPO plans and on conversations with people who have been involved in freight planning. The following topics are covered: Getting Started, Industry Involvement, Public Involvement, Multimodal Planning, Performance Measures, Implementation and Monitoring, Data, Integrated Data Systems, and Demand Forecasting. The section on "Industry Involvement" covers barriers to industry involvement, steps in private sector participation, freight advisory committees, and defining the freight community. The section on "Public Involvement" covers tools for involvement such as surveys, focus groups, interviews, public meetings, workshops, working groups, advisory groups and task forces, and web tools. The guidebook is available on line at http://www.wistrans.org/cfire/Research/MVFC/03/index.html
Cambridge Systematics, Inc. et al., Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming in Small- and Medium-Sized Metropolitan Areas, NCHRP Report 570, 2007, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
This guidebook explores how freight policy, planning, and programming processes can be most effectively designed, initiated, and managed in small (less than 250,000 population) and medium-sized (250,000-1,000,000 population) metropolitan areas. The guidebook examines lessons learned from experiences in small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas that resulted in more effective consideration of freight issues in policy, planning, and programming decisions. According to the guidebook, private sector participation helps MPOs by facilitating private sector acceptance of transportation program elements, promoting the strategic role of freight to the region's economic competitiveness, improving industry support of and cooperation with freight data collection efforts, leading efforts for creating public-private freight partnerships, and rallying political support for freight-related products.
The guidebook is available in hardcover from TRB or on-line at http://www.trb.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/158567.aspx
Cambridge Systematics, Inc. et al., Guidebook for Integrating Freight into Transportation Planning and Project Selection Processes, NCHRP Report 594, 2007, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
The guidebook explores a framework for incorporating freight needs for all modes into transportation planning and priority programming by state, regional, metropolitan, local, and special transportation agencies. The guidebook covers technical issues organizational suggestions, and communication requirements of freight planning and programming. The bulk of the document's guidance focuses on techniques for integrating freight within the transportation planning and programming process. These techniques are discussed with reference to four elements of the transportation planning process: needs identification, plan development, programming, and project development. According to the guidebook, each element is characterized by several basic activities entailing private sector involvement. Of most importance for private sector involvement are the following: developing a freight industry profile; identifying needs, including hotspots or bottlenecks; and addressing land use issues affecting and affected by freight operations. The guidebook is available in hardcover from TRB or on-line at http://www.trb.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/159488.aspx.
Federal Highway Administration, Public-private Freight Planning Guidelines, 2005, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.
The guidelines cover the following topics: Examples of Public-private Freight Planning, Freight Planning Organizational Issues, Long-Term Viability/Maintaining Private sector Interest, and "How-To" Freight Planning Principles. Regarding maintaining private sector interest, the guidelines discuss time management of meetings, effective communication, education of public and private sector participants, short-term results of private sector participation, consideration of participant interests and conflict avoidance, and systematic review of focus and purpose. The section on "how to" freight planning principles discusses setting the scope of a freight advisory committee, recruiting participants, holding successful meetings, communicating public sector processes and private sector concerns, and reviewing performance. The guidelines are available online at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/freight_planning/archive/guidel2.cfm
Collings, Simon, A Guide on How to Set Up and Run Freight Quality Partnerships, Good Practice Guide 335, Prepared for the United Kingdom Department of Transport, 2003, London, UK
The guide focuses on using freight quality partnerships (FQPs) to develop an understanding of freight transport issues and problems, and to promote solutions that reconcile the need for access to goods and services with local environmental and social concerns. The guide is designed primarily for local authorities but could also be used by regional authorities, chambers of commerce, businesses, and freight operators. According to the guide, FQPs are partnerships between the freight industry, local government, local businesses, the local community, environmental groups, and other interested stakeholders. Topics covered include the following: Why FQPs, Initiating an FQP, FQP Action Plans, Maintaining Momentum, and Contacts and Sources of Information. The guide is available on line at http://www.freightbestpractice.org.uk/imagebank/GPG335.pdf
In response to the growing need for freight expertise at the state and MPO level and in support of the goals set forth for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and OneDOT, the FHWA initiated the Freight Professional Development (FPD) Program.
The FPD Program assists state DOT and MPO staffs with gaining the skills and knowledge necessary to meet the challenges arising from the increasing flow of freight on the nation's transportation system. Meeting this challenge requires an understanding among the various stakeholders, including transportation professionals, practitioners and policymakers, of not only how freight uses and affects the transportation system but, more importantly, why freight is important.
A description of the need for freight professional development, and what FHWA is doing to meet this need is in an FHWA Office of Operations one-pager on the FPD Program: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop09020/capacity.htm
FPD Program Goal: To integrate freight infrastructure and operational improvements in the transportation development process at metropolitan and statewide levels.
FPD Program Objectives
FPD Program Core Elements: The FPD Program consists of four major elements for reaching the target audiences. Each element is crucial to meeting program goals and objectives:
A lack of understanding of business needs and public sector planning timelines hinders the effective integration of freight into many statewide and regional plans and transportation investment decisions. Developing and sustaining relationships, either formally or informally, with private sector stakeholders are critical to effective freight planning.
This free one-day workshop is designed for professionals tackling freight issues at MPOs, state departments of transportation, local governments, and economic development agencies. The workshop focuses on building a better understanding of the of freight stakeholder input to the public sector planning process, identifying freight stakeholders, and engaging freight stakeholders in the planning process. Participants should be familiar with freight terminology, issues, and trends before taking this workshop. Participants may consider attending the National Highway Institute (NHI) course, "Integrating Freight in the Transportation Planning Process," to prepare for the workshop. See the next part of this guidebook for more information about the NHI course.
Private sector stakeholders are a valuable resource in the overall statewide and metropolitan transportation planning process. Their involvement could help identify regional, statewide, and multijurisdictional challenges and influence transportation programming and investment decisions by local and state decision-makers.
Who to Engage?
A cross section of all freight stakeholders in a state or region should be engaged, including: shippers, carriers, terminal operators, economic development agencies, seaport and airport authorities, and state and local governments and other public agencies.
How to Engage?
Here are several ways to engage the private sector.
Attend industry meetings. Reach out to freight stakeholders to learn about their issues, identify representatives, and build awareness of the public sector role.
Interview stakeholders. Scan or survey businesses to obtain first-hand knowledge about logistics patterns in a particular area and transportation issues, challenges, and opportunities.
Identify quick fixes with stakeholder input. Identify small-scale projects such as retiming traffic signals, installing directional signage from Interstate highways to freight facilities, and designating loading zones.
Establish a Freight Advisory Committee (FAC). Meet with key stakeholders to accomplish a specific activity or, on an ongoing basis, to integrate freight business perspectives in project selection and prioritization.
For more information, see: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/fpd/Docs/sector.htm.
Course Title: Integrating Freight in the Transportation Planning Process - Web-Based Standard Version
Course Number: FHWA-NHI-139006
|2009||6 Hours||0.6 Units||$0 Per Participant|
Training Level: Beginner
Class Size: Minimum:1; Maximum:1
Description: Freight transportation issues can be complex and involve many different stakeholders, all of whom have different perspectives on the freight transportation system. The challenge faced by many public sector transportation planners is how to best incorporate these freight perspectives into the transportation planning process in a way that results in a safe and efficient transportation system for both people and goods. This Web-based training course will provide a greater understanding of freight trends, its stakeholders, and its issues, so that public sector transportation planners are better able to incorporate freight into their respective transportation planning processes and programs.
This WBT course is an update of and replaces the instructor-led course FHWA-NHI-139001. If you are taking this course as a prerequisite for FHWA-NHI-139003 Advanced Freight Planning, you MUST provide your certificate of completion to the lead instructor on the first day of class. You will be able to print out your certificate after you complete your online exam. In accordance with the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, this WBT is also available in an accessible 508 compliant version. See course number FHWA-NHI-139006A for more information.
Outcomes: Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
Target Audience: Transportation planners and freight transportation planners from State DOTs, MPOs, local governments, and Federal agencies
NHI Training Information:
NHI Scheduler (703) 235-0534
Course Title: Advanced Freight Planning
Course Number: FHWA-NHI-139003
|2009||2 Days||1.2 Units||$320 Per Participant|
Training Level: Intermediate
Class Size: Minimum: 20; Maximum: 30
Description: This course expands on freight topics covered in other FHWA-developed freight planning courses to provide techniques and strategies designed for those individuals directly involved in the implementation of transportation planning, programming, and allocation of resources. It provides participants with the skills needed to identify, prioritize, develop, and implement freight supportive projects. This is an advanced level course and it focuses heavily on resources and solutions, and how those solutions can be applied to developing plans and programs for public and private sectors.
Participants must successfully complete either FHWA-NHI-139001 (prior to 31 March 2008) or FHWA-NHI-139006 (after 1 April 2008) Integrating Freight in the Transportation Planning Process prior to attending 139003. Participants MUST bring a copy of their certificate of completion to their scheduled session of FHWA-NHI-139003 and provide it to the lead instructor.
Outcomes: Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
Target Audience: Mid-level State DOT transportation and freight planners, City and County Planners (who deal with freight planning issues), MPO staff, mid- and high-level public sector transportation and freight planners, consultants, private sector freight managers, economic development analysts, and FHWA Employees.
NHI Training Information:
NHI Scheduler (703) 235-0534
The I-95 Corridor Coalition Freight Academy is a unique immersion program designed to efficiently train public sector agency staff whose planning, operational, and/or management work impact goods movement decisions, investments, and interactions. Agencies in the Corridor proposed this project as a result of a number of trends that have emerged through their work on freight projects. These include: large increases in freight movements; dynamic changes in the goods movement industry; the need to understand freight as an integral part of the transportation system; and an increasing need to integrate freight facilities and operations with community goals. These important trends, combined with the knowledge that many experienced members of transportation agencies are scheduled to retire in the next 5 to 10 years, prompted the Coalition to sponsor the development and implementation of the Freight Academy.
Thirty people will be selected from a pool of applicants to participate in the Freight Academy program. The individuals selected are anticipated to be the next generation of public sector staff tasked with managing the freight system.
The academy's practical orientation to what the private sector needs and how the private sector works to move freight is essential to make sure that public sector decisions and investments are made with a solid understanding of the supply chain. To that end, participants will have unique opportunities to see and learn about the inner workings of the goods movement system, including maritime terminals, the distribution centers of major corporations, air cargo operations, trucking operations, and rail operations. Academy participants will also undertake a Capstone Project on important subjects submitted by Coalition agencies. The Capstone Project findings will be presented by the participants at the I-95 Corridor Coalition Annual Meeting to the senior executives of the agencies.
The inaugural freight academy was held October 26-31, 2008. For future dates and other information about the academy, see: http://www.freightacademy.org.
This is an on-line course designed to acquaint the public sector with information about contemporary logistics practice and theory. The audience of this course includes staff at DOTs and MPOs who work with freight providers or in freight planning. This course intends to help the public sector better understand the needs of the freight community and the driving forces behind the ebb and flow of freight on the roads.
Two parts, each intended for one day, comprise the course. Part I is on transportation and general introduction to logistics management. Part II provides more details on contemporary logistics. The accompanying video clips voice opinions from the private sector representatives. They are mainly based on interviews with practitioners and executives in the transportation and logistics sector. They talk about operations, application of technologies, challenges, and concerns about public policies. Adobe Flash Player is needed to watch the modules, while Windows media player is needed to watch the video clips.
The course is organized into modules in various formats with and without narration. The lecture notes are available for downloading, as well as note sheets for participants. A vocabulary of logistics terminologies is available at the end of the lecture notes for Part II.
For more information, see: http://www.wistrans.org/cfire/Research/MVFC/02/courses.html.